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Eduard Bernstein
Eduard Bernstein (; 6 January 1850 – 18 December 1932) was a German social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individu ... Marxist theorist and politician A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking an elected legal seat, seat in government. Politicians propose, support, and create laws that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "p .... A member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic political party in Germany. It is one of the two major parties of contemporary Germany along with the CDU/CSU, Union parties ... (SPD), Bernstein had held close association to Karl Marx ...
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Reichstag (Weimar Republic)
The Reichstag (English language, English: Reich, Imperial Diet (assembly), Diet) was the lower house of the legislature of the Weimar Republic. It originated in the creation of the Weimar Constitution in 1919. After the Machtergreifung, end of the Weimar Republic in 1933, the Reichstag (Nazi Germany), Reichstag continued to operate, albeit sporadically, as the Toy parliament, purely ceremonial legislature of Nazi Germany. Overview According to the 1919 Weimar Constitution, the members of the ''Reichstag'' were to be elected by general election, general universal suffrage according to the principle of proportional representation. Votes were cast for nationwide party lists. The Legislative term, term of the legislature was four years; however, Dissolution of parliament, dissolution was common. There was Election threshold, threshold for winning a seat in the ''Reichstag''. A party was allocated one seat in the legislature for every 60,000 votes it received in a given Electoral di ...
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Western Philosophy
Western philosophy encompasses the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real o ... thought and work of the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various s, s and , depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of , , and .
Western world
. Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of

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Jean Jaurès
Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Léon Jaurès (3 September 185931 July 1914), commonly referred to as Jean Jaurès (), was a French Socialism, Socialist leader. Initially a Moderate Republicans (France), Moderate Republican, he later became one of the first Social Democracy, social democrats and the leader of the French Socialist Party (1902), French Socialist Party in 1902, which opposed Jules Guesde's revolutionary Socialist Party of France (1902), Socialist Party of France. The two parties merged in 1905 in the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO). An antimilitarist, Jaurès was assassinated at the outbreak of World War I, and remains one of the main historical figures of the French Left. Jaurès was a heterodox Marxist: he rejected the dictatorship of the proletariat and tried to conciliate idealism and materialism, individualism and collectivism, democracy and class struggle, patriotism and Internationalism (politics), internationalism. Early career The son of an unsu ...
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Karl Kautsky
Karl Johann Kautsky (; ; 16 October 1854 – 17 October 1938) was a Czech-Austrian philosopher, journalist, and Marxism, Marxist theoretician (Marxism), theoretician. Kautsky was one of the most authoritative promulgators of orthodox Marxism after the death of Friedrich Engels in 1895 until the outbreak of World War I in 1914. He was the most important socialist theorist during the years of the Second International. He founded the socialist journal ''Neue Zeit''. Following the war, Kautsky was an outspoken critic of the Bolshevik Revolution, engaging in polemics with Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, and Joseph Stalin on the nature of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Soviet state. Life and career Early years Karl Kautsky was born in Prague of an artistic and middle class Czech family – his parents were Johann Kautsky (a scenic designer) and Minna Kautsky, Minna, née Jaich (an actress and writer). The family moved to Vienna when Kautsky was the age of seven. He studied ...
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Karl Höchberg
Karl Höchberg (8 September 1853 – 21 June 1885) was a German Reformism, social-reformist writer, publisher and economist, with a Jewish family background, who acted under the pseudonyms Dr. Ludwig Richter and R.F. Seifert. In 1876, he became a member of the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany (SDAP). From 1877 to 1878, he was responsible for editing the ''Zukunft'' ("''Future''") magazine. He was in exile in Switzerland from 1878 onwards, first to avoid conscription to the Prussian Army, Prussian military, and then due to the anti-socialist laws. Eduard Bernstein and Karl Kautsky were his secretaries and pupils in Zurich. Afterwards, between 1879 and 1881, he was editor of the ''Jahrbuch für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik'' ("''Yearbook for Social Science and Social Politics''"). References SourcesCARTA DE KARL MARX a Friedrich Engels, 1° de Agosto de 1877 (LETTER FROM KARL MARX to Friedrich Engels, August 1st 1877)
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Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels ( ,"Engels"
''
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary ''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary'' is a large American dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific languages, often arranged Alphabetical order, alphabetically (or by radical-and-s ...
''.
), sometimes anglicised as Frederick Engels (28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895), was a German

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Karl Marx
Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, ..., critic of political economy, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist, and socialist revolutionary. Born in Trier, German Confederation, Germany, Marx studied law and philosophy at the universities of University of Bonn, Bonn and Berlin. He married German theatre critic and political activist Jenny von Westphalen in 1843. Due to his political publications, Marx became Statelessness, stateless and lived in exile with his wife and children in London for decades, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and publish his writings, researching in the British Museum Reading Room. ...
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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (; ; 27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ... philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, .... He is considered one of the most important figures in German idealism German idealism was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It developed out of the work of Immanuel Kant in the 1780s and 1790s, and was closely linked both with Romanticism and the revolutionary ... and one of the founding figures of Western philosophy Western ...
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Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant (, , ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, ... and one of the central Enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * Age of Enlightenment, period in Western intellectual history from the late 17th to late 18th century, centered in France but also encompassing: ** Midlands Enlightenment ... thinkers. Kant's comprehensive and systematic works in epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the concerned with . Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic , the of , and various related issues. Epistemology is considered a major subfield of philosophy, along with other major ..., metaphysics Metaphysics is the bran ...
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Revisionism (Marxism)
Within the Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ... movement, revisionism represents various ideas, principles and theories that are based on a significant revision of fundamental Marxist premises that usually involve making an alliance with the bourgeois class Bourgeoisie (; ) is a Polysemy, polysemous French term that can mean: * a sociologically defined social class, especially in contemporary times, referring to people with a certain Cultural capital, cultural and financial capital belonging to .... The term ''revisionism'' is most often used by those Marxists who believe that such revisions are unwarranted and represent a "watering down" or abandonment of Marxism—one such common example is the negation of class struggle Class conflict, also r ...
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Social Democracy
Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive process resulting in the selection ..., social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ..., and economic philosophy An economic ideology distinguishes itself from economic theory Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, ... within socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social ...
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Sociology
Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biol ... that focuses on society, human social behaviour Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differences) is the Action (philosophy), actions and mannerisms made by individ ..., patterns of social relationships Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ..., social interaction In social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted t ...
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