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SAMUEL LANGHORNE CLEMENS (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name MARK TWAIN, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. Among his novels are _ The Adventures of Tom Sawyer_ (1876) and its sequel, the _Adventures of Huckleberry Finn_ (1885), the latter often called "The Great American Novel ".

Twain was raised in Hannibal, Missouri, which later provided the setting for _Tom Sawyer_ and _Huckleberry Finn_. He served an apprenticeship with a printer and then worked as a typesetter, contributing articles to the newspaper of his older brother Orion Clemens . He later became a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before heading west to join Orion in Nevada. He referred humorously to his lack of success at mining, turning to journalism for the Virginia City _ Territorial Enterprise_. His humorous story, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County ", was published in 1865, based on a story that he heard at Angels Hotelin Angels Camp, Californiawhere he had spent some time as a miner. The short story brought international attention and was even translated into classic Greek. His wit and satire, in prose and in speech, earned praise from critics and peers, and he was a friend to presidents, artists, industrialists, and European royalty.

Twain earned a great deal of money from his writings and lectures, but he invested in ventures that lost most of it—notably the Paige Compositor , a mechanical typesetter that failed because of its complexity and imprecision. He filed for bankruptcy in the wake of these financial setbacks, but he eventually overcame his financial troubles with the help of Henry Huttleston Rogers. He chose to pay all his pre-bankruptcy creditors in full, even after he had no legal responsibility to do so.

Twain was born shortly after an appearance of Halley\'s Comet , and he predicted that he would "go out with it" as well; he died the day after the comet returned. He was lauded as the "greatest American humorist of his age", and William Faulkner
William Faulkner
called him "the father of American literature".

CONTENTS

* 1 Biography

* 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Travels * 1.3 Marriage and children * 1.4 Love of science and technology * 1.5 Financial troubles

* 1.6 Speaking engagements

* 1.6.1 Canadian visits

* 1.7 Later life and death

* 2 Writing

* 2.1 Overview * 2.2 Early journalism and travelogues * 2.3 _Tom Sawyer_ and _Huckleberry Finn_ * 2.4 Later writing * 2.5 Censorship

* 3 Views

* 3.1 Anti-imperialist * 3.2 Civil rights * 3.3 Labor * 3.4 Religion * 3.5 Vivisection

* 4 Pen names

* 5 Legacy and depictions

* 5.1 Trademark white suit

* 6 Bibliography * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

BIOGRAPHY

EARLY LIFE

Samuel Clemens, age 15

Mark Twain
Mark Twain
was born Samuel Langhorne Clemens on November 30, 1835 in Florida, Missouri, the sixth of seven children born to Jane (_née_ Lampton; 1803–1890), a native of Kentucky
Kentucky
, and John Marshall Clemens (1798–1847), a native of Virginia
Virginia
. His parents met when his father moved to Missouri
Missouri
, and they were married in 1823. Twain was of Cornish , English , and Scots-Irish descent. Only three of his siblings survived childhood: Orion (1825–1897), Henry (1838–1858), and Pamela (1827–1904). His sister Margaret (1833–1839) died when Twain was three, and his brother Benjamin (1832–1842) died three years later. His brother Pleasant (1828–1829) died at six months of age.

When he was four, Twain's family moved to Hannibal, Missouri, a port town on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
that inspired the fictional town of St. Petersburg in _The Adventures of Tom Sawyer_ and the _Adventures of Huckleberry Finn_. Slavery was legal in Missouri
Missouri
at the time, and it became a theme in these writings. His father was an attorney and judge, who died of pneumonia in 1847, when Twain was 11. The next year, Twain left school after the fifth grade to become a printer's apprentice. In 1851 he began working as a typesetter , contributing articles and humorous sketches to the _Hannibal Journal_, a newspaper that Orion owned. When he was 18, he left Hannibal and worked as a printer in New York City
New York City
, Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, St. Louis
St. Louis
, and Cincinnati
Cincinnati
, joining the newly formed International Typographical Union, the printers trade union . He educated himself in public libraries in the evenings, finding wider information than at a conventional school.

Twain describes his boyhood in _ Life on the Mississippi_, stating that "there was but one permanent ambition" among his comrades: to be a steamboatman.

Pilot was the grandest position of all. The pilot, even in those days of trivial wages, had a princely salary – from a hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty dollars a month, and no board to pay.

As Twain describes it, the pilot's prestige exceeded that of the captain. The pilot had to:

…get up a warm personal acquaintanceship with every old snag and one-limbed cottonwood and every obscure wood pile that ornaments the banks of this river for twelve hundred miles; and more than that, must… actually know where these things are in the dark

Steamboat
Steamboat
pilot Horace E. Bixby took Twain on as a cub pilot to teach him the river between New Orleans
New Orleans
and St. Louis
St. Louis
for $500, payable out of Twain's first wages after graduating. Twain studied the Mississippi, learning its landmarks, how to navigate its currents effectively, and how to read the river and its constantly shifting channels, reefs, submerged snags, and rocks that would "tear the life out of the strongest vessel that ever floated". It was more than two years before he received his pilot's license. Piloting also gave him his pen name from "mark twain ", the leadsman's cry for a measured river depth of two fathoms (12 feet), which was safe water for a steamboat.

While training, Samuel convinced his younger brother Henry to work with him. Henry was killed on June 21, 1858 when their steamboat _Pennsylvania _ exploded. Twain claimed to have foreseen this death in a dream a month earlier, :275 which inspired his interest in parapsychology ; he was an early member of the Society for Psychical Research . Twain was guilt-stricken and held himself responsible for the rest of his life. He continued to work on the river and was a river pilot until the Civil War broke out in 1861, when traffic was curtailed along the Mississippi River. At the start of hostilities, he enlisted briefly in a local Confederate unit. He later wrote the sketch " The Private History of a Campaign That Failed", describing how he and his friends had been Confederate volunteers for two weeks before disbanding.

He then left for Nevada to work for Orion, who was Secretary of the Nevada Territory. Twain describes the episode in his book _Roughing It _.

TRAVELS

Twain in 1867

Orion became secretary to Nevada Territorygovernor James W. Nyein 1861, and Twain joined him when he moved west. The brothers traveled more than two weeks on a stagecoach across the Great Plainsand the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
, visiting the Mormon community in Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City
.

Twain's journey ended in the silver-mining town of Virginia
Virginia
City, Nevada where he became a miner on the Comstock Lode. He failed as a miner and went to work at the Virginia
Virginia
City newspaper _Territorial Enterprise _, working under a friend, the writer Dan DeQuille. He first used his pen name here on February 3, 1863, when he wrote a humorous travel account entitled "Letter From Carson – re: Joe Goodman; party at Gov. Johnson's; music" and signed it "Mark Twain".

His experiences in the American West
American West
inspired _Roughing It_, written during 1870–71 and published in 1872. His experiences in Angels Camp (in Calaveras County, California) provided material for "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" (1865).

Twain moved to San Francisco in 1864, still as a journalist, and met writers such as Bret Harteand Artemus Ward. He may have been romantically involved with the poet Ina Coolbrith.

His first success as a writer came when his humorous tall tale "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" was published on November 18, 1865 in the New York weekly _The Saturday Press _, bringing him national attention. A year later, he traveled to the Sandwich Islands (present day Hawaii) as a reporter for the _ Sacramento Union_. His letters to the _Union_ were popular and became the basis for his first lectures.

In 1867, a local newspaper funded his trip to the Mediterranean aboard the _Quaker City_, including a tour of Europe and the Middle East. He wrote a collection of travel letters which were later compiled as _ The Innocents Abroad
The Innocents Abroad
_ (1869). It was on this trip that he met fellow passenger Charles Langdon, who showed him a picture of his sister Olivia . Twain later claimed to have fallen in love at first sight .

Upon returning to the United States, Twain was offered honorary membership in Yale University
Yale University
's secret society Scroll and Key
Scroll and Key
in 1868. Its devotion to "fellowship, moral and literary self-improvement, and charity" suited him well.

MARRIAGE AND CHILDREN

Twain house in Hartford, Connecticut
Hartford, Connecticut

Twain and Olivia Langdoncorresponded throughout 1868. She rejected his first marriage proposal, but they were married in Elmira, New York in February 1870, where he courted her and managed to overcome her father's initial reluctance. She came from a "wealthy but liberal family"; through her, he met abolitionists , "socialists, principled atheists and activists for women\'s rights and social equality ", including Harriet Beecher Stowe
Harriet Beecher Stowe
(his next-door neighbor in Hartford, Connecticut ), Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
, and writer and utopian socialist William Dean Howells
William Dean Howells
, who became a long-time friend. Library of Twain House , with hand-stenciled paneling, fireplaces from India, embossed wallpaper, and a hand-carved mantel purchased in Scotland

The couple lived in Buffalo, New York
Buffalo, New York
, from 1869 to 1871. He owned a stake in the _Buffalo Express _ newspaper and worked as an editor and writer. While they were living in Buffalo, their son Langdon died of diphtheria at the age of 19 months. They had three daughters: Susy (1872–1896), Clara (1874–1962), and Jean (1880–1909).

Twain moved his family to Hartford, Connecticut, where he arranged the building of a home starting in 1873. In the 1870s and 1880s, the family summered at Quarry Farmin Elmira, the home of Olivia's sister, Susan Crane. In 1874, Susan had a study built apart from the main house so that Twain would have a quiet place in which to write. Also, he smoked cigars constantly, and Susan did not want him to do so in her house.

Twain wrote many of his classic novels during his 17 years in Hartford (1874–1891) and over 20 summers at Quarry Farm. They include _The Adventures of Tom Sawyer_ (1876), _The Prince and the Pauper_ (1881), _Life on the Mississippi_ (1883), _Adventures of Huckleberry Finn_ (1885), and _A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court_ (1889).

The couple's marriage lasted 34 years until Olivia's death in 1904. All of the Clemens family are buried in Elmira's Woodlawn Cemetery .

LOVE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Twain in the lab of Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
, early 1894

Twain was fascinated with science and scientific inquiry. He developed a close and lasting friendship with Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
, and the two spent much time together in Tesla's laboratory.

Twain patented three inventions, including an "Improvement in Adjustable and Detachable Straps for Garments" (to replace suspenders ) and a history trivia game. Most commercially successful was a self-pasting scrapbook; a dried adhesive on the pages needed only to be moistened before use. Over 25,000 were sold.

Twain's novel _A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur\'s Court _ (1889) features a time traveler from the contemporary U.S., using his knowledge of science to introduce modern technology to Arthurian England. This type of storyline became a common feature of the science fiction subgenre alternate history .

In 1909, Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
visited Twain at his home in Redding, Connecticut and filmed him. Part of the footage was used in _The Prince and the Pauper_ (1909), a two-reel short film. It is said to be the only known existing film footage of Twain.

FINANCIAL TROUBLES

Twain made a substantial amount of money through his writing, but he lost a great deal through investments. He invested mostly in new inventions and technology, particularly in the Paige typesetting machine . It was a beautifully engineered mechanical marvel that amazed viewers when it worked, but it was prone to breakdowns. Twain spent $300,000 (equal to $8,000,000 in inflation-adjusted terms ) on it between 1880 and 1894, but before it could be perfected it was rendered obsolete by the Linotype . He lost the bulk of his book profits, as well as a substantial portion of his wife's inheritance.

Twain also lost money through his publishing house of Charles L. Webster and Company , which enjoyed initial success selling the memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
but failed soon afterward, losing money on a biography of Pope Leo XIII. Fewer than 200 copies were sold.

Twain and his family closed down their expensive Hartford home in response to the dwindling income and moved to Europe in June 1891. William M. Laffanof _The New York Sun _ and the McClure Newspaper Syndicate offered him the publication of a series of six European letters. Twain, Olivia, and their daughter Susy were all faced with health problems, and they believed that it would be of benefit to visit European baths. The family stayed mainly in France, Germany, and Italy until May 1895, with longer spells at Berlin
Berlin
(winter 1891/92), Florence
Florence
(fall and winter 1892/93), and Paris (winters and springs 1893/94 and 1894/95). During that period, Twain returned four times to New York due to his enduring business troubles. He took "a cheap room" in September 1893 at $1.50 per day at The Players Club , which he had to keep until March 1894; meanwhile, he became "the Belle of New York," in the words of biographer Albert Bigelow Paine.

Twain's writings and lectures enabled him to recover financially, combined with the help of a new friend. In fall 1893, he began a friendship with financier Henry Huttleston Rogers, a principal of Standard Oil
Standard Oil
, that lasted the remainder of his life. Rogers first made him file for bankruptcy in April 1894, then had him transfer the copyrights on his written works to his wife to prevent creditors from gaining possession of them. Finally, Rogers took absolute charge of Twain's money until all his creditors were paid.

Twain accepted an offer from Robert Sparrow Smythe and embarked on a year-long, around the world lecture tour in July 1895 to pay off his creditors in full, although he was no longer under any legal obligation to do so. It was a long, arduous journey and he was sick much of the time, mostly from a cold and a carbuncle . The first part of the itinerary took him across northern America to British Columbia , Canada, until the second half of August. For the second part, he sailed across the Pacific Ocean. His scheduled lecture in Honolulu
Honolulu
, Hawaii
Hawaii
had to be cancelled due to a cholera epidemic. Twain went on to Fiji
Fiji
, Australia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, India, Mauritius
Mauritius
, and South Africa. His three months in India became the centerpiece of his 712-page book _ Following the Equator_. In the second half of July 1896, he sailed back to England, completing his circumnavigation of the world begun 14 months before.

Twain and his family spent four more years in Europe, mainly in England and Austria
Austria
(October 1897 to May 1899), with longer spells in London and Vienna
Vienna
. Clara had wished to study the piano under Theodor Leschetizky in Vienna. Unfortunately, Jean's health did not benefit from consulting with specialists in Vienna, the "City of Doctors". The family moved to London in spring 1899, following a lead by Poultney Bigelow who had a good experience being treated by Dr. Jonas Henrik Kellgren, a Swedish osteopathic practitioner in Belgravia
Belgravia
. They were persuaded to spend the summer at Kellgren's sanatorium by the lake in the Swedish village of Sanna. Coming back in fall, they continued the treatment in London, until Twain was convinced by lengthy inquiries in America that similar osteopathic expertise was available there.

In mid-1900, he was the guest of newspaper proprietor Hugh Gilzean-Reid at Dollis Hill House, located on the north side of London. Twain wrote that he had "never seen any place that was so satisfactorily situated, with its noble trees and stretch of country, and everything that went to make life delightful, and all within a biscuit's throw of the metropolis of the world." He then returned to America in October 1900, having earned enough to pay off his debts. In winter 1900/01, he became his country's most prominent opponent of imperialism , raising the issue in his speeches, interviews, and writings. In January 1901, he began serving as vice-president of the Anti-Imperialist League of New York.

SPEAKING ENGAGEMENTS

Plaque on Sydney
Sydney
Writers Walk commemorating the visit of Mark Twain in 1895

Twain was in great demand as a featured speaker, performing solo humorous talks similar to modern stand-up comedy. He gave paid talks to many men's clubs, including the Authors\' Club , Beefsteak Club, Vagabonds, White Friars, and Monday Evening Club of Hartford.

In the late 1890s, he spoke to the Savage Club
Savage Club
in London and was elected an honorary member. He was told that only three men had been so honored, including the Prince of Wales , and he replied: "Well, it must make the Prince feel mighty fine." He visited Melbourne
Melbourne
and Sydney
Sydney
in 1895 as part of a world lecture tour. In 1897, he spoke to the Concordia Press Club in Vienna
Vienna
as a special guest, following the diplomat Charlemagne Tower, Jr.He delivered the speech "_Die Schrecken der deutschen Sprache _" ("The Horrors of the German Language")—in German—to the great amusement of the audience. In 1901, he was invited to speak at Princeton University
Princeton University
's Cliosophic Literary Society , where he was made an honorary member.

Canadian Visits

In 1881, Twain was honored at a banquet in Montreal
Montreal
, Canada where he made reference to securing a copyright . In 1883, he paid a brief visit to Ottawa
Ottawa
, and he visited Toronto
Toronto
twice in 1884 and 1885 on a reading tour with George Washington Cable, known as the "Twins of Genius" tour.

The reason for the Toronto
Toronto
visits was to secure Canadian and British copyrights for his upcoming book _Adventures of Huckleberry Finn_, to which he had alluded in his Montreal
Montreal
visit. The reason for the Ottawa
Ottawa
visit had been to secure Canadian and British copyrights for _Life on the Mississippi_. Publishers in Toronto
Toronto
had printed unauthorized editions of his books at the time, before an international copyright agreement was established in 1891. These were sold in the United States as well as in Canada, depriving him of royalties. He estimated that Belford Brothers\' edition of _The Adventures of Tom Sawyer_ alone had cost him ten thousand dollars. He had unsuccessfully attempted to secure the rights for _The Prince and the Pauper_ in 1881, in conjunction with his Montreal
Montreal
trip. Eventually, he received legal advice to register a copyright in Canada (for both Canada and Britain) prior to publishing in the United States, which would restrain the Canadian publishers from printing a version when the American edition was published. There was a requirement that a copyright be registered to a Canadian resident; he addressed this by his short visits to the country.

LATER LIFE AND DEATH

“ ...the report is greatly exaggerated. ”

Mark Twain
Mark Twain
when it was reported that he had died

Twain lived in his later years at 14 West 10th Street in Manhattan
Manhattan
.

Twain passed through a period of deep depression which began in 1896 when his daughter Susy died of meningitis . Olivia's death in 1904 and Jean's on December 24, 1909 deepened his gloom. On May 20, 1909, his close friend Henry Rogers died suddenly. In 1906, Twain began his autobiography in the _ North American Review_. In April, he heard that his friend Ina Coolbrithhad lost nearly all that she owned in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake
1906 San Francisco earthquake
, and he volunteered a few autographed portrait photographs to be sold for her benefit. To further aid Coolbrith, George Wharton Jamesvisited Twain in New York and arranged for a new portrait session. He was resistant initially, but he eventually admitted that four of the resulting images were the finest ones ever taken of him. A color photograph taken of Mark Twain in 1908 using the recently developed Autochrome Lumiere process

Twain formed a club in 1906 for girls whom he viewed as surrogate granddaughters called the Angel Fish and Aquarium Club. The dozen or so members ranged in age from 10 to 16. He exchanged letters with his "Angel Fish" girls and invited them to concerts and the theatre and to play games. Twain wrote in 1908 that the club was his "life's chief delight". In 1907, he met Dorothy Quick (aged 11) on a transatlantic crossing, beginning "a friendship that was to last until the very day of his death".

Oxford University
Oxford University
awarded Twain an honorary doctorate in letters in 1907.

Twain was born two weeks after Halley\'s Comet 's closest approach in 1835; he said in 1909:

I came in with Halley's Cometin 1835. It is coming again next year, and I expect to go out with it. It will be the greatest disappointment of my life if I don't go out with Halley's Comet. The Almighty has said, no doubt: "Now here are these two unaccountable freaks; they came in together, they must go out together".

Twain's prediction was accurate; he died of a heart attack on April 21, 1910 in Redding, Connecticut, one day after the comet's closest approach to Earth. Mark Twain
Mark Twain
headstone in Woodlawn Cemetery

Upon hearing of Twain's death, President William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
said:

Mark Twain
Mark Twain
gave pleasure — real intellectual enjoyment — to millions, and his works will continue to give such pleasure to millions yet to come … His humor was American, but he was nearly as much appreciated by Englishmen and people of other countries as by his own countrymen. He has made an enduring part of American literature.

Twain's funeral was at the "Old Brick" Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in New York. He is buried in his wife's family plot at Woodlawn Cemetery in Elmira, New York
Elmira, New York
. The Langdon family plot is marked by a 12-foot monument (two fathoms, or "mark twain") placed there by his surviving daughter Clara. There is also a smaller headstone. He expressed a preference for cremation (for example, in _Life on the Mississippi_), but he acknowledged that his surviving family would have the last word.

Officials in Connecticut and New York estimated the value of Twain's estate at $471,000 ($12,000,000 today).

WRITING

OVERVIEW

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Mark Twain
Mark Twain
in his gown (scarlet with grey sleeves and facings) for his D.Litt.degree, awarded to him by Oxford University
Oxford University

Twain began his career writing light, humorous verse, but he became a chronicler of the vanities, hypocrisies, and murderous acts of mankind. At mid-career, he combined rich humor, sturdy narrative, and social criticism in _Huckleberry Finn_. He was a master of rendering colloquial speech and helped to create and popularize a distinctive American literaturebuilt on American themes and language.

Many of his works have been suppressed at times for various reasons. The _Adventures of Huckleberry Finn_ has been repeatedly restricted in American high schools, not least for its frequent use of the word "nigger ", which was in common usage in the pre-Civil War period in which the novel was set.

A complete bibliography of Twain's works is nearly impossible to compile because of the vast number of pieces he wrote (often in obscure newspapers) and his use of several different pen names. Additionally, a large portion of his speeches and lectures have been lost or were not recorded; thus, the compilation of Twain's works is an ongoing process. Researchers rediscovered published material as recently as 1995 and 2015.

EARLY JOURNALISM AND TRAVELOGUES

Twain was writing for the Virginia
Virginia
City newspaper the _Territorial Enterprise _ in 1863 when he met lawyer Tom Fitch , editor of the competing newspaper _ Virginia
Virginia
Daily Union_ and known as the "silver-tongued orator of the Pacific". :51 He credited Fitch with giving him his "first really profitable lesson" in writing. "When I first began to lecture, and in my earlier writings," Twain later commented, "my sole idea was to make comic capital out of everything I saw and heard." In 1866, he presented his lecture on the Sandwich Islands to a crowd in Washoe City, Nevada. Afterwards, Fitch told him:

Clemens, your lecture was magnificent. It was eloquent, moving, sincere. Never in my entire life have I listened to such a magnificent piece of descriptive narration. But you committed one unpardonable sin – the unpardonable sin. It is a sin you must never commit again. You closed a most eloquent description, by which you had keyed your audience up to a pitch of the intensest interest, with a piece of atrocious anti-climax which nullified all the really fine effect you had produced. Cabin where Twain wrote "Jumping Frog of Calaveras County", Jackass Hill, Tuolumne County . Click on historical marker and interior view .

It was in these days that Twain became a writer of the Sagebrush School ; he was known later as the most notable within the genre. His first important work was "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County," published in the _ New York Saturday Press_ on November 18, 1865. After a burst of popularity, the _ Sacramento Union_ commissioned him to write letters about his travel experiences. The first journey that he took for this job was to ride the steamer _Ajax_ on its maiden voyage to the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii). All the while, he was writing letters to the newspaper that were meant for publishing, chronicling his experiences with humor. These letters proved to be the genesis to his work with the San Francisco _Alta California _ newspaper, which designated him a traveling correspondent for a trip from San Francisco to New York City
New York City
via the Panama isthmus .

On June 8, 1867, he set sail on the pleasure cruiser _Quaker City_ for five months, and this trip resulted in _ The Innocents Abroad
The Innocents Abroad
or The New Pilgrims\' Progress _. In 1872, he published his second piece of travel literature, _Roughing It_, as an account of his journey from Missouri
Missouri
to Nevada, his subsequent life in the American West
American West
, and his visit to Hawaii. The book lampoons American and Western society in the same way that _Innocents_ critiqued the various countries of Europe and the Middle East. His next work was _The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today _, his first attempt at writing a novel . The book is also notable because it is his only collaboration, written with his neighbor Charles Dudley Warner
Charles Dudley Warner
.

Twain's next work drew on his experiences on the Mississippi River. _ Old Times on the Mississippi_ was a series of sketches published in the _ Atlantic Monthly
Atlantic Monthly
_ in 1875 featuring his disillusionment with Romanticism
Romanticism
. _Old Times_ eventually became the starting point for _Life on the Mississippi_.

_TOM SAWYER_ AND _HUCKLEBERRY FINN_

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Twain's next major publication was _ The Adventures of Tom Sawyer_, which draws on his youth in Hannibal. Tom Sawyerwas modeled on Twain as a child, with traces of schoolmates John Briggs and Will Bowen. The book also introduces Huckleberry Finnin a supporting role, based on Twain's boyhood friend Tom Blankenship.

_ The Prince and the Pauper_ was not as well received, despite a storyline that is common in film and literature today. The book tells the story of two boys born on the same day who are physically identical, acting as a social commentary as the prince and pauper switch places. Twain had started _Adventures of Huckleberry Finn_ (which he consistently had problems completing) and had completed his travel book _ A Tramp Abroad_, which describes his travels through central and southern Europe.

Twain's next major published work was the _Adventures of Huckleberry Finn_, which confirmed him as a noteworthy American writer. Some have called it the first Great American Novel, and the book has become required reading in many schools throughout the United States. _Huckleberry Finn_ was an offshoot from _Tom Sawyer_ and had a more serious tone than its predecessor. Four hundred manuscript pages were written in mid-1876, right after the publication of _Tom Sawyer_. The last fifth of _Huckleberry Finn_ is subject to much controversy. Some say that Twain experienced a "failure of nerve," as critic Leo Marx puts it. Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
once said of _Huckleberry Finn_:

If you read it, you must stop where the NiggerJim is stolen from the boys. That is the real end. The rest is just cheating.

Hemingway also wrote in the same essay:

All modern American literaturecomes from one book by Mark Twain called _Huckleberry Finn_.

Near the completion of _Huckleberry Finn_, Twain wrote _Life on the Mississippi_, which is said to have heavily influenced the novel. The travel work recounts Twain's memories and new experiences after a 22-year absence from the Mississippi River. In it, he also explains that "Mark Twain" was the call made when the boat was in safe water, indicating a depth of two fathoms (12 feet or 3.7 metres).

LATER WRITING

Twain produced President Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
's _Memoirs _ through his fledgling publishing house, Charles L. Webster "> Twain in his later years

His next large-scale work was _Pudd\'nhead Wilson _, which he wrote rapidly, as he was desperately trying to stave off bankruptcy. From November 12 to December 14, 1893, Twain wrote 60,000 words for the novel. Critics have pointed to this rushed completion as the cause of the novel's rough organization and constant disruption of the plot. This novel also contains the tale of two boys born on the same day who switch positions in life, like _The Prince and the Pauper_. It was first published serially in _ Century Magazine_ and, when it was finally published in book form, _Pudd'nhead Wilson_ appeared as the main title; however, the "subtitles" make the entire title read: _The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilsonand the Comedy of The Extraordinary Twins_.

Twain's next venture was a work of straight fiction that he called _ Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc_ and dedicated to his wife. He had long said that this was the work that he was most proud of, despite the criticism that he received for it. The book had been a dream of his since childhood, and he claimed that he had found a manuscript detailing the life of Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
when he was an adolescent. This was another piece that he was convinced would save his publishing company. His financial adviser Henry Huttleston Rogers quashed that idea and got Twain out of that business altogether, but the book was published nonetheless.

To pay the bills and keep his business projects afloat, Twain had begun to write articles and commentary furiously, with diminishing returns, but it was not enough. He filed for bankruptcy in 1894. During this time of dire financial straits, he published several literary reviews in newspapers to help make ends meet. He famously derided James Fenimore Cooperin his article detailing Cooper's "Literary Offenses ". He became an extremely outspoken critic of other authors and other critics; he suggested that, before praising Cooper's work, Thomas Lounsbury, Brander Matthews, and Wilkie Collins
Wilkie Collins
"ought to have read some of it".

George Eliot
George Eliot
, Jane Austen, and Robert Louis Stevenson
Robert Louis Stevenson
also fell under Twain's attack during this time period, beginning around 1890 and continuing until his death. He outlines what he considers to be "quality writing" in several letters and essays, in addition to providing a source for the "tooth and claw" style of literary criticism. He places emphasis on concision, utility of word choice, and realism; he complains, for example, that Cooper's _ Deerslayer_ purports to be realistic but has several shortcomings. Ironically, several of his own works were later criticized for lack of continuity (_Adventures of Huckleberry Finn_) and organization (_Pudd'nhead Wilson_).

Twain's wife died in 1904 while the couple were staying at the Villa di Quarto in Florence
Florence
. After some time had passed he published some works that his wife, his _de facto_ editor and censor throughout her married life, had looked down upon. _ The Mysterious Stranger_ is perhaps the best known, depicting various visits of Satan
Satan
to earth. This particular work was not published in Twain's lifetime. His manuscripts included three versions, written between 1897 and 1905: the so-called Hannibal, Eseldorf, and Print Shop versions. The resulting confusion led to extensive publication of a jumbled version, and only recently have the original versions become available as Twain wrote them.

Twain's last work was his autobiography , which he dictated and thought would be most entertaining if he went off on whims and tangents in non-chronological order. Some archivists and compilers have rearranged the biography into a more conventional form, thereby eliminating some of Twain's humor and the flow of the book. The first volume of the autobiography, over 736 pages, was published by the University of California in November 2010, 100 years after his death, as Twain wished. It soon became an unexpected best seller, making Twain one of a very few authors publishing new best-selling volumes in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

CENSORSHIP

Twain's works have been subjected to censorship efforts. According to Stuart (2013), "Leading these banning campaigns, generally, were religious organizations or individuals in positions of influence – not so much working librarians, who had been instilled with that American "library spirit" which honored intellectual freedom (within bounds of course)". In 1905, the Brooklyn Public Librarybanned both _The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn_ and _The Adventures of Tom Sawyer_ from the children's department because of their language.

VIEWS

Twain's views became more radical as he grew older. In a letter to friend and fellow writer William Dean Howells
William Dean Howells
in 1887 he acknowledged that his views had changed and developed over his lifetime, referring to one of his favorite works:

When I finished Carlyle 's _ French Revolution
French Revolution
_ in 1871, I was a Girondin
Girondin
; every time I have read it since, I have read it differently – being influenced and changed, little by little, by life and environment ... and now I lay the book down once more, and recognize that I am a Sansculotte! And not a pale, characterless Sansculotte, but a Marat .

ANTI-IMPERIALIST

Before 1899, Twain was an ardent imperialist . In the late 1860s and early 1870s, he spoke out strongly in favor of American interests in the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
. He said the war with Spain in 1898 was "the worthiest" war ever fought. In 1899, however, he reversed course. In the _ New York Herald_, October 16, 1900, Twain describes his transformation and political awakening, in the context of the Philippine–American War, to anti-imperialism:

I wanted the American eagle to go screaming into the Pacific ... Why not spread its wings over the Philippines, I asked myself? ... I said to myself, Here are a people who have suffered for three centuries. We can make them as free as ourselves, give them a government and country of their own, put a miniature of the American Constitutionafloat in the Pacific, start a brand new republic to take its place among the free nations of the world. It seemed to me a great task to which we had addressed ourselves.

But I have thought some more, since then, and I have read carefully the treaty of Paris , and I have seen that we do not intend to free, but to subjugate the people of the Philippines. We have gone there to conquer, not to redeem.

It should, it seems to me, be our pleasure and duty to make those people free, and let them deal with their own domestic questions in their own way. And so I am an anti-imperialist. I am opposed to having the eagle put its talons on any other land.

During the Boxer rebellion
Boxer rebellion
, Mark Twain
Mark Twain
said that "the Boxer is a patriot. He loves his country better than he does the countries of other people. I wish him success."

From 1901, soon after his return from Europe, until his death in 1910, Twain was vice-president of the American Anti-Imperialist League , which opposed the annexation of the Philippines
Philippines
by the United States and had "tens of thousands of members". He wrote many political pamphlets for the organization. The _Incident in the Philippines_, posthumously published in 1924, was in response to the Moro Crater Massacre, in which six hundred Moros were killed. Many of his neglected and previously uncollected writings on anti-imperialism appeared for the first time in book form in 1992.

Twain was critical of imperialism in other countries as well. In _Following the Equator_, Twain expresses "hatred and condemnation of imperialism of all stripes". He was highly critical of European imperialists , notably Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes
, who greatly expanded the British Empire , and Leopold II , King of the Belgians . _King Leopold\'s Soliloquy _ is a stinging political satire about his private colony, the Congo Free State
Congo Free State
. Reports of outrageous exploitation and grotesque abuses led to widespread international protest in the early 1900s, arguably the first large-scale human rights movement. In the soliloquy, the King argues that bringing Christianity to the country outweighs a little starvation. Leopold's rubber gatherers were tortured, maimed and slaughtered until the movement forced Brussels
Brussels
to call a halt.

During the Philippine–American War, Twain wrote a short pacifist story titled _ The War Prayer_, which makes the point that humanism and Christianity's preaching of love are incompatible with the conduct of war. It was submitted to _Harper\'s Bazaar _ for publication, but on March 22, 1905, the magazine rejected the story as "not quite suited to a woman\'s magazine ". Eight days later, Twain wrote to his friend Daniel Carter Beard, to whom he had read the story, "I don't think the prayer will be published in my time. None but the dead are permitted to tell the truth." Because he had an exclusive contract with Harper it remained unpublished until 1923. It was republished as campaigning material by Vietnam War protesters .

Twain acknowledged that he had originally sympathized with the more moderate Girondins
Girondins
of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and then shifted his sympathies to the more radical Sansculottes, indeed identifying himself as "a Marat ". Twain supported the revolutionaries in Russia against the reformists, arguing that the Tsar
Tsar
must be got rid of by violent means, because peaceful ones would not work. He summed up his views of revolutions in the following statement:

I am said to be a revolutionist in my sympathies, by birth, by breeding and by principle. I am always on the side of the revolutionists, because there never was a revolution unless there were some oppressive and intolerable conditions against which to revolute.

CIVIL RIGHTS

Twain was an adamant supporter of the abolition of slavery and emancipation of slaves, even going so far as to say, "Lincoln 's Proclamation ... not only set the black slaves free, but set the white man free also". He argued that non-whites did not receive justice in the United States, once saying, "I have seen Chinamen abused and maltreated in all the mean, cowardly ways possible to the invention of a degraded nature ... but I never saw a Chinaman righted in a court of justice for wrongs thus done to him". He paid for at least one black person to attend Yale Law Schooland for another black person to attend a southern university to become a minister.

Twain's sympathetic views on race were not reflected in his early writings on Native Americans . Of them, Twain wrote in 1870:

His heart is a cesspool of falsehood, of treachery, and of low and devilish instincts. With him, gratitude is an unknown emotion; and when one does him a kindness, it is safest to keep the face toward him, lest the reward be an arrow in the back. To accept of a favor from him is to assume a debt which you can never repay to his satisfaction, though you bankrupt yourself trying. The scum of the earth!

As counterpoint, Twain's essay on "The Literary Offenses of Fenimore Cooper" offers a much kinder view of Indians. "No, other Indians would have noticed these things, but Cooper's Indians never notice anything. Cooper thinks they are marvelous creatures for noticing, but he was almost always in error about his Indians. There was seldom a sane one among them." In his later travelogue _Following the Equator_ (1897), Twain observes that in colonized lands all over the world, "savages" have always been wronged by "whites " in the most merciless ways, such as "robbery, humiliation, and slow, slow murder, through poverty and the white man's whiskey"; his conclusion is that "there are many humorous things in this world; among them the white man's notion that he is less savage than the other savages". In an expression that captures his Indian experiences, he wrote, "So far as I am able to judge nothing has been left undone, either by man or Nature, to make India the most extraordinary country that the sun visits on his rounds. Where every prospect pleases, and only man is vile."

Twain was also a staunch supporter of women\'s rights and an active campaigner for women\'s suffrage . His "Votes for Women " speech, in which he pressed for the granting of voting rights to women, is considered one of the most famous in history.

Helen Keller
Helen Keller
benefited from Twain's support as she pursued her college education and publishing despite her disabilities and financial limitations.

LABOR

Twain wrote glowingly about unions in the river boating industry in _Life on the Mississippi_, which was read in union halls decades later. He supported the labor movement , especially one of the most important unions, the Knights of Labor
Knights of Labor
. In a speech to them, he said:

Who are the oppressors? The few: the King, the capitalist, and a handful of other overseers and superintendents. Who are the oppressed? The many: the nations of the earth; the valuable personages; the workers; they that make the bread that the soft-handed and idle eat.

RELIGION

See also: Twain–Ament indemnities controversy

Twain was a Presbyterian
Presbyterian
. He was critical of organized religion and certain elements of Christianity through his later life. He wrote, for example, "Faith is believing what you know ain't so", and "If Christ were here now there is one thing he would not be – a Christian". With anti-Catholic sentiment rampant in 19th century America, Twain noted he was “educated to enmity toward everything that is Catholic”. As an adult, he engaged in religious discussions and attended services, his theology developing as he wrestled with the deaths of loved ones and his own mortality.

Twain generally avoided publishing his most controversial opinions on religion in his lifetime, and they are known from essays and stories that were published later. In the essay _Three Statements of the Eighties_ in the 1880s, Twain stated that he believed in an almighty God, but not in any messages, revelations , holy scriptures such as the Bible, Providence , or retribution in the afterlife . He did state that "the goodness, the justice, and the mercy of God
God
are manifested in His works", but also that "the universe is governed by strict and immutable laws ", which determine "small matters", such as who dies in a pestilence. At other times, he wrote or spoke in ways that contradicted a strict deist view, for example, plainly professing a belief in Providence. In some later writings in the 1890s, he was less optimistic about the goodness of God
God
, observing that "if our Maker _is_ all-powerful for good or evil, He is not in His right mind". At other times, he conjectured sardonically that perhaps God had created the world with all its tortures for some purpose of His own, but was otherwise indifferent to humanity, which was too petty and insignificant to deserve His attention anyway.

In 1901, Twain criticized the actions of the missionary Dr. William Scott Ament (1851–1909) because Ament and other missionaries had collected indemnities from Chinese subjects in the aftermath of the Boxer Uprisingof 1900. Twain's response to hearing of Ament's methods was published in the _North American Review_ in February 1901: _To the Person Sitting in Darkness _, and deals with examples of imperialism in China, South Africa, and with the U.S. occupation of the Philippines. A subsequent article, "To My Missionary
Missionary
Critics" published in _The North American Review_ in April 1901, unapologetically continues his attack, but with the focus shifted from Ament to his missionary superiors, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions .

After his death, Twain's family suppressed some of his work that was especially irreverent toward conventional religion, notably _Letters from the Earth _, which was not published until his daughter Clara reversed her position in 1962 in response to Soviet propagandaabout the withholding. The anti-religious _The Mysterious Stranger_ was published in 1916. _Little Bessie_, a story ridiculing Christianity, was first published in the 1972 collection _Mark Twain's Fables of Man_.

He raised money to build a Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in Nevada in 1864.

Twain created a reverent portrayal of Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
, a subject over which he had obsessed for forty years, studied for a dozen years and spent two years writing about. In 1900 and again in 1908 he stated, "I like _Joan of Arc_ best of all my books, it is the best".

Those who knew Twain well late in life recount that he dwelt on the subject of the afterlife, his daughter Clara saying: "Sometimes he believed death ended everything, but most of the time he felt sure of a life beyond."

Twain's frankest views on religion appeared in his final work _ Autobiography of Mark Twain_, the publication of which started in November 2010, 100 years after his death. In it, he said:

There is one notable thing about our Christianity: bad, bloody, merciless, money-grabbing, and predatory as it is – in our country particularly and in all other Christian countries in a somewhat modified degree – it is still a hundred times better than the Christianity of the Bible, with its prodigious crime – the invention of Hell. Measured by our Christianity of to-day, bad as it is, hypocritical as it is, empty and hollow as it is, neither the Deity nor his Son is a Christian, nor qualified for that moderately high place. Ours is a terrible religion. The fleets of the world could swim in spacious comfort in the innocent blood it has spilled.

Twain was a Freemason
Freemason
. He belonged to Polar Star Lodge No. 79 A.F. followed by a tedious plagiarism of the New Testament.

VIVISECTION

Twain was opposed to the vivisection practices of his day. His objection was not on a scientific basis but rather an ethical one. He specifically cited the pain caused to the animal as his basis of his opposition.

I am not interested to know whether Vivisectionproduces results that are profitable to the human race or doesn't. ... The pains which it inflicts upon unconsenting animals is the basis of my enmity towards it, and it is to me sufficient justification of the enmity without looking further.

PEN NAMES

Twain used different pen names before deciding on "'Mark Twain". He signed humorous and imaginative sketches as "Josh" until 1863. Additionally, he used the pen name " Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Snodgrass" for a series of humorous letters.

He maintained that his primary pen name came from his years working on Mississippi riverboats, where two fathoms, a depth indicating water safe for the passage of boat, was a measure on the sounding line . Twain is an archaic term for "two", as in "The veil of the temple was rent in twain." The riverboatman's cry was "mark twain" or, more fully, "by the mark twain", meaning "according to the mark , two ", that is, "The water is 12 feet (3.7 m) deep and it is safe to pass."

Twain claimed that his famous pen name was not entirely his invention. In _Life on the Mississippi_, he wrote:

Captain Isaiah Sellerswas not of literary turn or capacity, but he used to jot down brief paragraphs of plain practical information about the river, and sign them "MARK TWAIN", and give them to the _New Orleans Picayune _. They related to the stage and condition of the river, and were accurate and valuable; ... At the time that the telegraph brought the news of his death, I was on the Pacific coast. I was a fresh new journalist, and needed a nom de guerre ; so I confiscated the ancient mariner's discarded one, and have done my best to make it remain what it was in his hands – a sign and symbol and warrant that whatever is found in its company may be gambled on as being the petrified truth; how I have succeeded, it would not be modest in me to say.

Twain's story about his pen name has been questioned by some with the suggestion that "mark twain" refers to a running bar tab that Twain would regularly incur while drinking at John Piper's saloon in Virginia City, Nevada. Samuel Clemens himself responded to this suggestion by saying, " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
was the nom de plume of one Captain Isaiah Sellers, who used to write river news over it for the New Orleans Picayune. He died in 1869 and as he could no longer need that signature, I laid violent hands upon it without asking permission of the proprietor's remains. That is the history of the nom de plume I bear."

In his autobiography, Twain writes further of Captain Sellers' use of "Mark Twain":

I was a cub pilot on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
then, and one day I wrote a rude and crude satire which was leveled at Captain Isaiah Sellers, the oldest steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River, and the most respected, esteemed, and revered. For many years he had occasionally written brief paragraphs concerning the river and the changes which it had undergone under his observation during fifty years, and had signed these paragraphs "Mark Twain" and published them in the St. Louis
St. Louis
and New Orleans
New Orleans
journals. In my satire I made rude game of his reminiscences. It was a shabby poor performance, but I didn't know it, and the pilots didn't know it. The pilots thought it was brilliant. They were jealous of Sellers, because when the gray-heads among them pleased their vanity by detailing in the hearing of the younger craftsmen marvels which they had seen in the long ago on the river, Sellers was always likely to step in at the psychological moment and snuff them out with wonders of his own which made their small marvels look pale and sick. However, I have told all about this in "Old Times on the Mississippi." The pilots handed my extravagant satire to a river reporter, and it was published in the New Orleans
New Orleans
True Delta. That poor old Captain Sellers was deeply wounded. He had never been held up to ridicule before; he was sensitive, and he never got over the hurt which I had wantonly and stupidly inflicted upon his dignity. I was proud of my performance for a while, and considered it quite wonderful, but I have changed my opinion of it long ago. Sellers never published another paragraph nor ever used his nom de guerre again.

LEGACY AND DEPICTIONS

Main article: Mark Twain in popular culture _ Twain caricatured by Spy for Vanity Fair _, 1908 A statue of Mark Twain
Mark Twain
at Finney County Library Play media Footage of Twain in 1909

TRADEMARK WHITE SUIT

While Twain is often depicted wearing a white suit, modern representations suggesting that he wore them throughout his life are unfounded. Evidence suggests that Twain began wearing white suits on the lecture circuit, after the death of his wife Olivia ("Livy") in 1904. However, there is also evidence showing him wearing a white suit before 1904. In 1882, he sent a photograph of himself in a white suit to 18-year-old Edward W. Bok, later publisher of the _Ladies Home Journal_, with a handwritten dated note on verso . It did eventually become his trademark, as illustrated in anecdotes about this eccentricity (such as the time he wore a white summer suit to a Congressional hearing during the winter). McMasters' _The Mark Twain Encyclopedia_ states that Twain did not wear a white suit in his last three years, except at one banquet speech.

In his autobiography, Twain writes of his early experiments with wearing white out-of-season:

Next after fine colors, I like plain white. One of my sorrows, when the summer ends, is that I must put off my cheery and comfortable white clothes and enter for the winter into the depressing captivity of the shapeless and degrading black ones. It is mid-October now, and the weather is growing cold up here in the New Hampshire hills, but it will not succeed in freezing me out of these white garments, for here the neighbors are few, and it is only of crowds that I am afraid. I made a brave experiment, the other night, to see how it would feel to shock a crowd with these unseasonable clothes, and also to see how long it might take the crowd to reconcile itself to them and stop looking astonished and outraged. On a stormy evening I made a talk before a full house, in the village, clothed like a ghost, and looking as conspicuous, all solitary and alone on that platform, as any ghost could have looked; and I found, to my gratification, that it took the house less than ten minutes to forget about the ghost and give its attention to the tidings I had brought. I am nearly seventy-one, and I recognize that my age has given me a good many privileges; valuable privileges; privileges which are not granted to younger persons. Little by little I hope to get together courage enough to wear white clothes all through the winter, in New York. It will be a great satisfaction to me to show off in this way; and perhaps the largest of all the satisfactions will be the knowledge that every scoffer, of my sex, will secretly envy me and wish he dared to follow my lead.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Main article: Mark Twain bibliography

SEE ALSO

* _ Mark Twain
Mark Twain
_ – Wikipedia
Wikipedia
book * _ Children\'s Literature portal * American Literary Regionalism * American Realism
American Realism
* Back-translation * Bernard DeVoto(historian) * Christian Science (book) * Thomas S. Hinde, friend who corresponded with Mark Twain throughout his life. * List of premature obituaries * Mark Twain Birthplace State Historic Site * Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Boyhood Home -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ "The Mark Twain HouseBiography". Archived from the original on October 16, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-24. * ^ " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
remembered by Google with a doodle". _The Times of India _. November 30, 2011. Retrieved November 30, 2011. * ^ Thomson, David, In Nevada: The Land, The People, God, and Chance, New York: Vintage Books, 2000. ISBN 0-679-77758-X p. 35 * ^ Mark Twain, _The Jumping Frog: In English, Then in French, and Then Clawed Back into a Civilized Language Once More by Patient, Unremunerated Toil_, illustrated by F. Strothman, New York and London, Harper & Brothers, Publishers, MCMIII, pp. 64–66. * ^ "Obituary (New York Times)". Retrieved 2009-12-27. * ^ Jelliffe, Robert A. (1956). _Faulkner at Nagano_. Tokyo: Kenkyusha, Ltd. * ^ "Inventing Mark Twain". 1997. _The New York Times_. * ^ Kaplan, Fred (October 2007). "Chapter 1: The Best Boy You Had 1835–1847". _The Singular Mark Twain_. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-47715-5 . Cited in "Excerpt: _The Singular Mark Twain_". About.com: Literature: Classic. Retrieved 2006-10-11. * ^ Jeffrey L. (Ed) Egge. _The Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine, Volume 41_. p. 1. * ^ Michelle K Smith (December 31, 2014). "Mark Twain\'s ancestor was "witchfinder general" in Belfast trial". * ^ Kathryn Stelmach Artuso. _Transatlantic Renaissances: Literature of Ireland and the American South_. p. 5. * ^ Lyman Horace Weeks. _Genealogy Volume 1-2; a weekly journal of American ancestry_. p. 202. * ^ "Mark Twain\'s Family Tree" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-01-01. * ^ "Mark Twain, American Author and Humorist". Retrieved 2006-10-25. * ^ Lindborg, Henry J. _Adventures of Huckleberry Finn_. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009. Retrieved 2006-11-11. * ^ " John Marshall
John Marshall
Clemens". State Historical Society of Missouri. Retrieved 2007-10-29. * ^ "Welcome to the Mark Twain House& Museum - Biography of Mark Twain". _marktwainhouse.org_. * ^ Philip S. Foner, _Mark Twain: Social Critic_ (New York: International Publishers, 1958), p. 13, cited in Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain
Mark Twain
they didn't teach us about in school" (2000) in the _International Socialist Review _ 10, Winter 2000, pp. 61–65, at * ^ Clemens, Samuel L. _Life on the Mississippi_, pp. 32, 37, 45, 57, 78, Harper & Brothers, New York and London, 1917. * ^ Smith, Harriet Elinor, ed. (2010). _Autobiography of Mark Twain: Volume 1_. University of California Press
University of California Press
. ISBN 978-0-520-26719-0 . * ^ For a further account of Twain's involvement with parapsychology, see Blum, Deborah, _Ghost Hunters: William James and the Search for Scientific Proof of Life After Death_ (Penguin Press, 2006). * ^ _A_ _B_ " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Biography". The Hannibal Courier-Post. Retrieved 2008-11-25. * ^ Clemens, Samuel L. _Roughing It_, p. 19, American Publishing Company, Hartford, CT, 1872. ISBN 0-87052-707-X . * ^ J. R. Lemaster (1993). _The Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Encyclopedia_. Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN 9780824072124 . * ^ _Comstock Commotion: The Story of the Territorial Enterprise and Virginia
Virginia
City News_, Chapter 2. * ^ " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
quotations". * ^ For further information, see Mark Twain in Nevada. * ^ Dickson, Samuel. _Isadora Duncan (1878–1927)_. The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. Retrieved July 9, 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Samuel Clemens". PBS:The West. Retrieved 2007-08-25. * ^ Mark Twain; Edgar Marquess Branch; Michael B. Frank; Kenneth M. Sanderson (January 1, 1990). _Mark Twain\'s Letters: 1867–1868_. Books.google.com. ISBN 9780520906075 . * ^ "Concerning Mark Twain". _The Week : a Canadian journal of politics, literature, science and arts_. 1 (11): 171. February 14, 1884. Retrieved April 26, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Scott, Helen (Winter 2000). "The Mark Twain They Didn't Teach Us About in School". 10. International Socialist Review: 61–65. * ^ "Mrs. Jacques Samossoud Dies; Mark Twain's Last Living Child; Released 'Letters From Earth'". New York Times. November 21, 1962. San Diego, Nov. 20 (UPI) Mrs. Clara Langhorne Clemens Samossoud, the last living child of Mark Twain, died last night in Sharp Memorial Hospital. She was 88 years old. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Twain\'s Home in Elmira". Elmira CollegeCenter for Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Studies. Retrieved May 1, 2011. * ^ Hal Bush (Christmas 2010). "A Week at Quarry Farm". _The Cresset_, A review of literature, the arts, and public affairs, Valparaiso University
Valparaiso University
. Retrieved May 1, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Granted His First Patent on December 19, 1871". United States Patent and Trademark Office
United States Patent and Trademark Office
. December 18, 2001. * ^ J. Niemann, Paul (November 2004). _Invention Mysteries (Invention Mysteries Series)_. Horsefeathers Publishing Company. pp. 53–54. ISBN 0-9748041-0-X . * ^ _The Only Footage of Mark Twain
Mark Twain
in Existence - Smithsonian.com_, retrieved 2017-01-13 * ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2017. * ^ " Mark Twain Housewebsite – Paige Compositorpage". Marktwainhouse.org. Retrieved 2010-12-30. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Kirk, Connie Ann (2004). _Mark Twain – A Biography_. Connecticut: Greenwood Printing. ISBN 0-313-33025-5 . * ^ Albert Bigelow Paine. "Mark Twain, A Biography, Chapter CLXXV(175): "The Claimant"—Leaving Hartford". Retrieved November 25, 2014. * ^ Albert Bigelow Paine. "Mark Twain, A Biography, Chapters CLXXVI(176) to CXC(190)". Retrieved November 25, 2014. * ^ Lauber, John. _The Inventions of Mark Twain: a Biography_. New York: Hill and Wang, 1990. * ^ Albert Bigelow Paine. "Mark Twain, A Biography, Chapter CLXXXVIII(188): Failure". Retrieved November 25, 2014. * ^ Shillingsburg, M. "Smythe, Robert Sparrow (1833–1917)". _ Australian Dictionary of Biography_. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved August 30, 2013. * ^ Barbara Schmidt. "Chronology of Known Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Speeches, Public Readings, and Lectures". marktwainquotes.com. Retrieved February 7, 2010. * ^ Cox, James M. _Mark Twain: The Fate of Humor_. Princeton University Press, 1966. * ^ Rasmussen, R. Kent (2007). _Critical Companion to Mark Twain: A Literary Reference to His Life and Work_. New York: Facts on File. p. 723. ISBN 0-8160-6225-0 . * ^ Albert Bigelow Paine. "Mark Twain, A Biography, Chapter Chapter CXCII(188): "Following the Equator"". Retrieved November 30, 2014. * ^ Albert Bigelow Paine. "Mark Twain, A Biography, Chapter Chapter CXCII(188): "Following the Equator"". Retrieved November 30, 2014. * ^ Albert Bigelow Paine. "Mark Twain, A Biography, Chapters CXCIV(194) to CCXI(211)". Retrieved November 30, 2014. * ^ Ober, K. Patrick (2003). _ Mark Twain
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Press . pp. 153–161. ISBN 0-8262-1502-5 . * ^ "History of Dollis Hill House". Dollis Hill HouseTrust. 2006. Retrieved 2007-07-03. * ^ Zwick, Jim (2002). " Mark Twain
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Reference Library Blog_. Retrieved 2 January 2017. * ^ "Chapters from My Autobiography", _North American Review_, 21 September 1906, p. 160. Mark Twain * ^ Oleksinski, Johnny. Find out if New York’s greatest writers lived next door. _The New York Post_ April 14, 2017, http://nypost.com/2017/04/14/find-out-if-new-yorks-greatest-writers-lived-next-door/ Accessed April 14, 2017 * ^ "The Mark Twain
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House". Archived from the original on October 16, 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-17. * ^ TwainQuotes.com _The Story Behind the A. F. Bradley Photos_, Retrieved on July 10, 2009. * ^ LeMaster J. R., The Mark Twain
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Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, 1993 p. 28 * ^ _ New York Times
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_, March 16, 1962, DOROTHY QUICK, POET AND AUTHOR: Mystery Writer Dies – Was Friend of Mark Twain * ^ Albert Bigelow Paine. "Mark Twain, a Biography". Retrieved 2006-11-01. * ^ Esther Lombardi, about.com . " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
(Samuel Langhorne Clemens)". Retrieved 2006-11-01. * ^ " Mark Twain
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is Dead at 74. End Comes Peacefully at His New England Home After a Long Illness.". _The New York Times_. April 22, 1910. Danbury, Connecticut, April 21, 1910. Samuel Langhorne Clemens, "Mark Twain", died at 22 minutes after 6 to-night. Beside him on the bed lay a beloved book – it was Carlyle's _French Revolution_ – and near the book his glasses, pushed away with a weary sigh a few hours before. Too weak to speak clearly, he had written, "Give me my glasses", on a piece of paper. * ^ "Mark Twain\'s funeral". Twainquotes.com. Retrieved 2008-12-04.

* ^ "Elmira Travel Information". Go-new-york.com. Retrieved 2010-12-30. * ^ " Mark Twain
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Estate About Half Million", _New York Times_, 1911-07-15. Retrieved 2014-05-08. * ^ Nicky Woolf. " Mark Twain
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stories, 150 years old, uncovered by Berkeley scholars". _the Guardian_. * ^ Baskin, R. N. (Robert Newton); Madsen, Brigham D. (2006). _Reminiscences of early Utah : with, Reply to certain statements by O. F. Whitne_. Salt Lake City: Signature Books. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-56085-193-6 . * ^ Henderson, Archibald (1912). "The Humorist". _Mark Twain_. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company. p. 99. * ^ Gary Scharnhorst, ed. (November 28, 2010). _Twain in His Own Time: A Biographical Chronicle of His Life, Drawn from Recollections, Interviews, and Memoirs by Family, Friends, and Associates_. _Writers in Their Own Time_ (first ed.). University of Iowa Press. p. 290. ISBN 978-1-58729-914-8 . * ^ DeQuille, Dan; Twain, Mark (July 1893). "Reporting With Mark Twain". The Californian Illustrated Magazine. * ^ "The Sagebrush SchoolNevada Writers Hall of Fame 2009". University of Nevada, Reno
University of Nevada, Reno
. October 28, 2009. Retrieved February 26, 2012. * ^ Reading the American Novel 1865 – 1914 G. R. Thompson; John Wiley 462 pages; p. 29 * ^ Powers, Ron (2005). _Mark Twain: A Life_. New York: Free Press. pp. 471–473. ISBN 978-0-7432-4899-0 . * ^ from Chapter 1 of The Green Hills of Africa * ^ "American Experience – People & Events: Samuel Langhorne Clemens, 1835–1910". PBS. Retrieved 2007-11-28. * ^ _A_ _B_ Twain, Mark. Fenimore Cooper\'s Literary Offenses. From Collected Tales, Sketches, Speeches and Essays, from 1891–1910. Edited by Louis J. Budd. New York: Library of America, 1992. * ^ Feinstein, George W (January 1948). "Twain as Forerunner of Tooth-and-Claw Criticism". _Modern Language Notes_. 63 (1): 49–50. JSTOR
JSTOR
2908644 . doi :10.2307/2908644 . * ^ "After keeping us waiting for a century, Mark Twain
Mark Twain
will finally reveal all" The Independent 23 May 2010 Retrieved May 29, 2010 * ^ "Dead for a Century, He\'s Ready to Say What He Really Meant" The New York Times
New York Times
9 July 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2010. * ^ "Mark Twain\'s Big Book". _NY Times_. November 26, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-27. an enormous hit, apparently much to the surprise of its publisher * ^ Schuessler, Jennifer. "Hardcover Nonfiction – List". NY Times. * ^ Murray, Stuart A. P. "The Library: An Illustrated History", New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2012, p. 189. * ^ Frederick Anderson, ed., A Pen Warmed Up in Hell: Mark Twain
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in Protest (New York: Harper, 1972), p. 8, cited in Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain
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they didn't teach us about in school" (2000) in _International Socialist Review_ 10, Winter 2000, pp. 61–65 * ^ "Mark Twain\'s Letters 1886-1900". _ Mark Twain
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Classic Literature Library_. Retrieved 8 January 2015. * ^ David Zmijewski, "The Man in Both Corners: Mark Twain
Mark Twain
the Shadowboxing Imperialist", _Hawaiian Journal of History_, 2006, Vol. 40, pp. 55–73 * ^ Paine, ed. _Letters_ 2:663; Ron Powers, _Mark Twain: a life_ (2005) p. 593 * ^ From Andrew Jay Hoffman, _Inventing Mark Twain: The Lives of Samuel Langhorne Clemens_ (New York: William Morrow, 1997), cited in Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain
Mark Twain
they didn't teach us about in school" (2000) in _International Socialist Review_ 10, Winter 2000, pp. 61–65 * ^ " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Home, An Anti-Imperialist" (PDF). _New York Herald _. October 16, 1900. p. 4. Retrieved October 25, 2014. * ^ Twain, Mark (7 November 2007). _ Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Speeches_. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-4346-7879-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _Mark Twain's Weapons of Satire: Anti-Imperialist Writings on the Philippine-American War_. (1992, Jim Zwick, ed.) ISBN 0-8156-0268-5 * ^ "Comments on the Moro Massacre". by Samuel Clemens (March 12, 1906). History is a Weapon. * ^ Adam Hochschild (1998). _King Leopold's ghost : a story of greed, terror, and heroism in colonial Africa_. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-75924-0 . OCLC
OCLC
39042794 . * ^ Jeremy Harding (September 20, 1998). "Into Africa". _New York Times_. * ^ Maxwell Geismar, ed., _ Mark Twain
Mark Twain
and the Three Rs: Race, Religion, Revolution and Related Matters_ (Indianapolis: Bobs-Merrill, 1973), p. 169, cited in Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain
Mark Twain
they didn't teach us about in school" (2000) in _International Socialist Review_ 10, Winter 2000, pp. 61–65 * ^ Maxwell Geismar, ed., Mark Twain
Mark Twain
and the Three Rs: Race, Religion, Revolution and Related Matters (Indianapolis: Bobs-Merrill, 1973), p. 159 * ^ Philip S. Foner, _Mark Twain: Social Critic_ (New York: International Publishers, 1958), p. 200 * ^ Maxwell Geismar, ed., _ Mark Twain
Mark Twain
and the Three Rs: Race, Religion, Revolution and Related Matters_ (Indianapolis: Bobs-Merrill, 1973), p. 98 * ^ Paine, A. B., Mark Twain: A Biography, Harper, 1912 p. 701 * ^ "Mark Twain, Indian Hater". Blue Corn Comics. May 28, 2001. Retrieved 2008-07-09. * ^ Twain, Mark, In defense of Harriet Shelley and Other Essays, Harper & Brothers, 1918. p. 68 * ^ Twain, Mark. 2008. _Following the Equator_. pp. 94–98 * ^ " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
in India". Amritt. 2009. * ^ "The Votes for Women Speech by Mark Twain". Famousquotes.me.uk. May 25, 2007. Retrieved 2009-10-16. * ^ Philip S. Foner, _Mark Twain: Social Critic_ (New York: International Publishers, 1958), p. 98 * ^ Philip S. Foner, _Mark Twain: Social Critic_ (New York: International Publishers, 1958), p. 169, cited in Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain
Mark Twain
they didn't teach us about in school" (2000) in _International Socialist Review_ 10, Winter 2000, pp. 61–65 * ^ Twain Quotes - Presbyterian
Presbyterian
_But we were good boys...we didn't break the Sabbath often enough to signify – once a week perhaps... Anyway, we were good Presbyterian
Presbyterian
boys when the weather was doubtful; when it was fair, we did wander a little from the fold._ 67th Birthday Speech * ^ Huberman, Jack (2007). _The Quotable Atheist_. Nation Books. pp. 303–304. ISBN 978-1-56025-969-5 . * ^ "America\'s dark and not-very-distant history of hating Catholics". The Guardian. September 18, 2016. * ^ Dempsey, Terrell, BOOK REVIEW: Mark Twain\'s Religion. William E. Phipps 2004 Mark Twain
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Forum * ^ _Letters from Earth_. Ostara publications. 2013. p. back cover.

* ^ Twain, Mark, ed. by Paul Baender. 1973. What is man?: and other philosophical writings. p. 56 * ^ Phipps, William E., Mark Twain\'s Religion, pp. 263–266, 2003 Mercer Univ. Press * ^ Twain, Mark, ed. by Paul Baender. 1973. What is man?: and other philosophical writings. pp.10, 486 * ^ Mark Twain, "To the Person Sitting in Darkness", _The North American Review_ 182:531 (February 1901):161–176; jstor.org * ^ Mark Twain, "To My Missionary
Missionary
Critics", _The North American Review_ 172 (April 1901):520–534; jstor.org * ^ Gelb, Arthur (August 24, 1962). "Anti-Religious Work by Twain, Long Withheld, to Be Published". _The New York Times
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_. p. 23. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved 2008-04-22. * ^ Twain, Mark (1972). "Little Bessie". In John S. Tuckey (ed.), Kenneth M. Sanderson (ed.), Bernard L. Stein (ed.), Frederick Anderson (ed.). _Mark Twain's Fables of Man_. California: University of California Press . ISBN 978-0-520-02039-9 . CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * ^ "Church Aided by Twain Is in a Demolition Dispute". _The New York Times_. Associated Press
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. April 2, 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-05. * ^ _A_ _B_ Paine, Albert Bigelow, The Adventures of Mark Twain, p. 281, Kessinger 2004 * ^ Goy-Blanquet, Dominique, Joan of Arc, a saint for all reasons: studies in myth and politics, p. 132, 2003 Ashgate Publishing * ^ Phipps, William E., Mark Twain\'s Religion, p. 304, 2003 Mercer Univ. Press * ^ PBS NewsHour
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(July 7, 2010). "Mark Twain\'s Autobiography Set for Unveiling, a Century After His Death". Retrieved July 7, 2010. * ^ "Grand Master of Missouri
Missouri
Lecture". * ^ " Mark Twain
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Masonic Awareness Award: About The Award". Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. * ^ Kathryn Jenkins Gordon (August 18, 2015). "What Mark Twain Really Thought About Mormons". _LDS Living_. Retrieved 2015-10-27. * ^ _ Roughing It_ – Chapter 16 * ^ Adam Gopnik (August 13, 2012). "I, Nephi". _ The New Yorker
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_. Retrieved 2015-10-27. * ^ Mark Twain, Letter to Sidney G. Trist, Editor of the _Animals\' Friend Magazine_, in his capacity as Secretary of the London Anti- VivisectionSociety (26 May 1899), in _Mark Twain's Notebooks_, ed. Carlo De Vito (Black Dog & Leventhal, 2015). * ^ " Mark Twain
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Quotations – Vivisection". Retrieved 2006-10-24. * ^ _ Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Snodgrass_, (Charles Honce, James Bennet, ed.), Pascal Covici, Chicago, 1928 * ^ "Matthew 27:51 at that moment the curtain of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom. The earth shook, the rocks split". Bible.cc. Retrieved 2013-12-07. * ^ _Life on the Mississippi_, chapter 50 * ^ Williams, III, George (1999). " Mark Twain
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Leaves Virginia
Virginia
City for San Francisco". _ Mark Twain
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and the Jumping Frog of Calaveras County: How Mark Twain's humorous frog story launched his legendary career_. Tree by the River Publishing. ISBN 0-935174-45-1 . Cited in "Excerpt: _The Singular Mark Twain_". Retrieved 2007-06-26. * ^ "Mark Twain\'s Nom de Plume." _American Literature_, v 34, n 1 (March 1962), pp 1–7. doi :10.2307/2922241 . * ^ "Autobiography of Mark Twain." _Volume 2; 10 September 1906_, (2013, 2008), Paragraph 4. * ^ Lemaster, J. R; Wilson, James Darrell; Hamric, Christie Graves (1993). _The Mark Twain
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FURTHER READING

_ Samuel L. Clemens stamp, 1940

* Lucius Beebe. Comstock Commotion: The Story of the Territorial Enterprise and Virginia
Virginia
City News_, Stanford University Press, 1954 ISBN 1-122-18798-X * Louis J. Budd, ed. _Mark Twain, Collected Tales, Sketches, Speeches & Essays 1891–1910_ ( Library of America, 1992) (ISBN 978-0-940450-73-8 ) * Ken Burns, Dayton Duncan
Dayton Duncan
, and Geoffrey C. Ward, _Mark Twain: An Illustrated Biography_. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001 (ISBN 0-375-40561-5 ) * Gregg Camfield. _The Oxford Companion to Mark Twain_. New York: Oxford University
Oxford University
Press, 2002 (ISBN 0-19-510710-1 ) * Guy Cardwell, ed. _Mark Twain, Mississippi Writings_, (Library of America , 1982) (ISBN 978-0-940450-07-3 ) * Guy Cardwell, ed. _Mark Twain, The Innocents Abroad
The Innocents Abroad
& Roughing It_, ( Library of America, 1984) ISBN 978-0-940450-25-7 * James M. Cox. _Mark Twain: The Fate of Humor_, Princeton University Press, 1966 (ISBN 0-8262-1428-2 ) * Everett Emerson. _Mark Twain: A Literary Life_, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000 (ISBN 0-8122-3516-9 ) * Shelley Fisher Fishkin, ed. _A Historical Guide to Mark Twain_. New York: Oxford University
Oxford University
Press, 2002 (ISBN 0-19-513293-9 ) * Susan K. Harris, ed. _Mark Twain, Historical Romances_ (Library of America , 1994) (ISBN 978-0-940450-82-0 ) * Hamlin L. Hill, ed. _Mark Twain, The Gilded Ageand Later Novels_ ( Library of America, 2002) ISBN 978-1-931082-10-5 * Jason Gary Horn. _Mark Twain: A Descriptive Guide to Biographical Sources_, Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1999 (ISBN 0-8108-3630-0 ) * William Dean Howells
William Dean Howells
. _My Mark Twain_, Mineloa, New York: Dover Publications, 1997 (ISBN 0-486-29640-7 ) * Fred Kaplan . _The Singular Mark Twain: A Biography_, New York: Doubleday, 2003 (ISBN 0-385-47715-5 ) * Justin Kaplan. _Mr. Clemens and Mark Twain: A Biography_, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966 (ISBN 0-671-74807-6 ) * J. R. LeMaster and James D. Wilson, eds. _The Mark Twain Encyclopedia_, New York: Garland, 1993 (ISBN 0-8240-7212-X ) * Andrew Levy, _Huck Finn's America: Mark Twain
Mark Twain
and the Era that Shaped His Masterpiece._ New York: Simon and Schuster, 2015. * Jerome Loving, _Mark Twain: The Adventures of Samuel L. Clemens._ Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2010. * Bruce Michelson, _