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Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. Among his novels are The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
(1875) and its sequel, the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
(1885),[2] the latter often called "The Great American Novel". Twain was raised in Hannibal, Missouri, which later provided the setting for Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
and Huckleberry Finn. He served an apprenticeship with a printer and then worked as a typesetter, contributing articles to the newspaper of his older brother Orion Clemens. He later became a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before heading west to join Orion in Nevada. He referred humorously to his lack of success at mining, turning to journalism for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise.[3] His humorous story, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County", was published in 1865, based on a story that he heard at Angels Hotel
Angels Hotel
in Angels Camp, California
Angels Camp, California
where he had spent some time as a miner. The short story brought international attention and was even translated into French.[4] His wit and satire, in prose and in speech, earned praise from critics and peers, and he was a friend to presidents, artists, industrialists, and European royalty. Twain earned a great deal of money from his writings and lectures, but he invested in ventures that lost most of it—notably the Paige Compositor, a mechanical typesetter that failed because of its complexity and imprecision. He filed for bankruptcy in the wake of these financial setbacks, but he eventually overcame his financial troubles with the help of Henry Huttleston Rogers. He chose to pay all his pre-bankruptcy creditors in full, even after he had no legal responsibility to do so. Twain was born shortly after an appearance of Halley's Comet, and he predicted that he would "go out with it" as well; he died the day after the comet returned. He was lauded as the "greatest humorist this country has produced",[5] and William Faulkner
William Faulkner
called him "the father of American literature".[6]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life 1.2 Travels 1.3 Marriage and children 1.4 Love of science and technology 1.5 Financial troubles 1.6 Speaking engagements

1.6.1 Canadian visits

1.7 Later life and death

2 Writing

2.1 Overview 2.2 Early journalism and travelogues 2.3 Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
and Huckleberry Finn 2.4 Later writing 2.5 Censorship

3 Views

3.1 Anti-imperialist 3.2 Civil rights 3.3 Labor 3.4 Religion 3.5 Vivisection

4 Pen names 5 Legacy and depictions

5.1 Trademark white suit

6 Bibliography 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Biography Early life

Samuel Clemens, age 15

Mark Twain
Mark Twain
was born Samuel Langhorne Clemens on November 30, 1835, in Florida, Missouri, the sixth of seven children born to Jane (née Lampton; 1803–1890), a native of Kentucky, and John Marshall
John Marshall
Clemens (1798–1847), a native of Virginia. His parents met when his father moved to Missouri, and they were married in 1823.[7][8] Twain was of Cornish, English, and Scots-Irish descent.[9][10][11][12] Only three of his siblings survived childhood: Orion (1825–1897), Henry (1838–1858), and Pamela (1827–1904). His sister Margaret (1830–1839) died when Twain was three, and his brother Benjamin (1832–1842) died three years later. His brother Pleasant Hannibal (1828) died at three weeks of age.[13][14] When he was four, Twain's family moved to Hannibal, Missouri,[15] a port town on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
that inspired the fictional town of St. Petersburg in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
and the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.[16] Slavery was legal in Missouri
Missouri
at the time, and it became a theme in these writings. His father was an attorney and judge, who died of pneumonia in 1847, when Twain was 11.[17] The next year, Twain left school after the fifth grade to become a printer's apprentice.[1] In 1851 he began working as a typesetter, contributing articles and humorous sketches to the Hannibal Journal, a newspaper that Orion owned. When he was 18, he left Hannibal and worked as a printer in New York City, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Cincinnati, joining the newly formed International Typographical Union, the printers trade union. He educated himself in public libraries in the evenings, finding wider information than at a conventional school.[18] Twain describes his boyhood in Life on the Mississippi, stating that "there was but one permanent ambition" among his comrades: to be a steamboatman.

Pilot was the grandest position of all. The pilot, even in those days of trivial wages, had a princely salary – from a hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty dollars a month, and no board to pay.

As Twain describes it, the pilot's prestige exceeded that of the captain. The pilot had to:

…get up a warm personal acquaintanceship with every old snag and one-limbed cottonwood and every obscure wood pile that ornaments the banks of this river for twelve hundred miles; and more than that, must… actually know where these things are in the dark

Steamboat
Steamboat
pilot Horace E. Bixby took Twain on as a cub pilot to teach him the river between New Orleans
New Orleans
and St. Louis
St. Louis
for $500, payable out of Twain's first wages after graduating. Twain studied the Mississippi, learning its landmarks, how to navigate its currents effectively, and how to read the river and its constantly shifting channels, reefs, submerged snags, and rocks that would "tear the life out of the strongest vessel that ever floated".[19] It was more than two years before he received his pilot's license. Piloting also gave him his pen name from "mark twain", the leadsman's cry for a measured river depth of two fathoms (12 feet), which was safe water for a steamboat.[20] While training, Samuel convinced his younger brother Henry to work with him. Henry was killed on June 21, 1858, when their steamboat Pennsylvania exploded. Twain claimed to have foreseen this death in a dream a month earlier,[21]:275 which inspired his interest in parapsychology; he was an early member of the Society for Psychical Research.[22] Twain was guilt-stricken and held himself responsible for the rest of his life. He continued to work on the river and was a river pilot until the Civil War broke out in 1861, when traffic was curtailed along the Mississippi River. At the start of hostilities, he enlisted briefly in a local Confederate unit. He later wrote the sketch "The Private History of a Campaign That Failed", describing how he and his friends had been Confederate volunteers for two weeks before disbanding.[23] He then left for Nevada to work for Orion, who was Secretary of the Nevada Territory. Twain describes the episode in his book Roughing It.[24][25]:147 Travels

Twain in 1867

Orion became secretary to Nevada Territory
Nevada Territory
governor James W. Nye
James W. Nye
in 1861, and Twain joined him when he moved west. The brothers traveled more than two weeks on a stagecoach across the Great Plains
Great Plains
and the Rocky Mountains, visiting the Mormon community in Salt Lake City. Twain's journey ended in the silver-mining town of Virginia
Virginia
City, Nevada, where he became a miner on the Comstock Lode.[23] He failed as a miner and went to work at the Virginia
Virginia
City newspaper Territorial Enterprise,[26] working under a friend, the writer Dan DeQuille. He first used his pen name here on February 3, 1863, when he wrote a humorous travel account entitled "Letter From Carson – re: Joe Goodman; party at Gov. Johnson's; music" and signed it "Mark Twain".[27][28] His experiences in the American West inspired Roughing It, written during 1870–71 and published in 1872. His experiences in Angels Camp (in Calaveras County, California) provided material for "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" (1865). Twain moved to San Francisco
San Francisco
in 1864, still as a journalist, and met writers such as Bret Harte
Bret Harte
and Artemus Ward. He may have been romantically involved with the poet Ina Coolbrith.[29] His first success as a writer came when his humorous tall tale "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" was published on November 18, 1865, in the New York weekly The Saturday Press, bringing him national attention. A year later, he traveled to the Sandwich Islands (present day Hawaii) as a reporter for the Sacramento Union. His letters to the Union were popular and became the basis for his first lectures.[30] In 1867, a local newspaper funded his trip to the Mediterranean aboard the Quaker City, including a tour of Europe
Europe
and the Middle East. He wrote a collection of travel letters which were later compiled as The Innocents Abroad (1869). It was on this trip that he met fellow passenger Charles Langdon, who showed him a picture of his sister Olivia. Twain later claimed to have fallen in love at first sight.[31] Upon returning to the United States, Twain was offered honorary membership in Yale University's secret society Scroll and Key
Scroll and Key
in 1868.[32] Its devotion to "fellowship, moral and literary self-improvement, and charity" suited him well. Marriage and children

Twain house in Hartford, Connecticut

Twain and Olivia Langdon
Olivia Langdon
corresponded throughout 1868. She rejected his first marriage proposal, but they were married in Elmira, New York in February 1870,[30] where he courted her and managed to overcome her father's initial reluctance.[33] She came from a "wealthy but liberal family"; through her, he met abolitionists, "socialists, principled atheists and activists for women's rights and social equality", including Harriet Beecher Stowe
Harriet Beecher Stowe
(his next-door neighbor in Hartford, Connecticut), Frederick Douglass, and writer and utopian socialist William Dean Howells,[34] who became a long-time friend. The couple lived in Buffalo, New York, from 1869 to 1871. He owned a stake in the Buffalo Express newspaper and worked as an editor and writer. While they were living in Buffalo, their son Langdon died of diphtheria at the age of 19 months. They had three daughters: Susy (1872–1896), Clara (1874–1962),[35] and Jean (1880–1909).

Library of Twain House, with hand-stenciled paneling, fireplaces from India, embossed wallpaper, and hand-carved mantel from Scotland

Twain moved his family to Hartford, Connecticut, where he arranged the building of a home starting in 1873. In the 1870s and 1880s, the family summered at Quarry Farm
Quarry Farm
in Elmira, the home of Olivia's sister, Susan Crane.[36][37] In 1874,[36] Susan had a study built apart from the main house so that Twain would have a quiet place in which to write. Also, he smoked cigars constantly, and Susan did not want him to do so in her house. Twain wrote many of his classic novels during his 17 years in Hartford (1874–1891) and over 20 summers at Quarry Farm. They include The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
(1876), The Prince and the Pauper
The Prince and the Pauper
(1881), Life on the Mississippi
Life on the Mississippi
(1883), Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
(1885), and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
(1889).[citation needed] The couple's marriage lasted 34 years until Olivia's death in 1904. All of the Clemens family are buried in Elmira's Woodlawn Cemetery. Love of science and technology

Twain in the lab of Nikola Tesla, early 1894

Twain was fascinated with science and scientific inquiry. He developed a close and lasting friendship with Nikola Tesla, and the two spent much time together in Tesla's laboratory. Twain patented three inventions, including an "Improvement in Adjustable and Detachable Straps for Garments" (to replace suspenders) and a history trivia game.[38][39] Most commercially successful was a self-pasting scrapbook; a dried adhesive on the pages needed only to be moistened before use.[38] Over 25,000 were sold.[38] Twain's novel A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
(1889) features a time traveler from the contemporary U.S., using his knowledge of science to introduce modern technology to Arthurian England. This type of storyline became a common feature of the science fiction subgenre alternate history. In 1909, Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
visited Twain at his home in Redding, Connecticut and filmed him. Part of the footage was used in The Prince and the Pauper (1909), a two-reel short film. It is said to be the only known existing film footage of Twain.[40] Financial troubles Twain made a substantial amount of money through his writing, but he lost a great deal through investments. He invested mostly in new inventions and technology, particularly in the Paige typesetting machine. It was a beautifully engineered mechanical marvel that amazed viewers when it worked, but it was prone to breakdowns. Twain spent $300,000 (equal to $8,000,000 in inflation-adjusted terms [41]) on it between 1880 and 1894,[42] but before it could be perfected it was rendered obsolete by the Linotype. He lost the bulk of his book profits, as well as a substantial portion of his wife's inheritance.[43] Twain also lost money through his publishing house of Charles L. Webster and Company, which enjoyed initial success selling the memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
but failed soon afterward, losing money on a biography of Pope Leo XIII. Fewer than 200 copies were sold.[43] Twain and his family closed down their expensive Hartford home in response to the dwindling income and moved to Europe
Europe
in June 1891. William M. Laffan of The New York Sun and the McClure Newspaper Syndicate offered him the publication of a series of six European letters. Twain, Olivia, and their daughter Susy were all faced with health problems, and they believed that it would be of benefit to visit European baths.[44]:175 The family stayed mainly in France, Germany, and Italy until May 1895, with longer spells at Berlin (winter 1891/92), Florence
Florence
(fall and winter 1892/93), and Paris (winters and springs 1893/94 and 1894/95). During that period, Twain returned four times to New York due to his enduring business troubles. He took "a cheap room" in September 1893 at $1.50 per day at The Players Club, which he had to keep until March 1894; meanwhile, he became "the Belle of New York," in the words of biographer Albert Bigelow Paine.[44]:176–190 Twain's writings and lectures enabled him to recover financially, combined with the help of a new friend.[45] In fall 1893, he began a friendship with financier Henry Huttleston Rogers, a principal of Standard Oil, that lasted the remainder of his life. Rogers first made him file for bankruptcy in April 1894, then had him transfer the copyrights on his written works to his wife to prevent creditors from gaining possession of them. Finally, Rogers took absolute charge of Twain's money until all his creditors were paid.[44]:188 Twain accepted an offer from Robert Sparrow Smythe[46] and embarked on a year-long, around the world lecture tour in July 1895[47] to pay off his creditors in full, although he was no longer under any legal obligation to do so.[48] It was a long, arduous journey and he was sick much of the time, mostly from a cold and a carbuncle. The first part of the itinerary took him across northern America to British Columbia, Canada, until the second half of August. For the second part, he sailed across the Pacific Ocean. His scheduled lecture in Honolulu, Hawaii
Hawaii
had to be cancelled due to a cholera epidemic.[49][44]:188 Twain went on to Fiji, Australia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, India, Mauritius, and South Africa. His three months in India
India
became the centerpiece of his 712-page book Following the Equator. In the second half of July 1896, he sailed back to England, completing his circumnavigation of the world begun 14 months before.[44]:188 Twain and his family spent four more years in Europe, mainly in England and Austria
Austria
(October 1897 to May 1899), with longer spells in London and Vienna. Clara had wished to study the piano under Theodor Leschetizky in Vienna.[44]:192–211 Unfortunately, Jean's health did not benefit from consulting with specialists in Vienna, the "City of Doctors".[citation needed] The family moved to London in spring 1899, following a lead by Poultney Bigelow who had a good experience being treated by Dr. Jonas Henrik Kellgren, a Swedish osteopathic practitioner in Belgravia. They were persuaded to spend the summer at Kellgren's sanatorium by the lake in the Swedish village of Sanna. Coming back in fall, they continued the treatment in London, until Twain was convinced by lengthy inquiries in America that similar osteopathic expertise was available there.[50] In mid-1900, he was the guest of newspaper proprietor Hugh Gilzean-Reid at Dollis Hill House, located on the north side of London. Twain wrote that he had "never seen any place that was so satisfactorily situated, with its noble trees and stretch of country, and everything that went to make life delightful, and all within a biscuit's throw of the metropolis of the world."[51] He then returned to America in October 1900, having earned enough to pay off his debts. In winter 1900/01, he became his country's most prominent opponent of imperialism, raising the issue in his speeches, interviews, and writings. In January 1901, he began serving as vice-president of the Anti-Imperialist League of New York.[52] Speaking engagements

Plaque on Sydney
Sydney
Writers Walk commemorating the visit of Mark Twain
Mark Twain
in 1895

Twain was in great demand as a featured speaker, performing solo humorous talks similar to modern stand-up comedy.[53] He gave paid talks to many men's clubs, including the Authors' Club, Beefsteak Club, Vagabonds, White Friars, and Monday Evening Club of Hartford. In the late 1890s, he spoke to the Savage Club
Savage Club
in London and was elected an honorary member. He was told that only three men had been so honored, including the Prince of Wales, and he replied: "Well, it must make the Prince feel mighty fine."[44]:197 He visited Melbourne and Sydney
Sydney
in 1895 as part of a world lecture tour. In 1897, he spoke to the Concordia Press Club in Vienna
Vienna
as a special guest, following the diplomat Charlemagne Tower, Jr.
Charlemagne Tower, Jr.
He delivered the speech "Die Schrecken der deutschen Sprache" ("The Horrors of the German Language")—in German—to the great amusement of the audience.[25]:50 In 1901, he was invited to speak at Princeton University's Cliosophic Literary Society, where he was made an honorary member.[54] Canadian visits In 1881, Twain was honored at a banquet in Montreal, Canada where he made reference to securing a copyright.[55] In 1883, he paid a brief visit to Ottawa,[56] and he visited Toronto
Toronto
twice in 1884 and 1885 on a reading tour with George Washington
George Washington
Cable, known as the "Twins of Genius" tour.[57][56][58] The reason for the Toronto
Toronto
visits was to secure Canadian and British copyrights for his upcoming book Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,[58][56] to which he had alluded in his Montreal
Montreal
visit. The reason for the Ottawa
Ottawa
visit had been to secure Canadian and British copyrights for Life on the Mississippi.[56] Publishers in Toronto
Toronto
had printed unauthorized editions of his books at the time, before an international copyright agreement was established in 1891.[56] These were sold in the United States as well as in Canada, depriving him of royalties. He estimated that Belford Brothers' edition of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
alone had cost him ten thousand dollars.[56] He had unsuccessfully attempted to secure the rights for The Prince and the Pauper in 1881, in conjunction with his Montreal
Montreal
trip.[56] Eventually, he received legal advice to register a copyright in Canada (for both Canada and Britain) prior to publishing in the United States, which would restrain the Canadian publishers from printing a version when the American edition was published.[58][56] There was a requirement that a copyright be registered to a Canadian resident; he addressed this by his short visits to the country.[58][56] Later life and death

“ ... the report is greatly exaggerated. ”

—  Mark Twain
Mark Twain
when it was reported that he had died[59]

Twain lived in his later years at 14 West 10th Street in Manhattan.[60] Twain passed through a period of deep depression which began in 1896 when his daughter Susy died of meningitis. Olivia's death in 1904 and Jean's on December 24, 1909, deepened his gloom.[1] On May 20, 1909, his close friend Henry Rogers died suddenly. In 1906, Twain began his autobiography in the North American Review. In April, he heard that his friend Ina Coolbrith
Ina Coolbrith
had lost nearly all that she owned in the 1906 San Francisco
San Francisco
earthquake, and he volunteered a few autographed portrait photographs to be sold for her benefit. To further aid Coolbrith, George Wharton James
George Wharton James
visited Twain in New York and arranged for a new portrait session. He was resistant initially, but he eventually admitted that four of the resulting images were the finest ones ever taken of him.[61]

Mark Twain
Mark Twain
photographed in 1908 via the Autochrome Lumiere
Autochrome Lumiere
process

Twain formed a club in 1906 for girls whom he viewed as surrogate granddaughters called the Angel Fish and Aquarium Club. The dozen or so members ranged in age from 10 to 16. He exchanged letters with his "Angel Fish" girls and invited them to concerts and the theatre and to play games. Twain wrote in 1908 that the club was his "life's chief delight".[25]:28 In 1907, he met Dorothy Quick (aged 11) on a transatlantic crossing, beginning "a friendship that was to last until the very day of his death".[62] Oxford University
Oxford University
awarded Twain an honorary doctorate in letters in 1907. Twain was born two weeks after Halley's Comet's closest approach in 1835; he said in 1909:[44]

I came in with Halley's Comet
Halley's Comet
in 1835. It is coming again next year, and I expect to go out with it. It will be the greatest disappointment of my life if I don't go out with Halley's Comet. The Almighty has said, no doubt: "Now here are these two unaccountable freaks; they came in together, they must go out together".

Twain's prediction was accurate; he died of a heart attack on April 21, 1910, in Redding, Connecticut, one day after the comet's closest approach to Earth.

Mark Twain
Mark Twain
headstone in Woodlawn Cemetery

Upon hearing of Twain's death, President William Howard Taft said:[63][64]

Mark Twain
Mark Twain
gave pleasure – real intellectual enjoyment – to millions, and his works will continue to give such pleasure to millions yet to come … His humor was American, but he was nearly as much appreciated by Englishmen and people of other countries as by his own countrymen. He has made an enduring part of American literature.

Twain's funeral was at the "Old Brick" Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in New York.[65] He is buried in his wife's family plot at Woodlawn Cemetery in Elmira, New York. The Langdon family plot is marked by a 12-foot monument (two fathoms, or "mark twain") placed there by his surviving daughter Clara.[66] There is also a smaller headstone. He expressed a preference for cremation (for example, in Life on the Mississippi), but he acknowledged that his surviving family would have the last word. Officials in Connecticut and New York estimated the value of Twain's estate at $471,000 ($12,000,000 today).[67] Writing Overview

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Mark Twain
Mark Twain
in his gown (scarlet with grey sleeves and facings) for his D.Litt.
D.Litt.
degree, awarded to him by Oxford University

Twain began his career writing light, humorous verse, but he became a chronicler of the vanities, hypocrisies, and murderous acts of mankind. At mid-career, he combined rich humor, sturdy narrative, and social criticism in Huckleberry Finn. He was a master of rendering colloquial speech and helped to create and popularize a distinctive American literature
American literature
built on American themes and language. Many of his works have been suppressed at times for various reasons. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
has been repeatedly restricted in American high schools, not least for its frequent use of the word "nigger",[citation needed] which was in common usage in the pre-Civil War period in which the novel was set. A complete bibliography of Twain's works is nearly impossible to compile because of the vast number of pieces he wrote (often in obscure newspapers) and his use of several different pen names. Additionally, a large portion of his speeches and lectures have been lost or were not recorded; thus, the compilation of Twain's works is an ongoing process. Researchers rediscovered published material as recently as 1995 and 2015.[43][68] Early journalism and travelogues Twain was writing for the Virginia
Virginia
City newspaper the Territorial Enterprise in 1863 when he met lawyer Tom Fitch, editor of the competing newspaper Virginia
Virginia
Daily Union and known as the "silver-tongued orator of the Pacific".[69]:51 He credited Fitch with giving him his "first really profitable lesson" in writing. "When I first began to lecture, and in my earlier writings," Twain later commented, "my sole idea was to make comic capital out of everything I saw and heard."[70] In 1866, he presented his lecture on the Sandwich Islands to a crowd in Washoe City, Nevada.[71] Afterwards, Fitch told him:

Clemens, your lecture was magnificent. It was eloquent, moving, sincere. Never in my entire life have I listened to such a magnificent piece of descriptive narration. But you committed one unpardonable sin – the unpardonable sin. It is a sin you must never commit again. You closed a most eloquent description, by which you had keyed your audience up to a pitch of the intensest interest, with a piece of atrocious anti-climax which nullified all the really fine effect you had produced.[72]

Cabin where Twain wrote "Jumping Frog of Calaveras County", Jackass Hill, Tuolumne County. Click on historical marker and interior view.

It was in these days that Twain became a writer of the Sagebrush School; he was known later as the most notable within the genre.[73] His first important work was "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County," published in the New York Saturday Press on November 18, 1865. After a burst of popularity, the Sacramento Union
Sacramento Union
commissioned him to write letters about his travel experiences. The first journey that he took for this job was to ride the steamer Ajax on its maiden voyage to the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii). All the while, he was writing letters to the newspaper that were meant for publishing, chronicling his experiences with humor. These letters proved to be the genesis to his work with the San Francisco
San Francisco
Alta California newspaper, which designated him a traveling correspondent for a trip from San Francisco to New York City
New York City
via the Panama isthmus. On June 8, 1867, he set sail on the pleasure cruiser Quaker City for five months, and this trip resulted in The Innocents Abroad
The Innocents Abroad
or The New Pilgrims' Progress. In 1872, he published his second piece of travel literature, Roughing It, as an account of his journey from Missouri
Missouri
to Nevada, his subsequent life in the American West, and his visit to Hawaii. The book lampoons American and Western society in the same way that Innocents critiqued the various countries of Europe
Europe
and the Middle East. His next work was The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, his first attempt at writing a novel. The book is also notable because it is his only collaboration, written with his neighbor Charles Dudley Warner. Twain's next work drew on his experiences on the Mississippi River. Old Times on the Mississippi
Old Times on the Mississippi
was a series of sketches published in the Atlantic Monthly
Atlantic Monthly
in 1875 featuring his disillusionment with Romanticism.[74] Old Times eventually became the starting point for Life on the Mississippi. Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
and Huckleberry Finn

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Twain's next major publication was The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, which draws on his youth in Hannibal. Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
was modeled on Twain as a child, with traces of schoolmates John Briggs and Will Bowen.[citation needed] The book also introduces Huckleberry Finn
Huckleberry Finn
in a supporting role, based on Twain's boyhood friend Tom Blankenship. The Prince and the Pauper
The Prince and the Pauper
was not as well received, despite a storyline that is common in film and literature today. The book tells the story of two boys born on the same day who are physically identical, acting as a social commentary as the prince and pauper switch places. Twain had started Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
(which he consistently had problems completing)[75] and had completed his travel book A Tramp Abroad, which describes his travels through central and southern Europe. Twain's next major published work was the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, which confirmed him as a noteworthy American writer. Some have called it the first Great American Novel, and the book has become required reading in many schools throughout the United States. Huckleberry Finn
Huckleberry Finn
was an offshoot from Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
and had a more serious tone than its predecessor. Four hundred manuscript pages were written in mid-1876, right after the publication of Tom Sawyer. The last fifth of Huckleberry Finn
Huckleberry Finn
is subject to much controversy. Some say that Twain experienced a "failure of nerve," as critic Leo Marx puts it. Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
once said of Huckleberry Finn:

If you read it, you must stop where the Nigger
Nigger
Jim is stolen from the boys. That is the real end. The rest is just cheating.

Hemingway also wrote in the same essay:

All modern American literature
American literature
comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn.[76]

Near the completion of Huckleberry Finn, Twain wrote Life on the Mississippi, which is said to have heavily influenced the novel.[43] The travel work recounts Twain's memories and new experiences after a 22-year absence from the Mississippi River. In it, he also explains that "Mark Twain" was the call made when the boat was in safe water, indicating a depth of two fathoms (12 feet or 3.7 metres). Later writing Twain produced President Ulysses S. Grant's Memoirs through his fledgling publishing house, Charles L. Webster & Company, which he co-owned with Charles L. Webster, his nephew by marriage.[77] At this time he also wrote "The Private History of a Campaign That Failed" for The Century Magazine. This piece detailed his two-week stint in a Confederate militia during the Civil War. He next focused on A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, written with the same historical fiction style as The Prince and the Pauper. A Connecticut Yankee showed the absurdities of political and social norms by setting them in the court of King Arthur. The book was started in December 1885, then shelved a few months later until the summer of 1887, and eventually finished in the spring of 1889.[citation needed]

Twain in his later years

His next large-scale work was Pudd'nhead Wilson, which he wrote rapidly, as he was desperately trying to stave off bankruptcy. From November 12 to December 14, 1893, Twain wrote 60,000 words for the novel.[43] Critics[who?] have pointed to this rushed completion as the cause of the novel's rough organization and constant disruption of the plot. This novel also contains the tale of two boys born on the same day who switch positions in life, like The Prince and the Pauper. It was first published serially in Century Magazine
Century Magazine
and, when it was finally published in book form, Pudd'nhead Wilson
Pudd'nhead Wilson
appeared as the main title; however, the "subtitles" make the entire title read: The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson
Pudd'nhead Wilson
and the Comedy of The Extraordinary Twins.[43] Twain's next venture was a work of straight fiction that he called Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc
Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc
and dedicated to his wife. He had long said[where?] that this was the work that he was most proud of, despite the criticism that he received for it. The book had been a dream of his since childhood, and he claimed that he had found a manuscript detailing the life of Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
when he was an adolescent.[43] This was another piece that he was convinced would save his publishing company. His financial adviser Henry Huttleston Rogers quashed that idea and got Twain out of that business altogether, but the book was published nonetheless.[citation needed] To pay the bills and keep his business projects afloat, Twain had begun to write articles and commentary furiously, with diminishing returns, but it was not enough. He filed for bankruptcy in 1894. During this time of dire financial straits, he published several literary reviews in newspapers to help make ends meet. He famously derided James Fenimore Cooper
James Fenimore Cooper
in his article detailing Cooper's "Literary Offenses". He became an extremely outspoken critic of other authors and other critics; he suggested that, before praising Cooper's work, Thomas Lounsbury, Brander Matthews, and Wilkie Collins
Wilkie Collins
"ought to have read some of it".[78] George Eliot, Jane Austen, and Robert Louis Stevenson
Robert Louis Stevenson
also fell under Twain's attack during this time period, beginning around 1890 and continuing until his death.[79] He outlines what he considers to be "quality writing" in several letters and essays, in addition to providing a source for the "tooth and claw" style of literary criticism. He places emphasis on concision, utility of word choice, and realism; he complains, for example, that Cooper's Deerslayer purports to be realistic but has several shortcomings. Ironically, several of his own works were later criticized for lack of continuity (Adventures of Huckleberry Finn) and organization (Pudd'nhead Wilson). Twain's wife died in 1904 while the couple were staying at the Villa di Quarto in Florence. After some time had passed he published some works that his wife, his de facto editor and censor throughout her married life, had looked down upon. The Mysterious Stranger
The Mysterious Stranger
is perhaps the best known, depicting various visits of Satan
Satan
to earth. This particular work was not published in Twain's lifetime. His manuscripts included three versions, written between 1897 and 1905: the so-called Hannibal, Eseldorf, and Print Shop versions. The resulting confusion led to extensive publication of a jumbled version, and only recently have the original versions become available as Twain wrote them. Twain's last work was his autobiography, which he dictated and thought would be most entertaining if he went off on whims and tangents in non-chronological order. Some archivists and compilers have rearranged the biography into a more conventional form, thereby eliminating some of Twain's humor and the flow of the book. The first volume of the autobiography, over 736 pages, was published by the University of California in November 2010, 100 years after his death, as Twain wished.[80][81] It soon became an unexpected[82] best seller,[83] making Twain one of a very few authors publishing new best-selling volumes in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. Censorship Twain's works have been subjected to censorship efforts. According to Stuart (2013), "Leading these banning campaigns, generally, were religious organizations or individuals in positions of influence – not so much working librarians, who had been instilled with that American "library spirit" which honored intellectual freedom (within bounds of course)". In 1905, the Brooklyn Public Library
Brooklyn Public Library
banned both The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer from the children's department because of their language.[84] Views Twain's views became more radical as he grew older. In a letter to friend and fellow writer William Dean Howells
William Dean Howells
in 1887 he acknowledged that his views had changed and developed over his lifetime, referring to one of his favorite works:

When I finished Carlyle's French Revolution
French Revolution
in 1871, I was a Girondin; every time I have read it since, I have read it differently – being influenced and changed, little by little, by life and environment ... and now I lay the book down once more, and recognize that I am a Sansculotte! And not a pale, characterless Sansculotte, but a Marat.[85][86]

Anti-imperialist Before 1899, Twain was an ardent imperialist. In the late 1860s and early 1870s, he spoke out strongly in favor of American interests in the Hawaiian Islands.[87] He said the war with Spain in 1898 was "the worthiest" war ever fought.[88] In 1899, however, he reversed course. In the New York Herald, October 16, 1900, Twain describes his transformation and political awakening, in the context of the Philippine–American War, to anti-imperialism:

I wanted the American eagle to go screaming into the Pacific ... Why not spread its wings over the Philippines, I asked myself? ... I said to myself, Here are a people who have suffered for three centuries. We can make them as free as ourselves, give them a government and country of their own, put a miniature of the American Constitution afloat in the Pacific, start a brand new republic to take its place among the free nations of the world. It seemed to me a great task to which we had addressed ourselves. But I have thought some more, since then, and I have read carefully the treaty of Paris [which ended the Spanish–American War], and I have seen that we do not intend to free, but to subjugate the people of the Philippines. We have gone there to conquer, not to redeem. It should, it seems to me, be our pleasure and duty to make those people free, and let them deal with their own domestic questions in their own way. And so I am an anti-imperialist. I am opposed to having the eagle put its talons on any other land.[89][90]

During the Boxer rebellion, Mark Twain
Mark Twain
said that "the Boxer is a patriot. He loves his country better than he does the countries of other people. I wish him success."[91] From 1901, soon after his return from Europe, until his death in 1910, Twain was vice-president of the American Anti-Imperialist League,[92] which opposed the annexation of the Philippines
Philippines
by the United States and had "tens of thousands of members".[34] He wrote many political pamphlets for the organization. The Incident in the Philippines, posthumously published in 1924, was in response to the Moro Crater Massacre, in which six hundred Moros were killed.[93] Many of his neglected and previously uncollected writings on anti-imperialism appeared for the first time in book form in 1992.[92] Twain was critical of imperialism in other countries as well. In Following the Equator, Twain expresses "hatred and condemnation of imperialism of all stripes".[34] He was highly critical of European imperialists, notably Cecil Rhodes, who greatly expanded the British Empire, and Leopold II, King of the Belgians.[34] King Leopold's Soliloquy is a stinging political satire about his private colony, the Congo Free State. Reports of outrageous exploitation and grotesque abuses led to widespread international protest in the early 1900s, arguably the first large-scale human rights movement. In the soliloquy, the King argues that bringing Christianity to the country outweighs a little starvation. Leopold's rubber gatherers were tortured, maimed and slaughtered until the movement forced Brussels
Brussels
to call a halt.[94][95] During the Philippine–American War, Twain wrote a short pacifist story titled The War Prayer, which makes the point that humanism and Christianity's preaching of love are incompatible with the conduct of war. It was submitted to Harper's Bazaar
Harper's Bazaar
for publication, but on March 22, 1905, the magazine rejected the story as "not quite suited to a woman's magazine". Eight days later, Twain wrote to his friend Daniel Carter Beard, to whom he had read the story, "I don't think the prayer will be published in my time. None but the dead are permitted to tell the truth." Because he had an exclusive contract with Harper & Brothers, Twain could not publish The War Prayer
The War Prayer
elsewhere; it remained unpublished until 1923. It was republished as campaigning material by Vietnam War protesters.[34] Twain acknowledged that he had originally sympathized with the more moderate Girondins
Girondins
of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and then shifted his sympathies to the more radical Sansculottes, indeed identifying himself as "a Marat". Twain supported the revolutionaries in Russia against the reformists, arguing that the Tsar
Tsar
must be got rid of by violent means, because peaceful ones would not work.[96] He summed up his views of revolutions in the following statement:

I am said to be a revolutionist in my sympathies, by birth, by breeding and by principle. I am always on the side of the revolutionists, because there never was a revolution unless there were some oppressive and intolerable conditions against which to revolute.[97]

Civil rights Twain was an adamant supporter of the abolition of slavery and the emancipation of slaves, even going so far as to say, "Lincoln's Proclamation ... not only set the black slaves free, but set the white man free also".[98] He argued that non-whites did not receive justice in the United States, once saying, "I have seen Chinamen abused and maltreated in all the mean, cowardly ways possible to the invention of a degraded nature ... but I never saw a Chinaman righted in a court of justice for wrongs thus done to him".[99] He paid for at least one black person to attend Yale Law School
Yale Law School
and for another black person to attend a southern university to become a minister.[100] Twain's sympathetic views on race were not reflected in his early writings on American Indians. Of them, Twain wrote in 1870:

His heart is a cesspool of falsehood, of treachery, and of low and devilish instincts. With him, gratitude is an unknown emotion; and when one does him a kindness, it is safest to keep the face toward him, lest the reward be an arrow in the back. To accept of a favor from him is to assume a debt which you can never repay to his satisfaction, though you bankrupt yourself trying. The scum of the earth![101]

As counterpoint, Twain's essay on "The Literary Offenses of Fenimore Cooper" offers a much kinder view of Indians.[78] "No, other Indians would have noticed these things, but Cooper's Indians never notice anything. Cooper thinks they are marvelous creatures for noticing, but he was almost always in error about his Indians. There was seldom a sane one among them."[102] In his later travelogue Following the Equator (1897), Twain observes that in colonized lands all over the world, "savages" have always been wronged by "whites" in the most merciless ways, such as "robbery, humiliation, and slow, slow murder, through poverty and the white man's whiskey"; his conclusion is that "there are many humorous things in this world; among them the white man's notion that he is less savage than the other savages".[103] In an expression that captures his East Indian experiences, he wrote, "So far as I am able to judge nothing has been left undone, either by man or Nature, to make India
India
the most extraordinary country that the sun visits on his rounds. Where every prospect pleases, and only man is vile."[104] Twain was also a staunch supporter of women's rights and an active campaigner for women's suffrage. His "Votes for Women" speech, in which he pressed for the granting of voting rights to women, is considered one of the most famous in history.[105] Helen Keller
Helen Keller
benefited from Twain's support as she pursued her college education and publishing despite her disabilities and financial limitations. Labor Twain wrote glowingly about unions in the river boating industry in Life on the Mississippi, which was read in union halls decades later.[106] He supported the labor movement, especially one of the most important unions, the Knights of Labor.[34] In a speech to them, he said:

Who are the oppressors? The few: the King, the capitalist, and a handful of other overseers and superintendents. Who are the oppressed? The many: the nations of the earth; the valuable personages; the workers; they that make the bread that the soft-handed and idle eat.[107]

Religion See also: Twain–Ament indemnities controversy Twain was a Presbyterian.[108] He was critical of organized religion and certain elements of Christianity through his later life. He wrote, for example, "Faith is believing what you know ain't so", and "If Christ were here now there is one thing he would not be – a Christian".[109] With anti-Catholic sentiment rampant in 19th century America, Twain noted he was "educated to enmity toward everything that is Catholic".[110] As an adult, he engaged in religious discussions and attended services, his theology developing as he wrestled with the deaths of loved ones and with his own mortality.[111] Twain generally avoided publishing his most controversial[112] opinions on religion in his lifetime, and they are known from essays and stories that were published later. In the essay Three Statements of the Eighties in the 1880s, Twain stated that he believed in an almighty God, but not in any messages, revelations, holy scriptures such as the Bible, Providence, or retribution in the afterlife. He did state that "the goodness, the justice, and the mercy of God
God
are manifested in His works", but also that "the universe is governed by strict and immutable laws", which determine "small matters", such as who dies in a pestilence.[113] At other times, he wrote or spoke in ways that contradicted a strict deist view, for example, plainly professing a belief in Providence.[114] In some later writings in the 1890s, he was less optimistic about the goodness of God, observing that "if our Maker is all-powerful for good or evil, He is not in His right mind". At other times, he conjectured sardonically that perhaps God
God
had created the world with all its tortures for some purpose of His own, but was otherwise indifferent to humanity, which was too petty and insignificant to deserve His attention anyway.[115] In 1901, Twain criticized the actions of the missionary Dr. William Scott Ament (1851–1909) because Ament and other missionaries had collected indemnities from Chinese subjects in the aftermath of the Boxer Uprising
Boxer Uprising
of 1900. Twain's response to hearing of Ament's methods was published in the North American Review
North American Review
in February 1901: To the Person Sitting in Darkness, and deals with examples of imperialism in China, South Africa, and with the U.S. occupation of the Philippines.[116] A subsequent article, "To My Missionary
Missionary
Critics" published in The North American Review
North American Review
in April 1901, unapologetically continues his attack, but with the focus shifted from Ament to his missionary superiors, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.[117] After his death, Twain's family suppressed some of his work that was especially irreverent toward conventional religion, notably Letters from the Earth, which was not published until his daughter Clara reversed her position in 1962 in response to Soviet propaganda
Soviet propaganda
about the withholding.[118] The anti-religious The Mysterious Stranger
The Mysterious Stranger
was published in 1916. Little Bessie, a story ridiculing Christianity, was first published in the 1972 collection Mark Twain's Fables of Man.[119] He raised money to build a Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in Nevada in 1864.[120] Twain created a reverent portrayal of Joan of Arc, a subject over which he had obsessed for forty years, studied for a dozen years and spent two years writing about.[121] In 1900 and again in 1908 he stated, "I like Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
best of all my books, it is the best".[121][122] Those who knew Twain well late in life recount that he dwelt on the subject of the afterlife, his daughter Clara saying: "Sometimes he believed death ended everything, but most of the time he felt sure of a life beyond."[123] Twain's frankest views on religion appeared in his final work Autobiography of Mark Twain, the publication of which started in November 2010, 100 years after his death. In it, he said:[124]

There is one notable thing about our Christianity: bad, bloody, merciless, money-grabbing, and predatory as it is – in our country particularly and in all other Christian countries in a somewhat modified degree – it is still a hundred times better than the Christianity of the Bible, with its prodigious crime – the invention of Hell. Measured by our Christianity of to-day, bad as it is, hypocritical as it is, empty and hollow as it is, neither the Deity nor his Son is a Christian, nor qualified for that moderately high place. Ours is a terrible religion. The fleets of the world could swim in spacious comfort in the innocent blood it has spilled.

Twain was a Freemason.[125][126] He belonged to Polar Star Lodge No. 79 A.F.&A.M., based in St. Louis. He was initiated an Entered Apprentice on May 22, 1861, passed to the degree of Fellow Craft
Fellow Craft
on June 12, and raised to the degree of Master Mason
Master Mason
on July 10. Twain visited Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City
for two days and met there members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. They also gave him a Book of Mormon.[127] He later wrote in Roughing It
Roughing It
about that book:[128][129]

The book seems to be merely a prosy detail of imaginary history, with the Old Testament for a model; followed by a tedious plagiarism of the New Testament.

Vivisection Twain was opposed to the vivisection practices of his day. His objection was not on a scientific basis but rather an ethical one. He specifically cited the pain caused to the animal as his basis of his opposition.[130][131]

I am not interested to know whether Vivisection
Vivisection
produces results that are profitable to the human race or doesn't. ... The pains which it inflicts upon unconsenting animals is the basis of my enmity towards it, and it is to me sufficient justification of the enmity without looking further.

Pen names Twain used different pen names before deciding on "'Mark Twain". He signed humorous and imaginative sketches as "Josh" until 1863. Additionally, he used the pen name " Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Snodgrass" for a series of humorous letters.[132] He maintained that his primary pen name came from his years working on Mississippi riverboats, where two fathoms, a depth indicating water safe for the passage of boat, was a measure on the sounding line. Twain is an archaic term for "two", as in "The veil of the temple was rent in twain."[133] The riverboatman's cry was "mark twain" or, more fully, "by the mark twain", meaning "according to the mark [on the line], [the depth is] two [fathoms]", that is, "The water is 12 feet (3.7 m) deep and it is safe to pass." Twain claimed that his famous pen name was not entirely his invention. In Life on the Mississippi, he wrote:

Captain Isaiah Sellers was not of literary turn or capacity, but he used to jot down brief paragraphs of plain practical information about the river, and sign them "MARK TWAIN", and give them to the New Orleans Picayune. They related to the stage and condition of the river, and were accurate and valuable; ... At the time that the telegraph brought the news of his death, I was on the Pacific coast. I was a fresh new journalist, and needed a nom de guerre; so I confiscated the ancient mariner's discarded one, and have done my best to make it remain what it was in his hands – a sign and symbol and warrant that whatever is found in its company may be gambled on as being the petrified truth; how I have succeeded, it would not be modest in me to say.[134]

Twain's story about his pen name has been questioned by some[135] with the suggestion that "mark twain" refers to a running bar tab that Twain would regularly incur while drinking at John Piper's saloon in Virginia
Virginia
City, Nevada. Samuel Clemens himself responded to this suggestion by saying, " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
was the nom de plume of one Captain Isaiah Sellers, who used to write river news over it for the New Orleans Picayune. He died in 1869 and as he could no longer need that signature, I laid violent hands upon it without asking permission of the proprietor's remains. That is the history of the nom de plume I bear."[136] In his autobiography, Twain writes further of Captain Sellers' use of "Mark Twain":

I was a cub pilot on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
then, and one day I wrote a rude and crude satire which was leveled at Captain Isaiah Sellers, the oldest steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River, and the most respected, esteemed, and revered. For many years he had occasionally written brief paragraphs concerning the river and the changes which it had undergone under his observation during fifty years, and had signed these paragraphs "Mark Twain" and published them in the St. Louis
St. Louis
and New Orleans
New Orleans
journals. In my satire I made rude game of his reminiscences. It was a shabby poor performance, but I didn't know it, and the pilots didn't know it. The pilots thought it was brilliant. They were jealous of Sellers, because when the gray-heads among them pleased their vanity by detailing in the hearing of the younger craftsmen marvels which they had seen in the long ago on the river, Sellers was always likely to step in at the psychological moment and snuff them out with wonders of his own which made their small marvels look pale and sick. However, I have told all about this in "Old Times on the Mississippi." The pilots handed my extravagant satire to a river reporter, and it was published in the New Orleans
New Orleans
True Delta. That poor old Captain Sellers was deeply wounded. He had never been held up to ridicule before; he was sensitive, and he never got over the hurt which I had wantonly and stupidly inflicted upon his dignity. I was proud of my performance for a while, and considered it quite wonderful, but I have changed my opinion of it long ago. Sellers never published another paragraph nor ever used his nom de guerre again.[137]

Legacy and depictions Main article: Mark Twain
Mark Twain
in popular culture

Twain caricatured by Spy for Vanity Fair, 1908

A statue of Mark Twain
Mark Twain
at Finney County Library

Play media

Footage of Twain in 1909

Trademark white suit While Twain is often depicted wearing a white suit, modern representations suggesting that he wore them throughout his life are unfounded. Evidence suggests that Twain began wearing white suits on the lecture circuit, after the death of his wife Olivia ("Livy") in 1904. However, there is also evidence showing him wearing a white suit before 1904. In 1882, he sent a photograph of himself in a white suit to 18-year-old Edward W. Bok, later publisher of the Ladies Home Journal, with a handwritten dated note. It did eventually become his trademark, as illustrated in anecdotes about this eccentricity (such as the time he wore a white summer suit to a Congressional hearing during the winter).[43] McMasters' The Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Encyclopedia states that Twain did not wear a white suit in his last three years, except at one banquet speech.[138] In his autobiography, Twain writes of his early experiments with wearing white out-of-season:

Next after fine colors, I like plain white. One of my sorrows, when the summer ends, is that I must put off my cheery and comfortable white clothes and enter for the winter into the depressing captivity of the shapeless and degrading black ones. It is mid-October now, and the weather is growing cold up here in the New Hampshire hills, but it will not succeed in freezing me out of these white garments, for here the neighbors are few, and it is only of crowds that I am afraid. I made a brave experiment, the other night, to see how it would feel to shock a crowd with these unseasonable clothes, and also to see how long it might take the crowd to reconcile itself to them and stop looking astonished and outraged. On a stormy evening I made a talk before a full house, in the village, clothed like a ghost, and looking as conspicuous, all solitary and alone on that platform, as any ghost could have looked; and I found, to my gratification, that it took the house less than ten minutes to forget about the ghost and give its attention to the tidings I had brought. I am nearly seventy-one, and I recognize that my age has given me a good many privileges; valuable privileges; privileges which are not granted to younger persons. Little by little I hope to get together courage enough to wear white clothes all through the winter, in New York. It will be a great satisfaction to me to show off in this way; and perhaps the largest of all the satisfactions will be the knowledge that every scoffer, of my sex, will secretly envy me and wish he dared to follow my lead.[139]

Bibliography Main article: Mark Twain
Mark Twain
bibliography See also

Mark Twain
Mark Twain
– book Children's Literature portal American Literary Regionalism American Realism Back-translation Bernard DeVoto
Bernard DeVoto
(historian) Christian Science (book) Thomas S. Hinde, friend who corresponded with Mark Twain
Mark Twain
throughout his life. List of premature obituaries Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Birthplace State Historic Site Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Boyhood Home & Museum Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Riverboat Mark Twain's Library of Humor
Mark Twain's Library of Humor
(anthology) Steamboats of the Mississippi Territorial Enterprise
Territorial Enterprise
(newspaper) Warsaw Signal (newspaper)

References

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Mark Twain
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Mark Twain
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Mark Twain
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Mark Twain
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Mark Twain
as a Stand-up Comedian", The Mark Twain Annual (2006) #4 pp. 3–23. doi:10.1111/j.1756-2597.2006.tb00038.x ^ " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
at Princeton". Twainquotes.com. Retrieved 2013-12-07.  ^ " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
in Montreal". twainquotes.com. New York Times. Retrieved 2 January 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Roberts, Taylor. " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
in Toronto, Ontario, 1884–1885". Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Journal. JSTOR 41641453.  ^ "The Genial Mark". University of Virginia
Virginia
Library. Toronto
Toronto
Globe. Retrieved 2 January 2017.  ^ a b c d " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
in Toronto". Toronto
Toronto
Reference Library Blog. Retrieved 2 January 2017.  ^ "Chapters from My Autobiography", North American Review, 21 September 1906, p. 160. Mark Twain ^ Oleksinski, Johnny. Find out if New York's greatest writers lived next door. The New York Post April 14, 2017, https://nypost.com/2017/04/14/find-out-if-new-yorks-greatest-writers-lived-next-door/ Accessed April 14, 2017 ^ TwainQuotes.com The Story Behind the A. F. Bradley Photos, Retrieved on July 10, 2009. ^ New York Times, March 16, 1962, DOROTHY QUICK, POET AND AUTHOR: Mystery Writer Dies – Was Friend of Mark Twain ^ Esther Lombardi, about.com. " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
(Samuel Langhorne Clemens)". Retrieved 2006-11-01.  ^ " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
is Dead at 74. End Comes Peacefully at His New England Home After a Long Illness". The New York Times. April 22, 1910. Danbury, Connecticut, April 21, 1910. Samuel Langhorne Clemens, "Mark Twain", died at 22 minutes after 6 to-night. Beside him on the bed lay a beloved book – it was Carlyle's French Revolution – and near the book his glasses, pushed away with a weary sigh a few hours before. Too weak to speak clearly, he had written, "Give me my glasses", on a piece of paper.  ^ "Mark Twain's funeral". Twainquotes.com. Retrieved 2008-12-04.  ^ "Elmira Travel Information". Go-new-york.com. Retrieved 2010-12-30.  ^ " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Estate About Half Million", New York Times, 1911-07-15. Retrieved 2014-05-08. ^ Nicky Woolf. " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
stories, 150 years old, uncovered by Berkeley scholars". the Guardian.  ^ Baskin, R. N. (Robert Newton); Madsen, Brigham D. (2006). Reminiscences of early Utah : with, Reply to certain statements by O. F. Whitne. Salt Lake City: Signature Books. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-56085-193-6.  ^ Henderson, Archibald (1912). "The Humorist". Mark Twain. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company. p. 99.  ^ Gary Scharnhorst, ed. (November 28, 2010). Twain in His Own Time: A Biographical Chronicle of His Life, Drawn from Recollections, Interviews, and Memoirs by Family, Friends, and Associates. Writers in Their Own Time (first ed.). University of Iowa Press. p. 290. ISBN 978-1-58729-914-8.  ^ DeQuille, Dan; Twain, Mark (July 1893). "Reporting With Mark Twain". The Californian Illustrated Magazine. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011.  ^ "The Sagebrush School
Sagebrush School
Nevada Writers Hall of Fame 2009". University of Nevada, Reno. October 28, 2009. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014. Retrieved February 26, 2012.  ^ Reading the American Novel 1865 – 1914 G. R. Thompson; John Wiley & Sons, February 7, 2012; 462 pages; p. 29 ^ Powers, Ron (2005). Mark Twain: A Life. New York: Free Press. pp. 471–473. ISBN 978-0-7432-4899-0.  ^ from Chapter 1 of The Green Hills of Africa ^ "American Experience – People & Events: Samuel Langhorne Clemens, 1835–1910". PBS. Retrieved 2007-11-28.  ^ a b Twain, Mark. Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses. From Collected Tales, Sketches, Speeches and Essays, from 1891–1910. Edited by Louis J. Budd. New York: Library of America, 1992. ^ Feinstein, George W (January 1948). "Twain as Forerunner of Tooth-and-Claw Criticism". Modern Language Notes. 63 (1): 49–50. doi:10.2307/2908644. JSTOR 2908644.  ^ "After keeping us waiting for a century, Mark Twain
Mark Twain
will finally reveal all" The Independent 23 May 2010 Retrieved May 29, 2010 ^ "Dead for a Century, He's Ready to Say What He Really Meant" The New York Times 9 July 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2010. ^ "Mark Twain's Big Book". NY Times. November 26, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-27. an enormous hit, apparently much to the surprise of its publisher  ^ Schuessler, Jennifer. "Hardcover Nonfiction – List". NY Times.  ^ Murray, Stuart A. P. "The Library: An Illustrated History", New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2012, p. 189. ^ Frederick Anderson, ed., A Pen Warmed Up in Hell: Mark Twain
Mark Twain
in Protest (New York: Harper, 1972), p. 8, cited in Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain
Mark Twain
they didn't teach us about in school" (2000) in International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp. 61–65 ^ "Mark Twain's Letters 1886–1900". Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Classic Literature Library. Retrieved 8 January 2015.  ^ David Zmijewski, "The Man in Both Corners: Mark Twain
Mark Twain
the Shadowboxing Imperialist", Hawaiian Journal of History, 2006, Vol. 40, pp. 55–73 ^ Paine, ed. Letters 2:663; Ron Powers, Mark Twain: a life (2005) p. 593 ^ From Andrew Jay Hoffman, Inventing Mark Twain: The Lives of Samuel Langhorne Clemens (New York: William Morrow, 1997), cited in Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain
Mark Twain
they didn't teach us about in school" (2000) in International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp. 61–65 ^ " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Home, An Anti-Imperialist" (PDF). New York Herald. October 16, 1900. p. 4. Retrieved October 25, 2014.  ^ Twain, Mark (November 7, 2007). Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Speeches. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-4346-7879-9.  ^ a b Mark Twain's Weapons of Satire: Anti-Imperialist Writings on the Philippine-American War. (1992, Jim Zwick, ed.) ISBN 0-8156-0268-5 ^ "Comments on the Moro Massacre". by Samuel Clemens (March 12, 1906). History is a Weapon. ^ Adam Hochschild (1998). King Leopold's ghost : a story of greed, terror, and heroism in colonial Africa. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-75924-0. OCLC 39042794.  ^ Jeremy Harding (September 20, 1998). "Into Africa". New York Times.  ^ Maxwell Geismar, ed., Mark Twain
Mark Twain
and the Three Rs: Race, Religion, Revolution and Related Matters (Indianapolis: Bobs-Merrill, 1973), p. 169, cited in Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain
Mark Twain
they didn't teach us about in school" (2000) in International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp. 61–65 ^ Maxwell Geismar, ed., Mark Twain
Mark Twain
and the Three Rs: Race, Religion, Revolution and Related Matters (Indianapolis: Bobs-Merrill, 1973), p. 159 ^ Philip S. Foner, Mark Twain: Social Critic (New York: International Publishers, 1958), p. 200 ^ Maxwell Geismar, ed., Mark Twain
Mark Twain
and the Three Rs: Race, Religion, Revolution and Related Matters (Indianapolis: Bobs-Merrill, 1973), p. 98 ^ Paine, A. B., Mark Twain: A Biography, Harper, 1912 p. 701 ^ "Mark Twain, Indian Hater". Blue Corn Comics. May 28, 2001. Retrieved 2008-07-09.  ^ Twain, Mark, In defense of Harriet Shelley and Other Essays, Harper & Brothers, 1918. p. 68 ^ Twain, Mark. 2008. Following the Equator. pp. 94–98 ^ " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
in India". Amritt. 2009.  ^ "The Votes for Women Speech by Mark Twain". Famousquotes.me.uk. May 25, 2007. Retrieved 2009-10-16.  ^ Philip S. Foner, Mark Twain: Social Critic (New York: International Publishers, 1958), p. 98 ^ Philip S. Foner, Mark Twain: Social Critic (New York: International Publishers, 1958), p. 169, cited in Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain
Mark Twain
they didn't teach us about in school" (2000) in International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp. 61–65 ^ Twain Quotes – Presbyterian
Presbyterian
But we were good boys...we didn't break the Sabbath often enough to signify – once a week perhaps... Anyway, we were good Presbyterian
Presbyterian
boys when the weather was doubtful; when it was fair, we did wander a little from the fold. 67th Birthday Speech ^ Huberman, Jack (2007). The Quotable Atheist. Nation Books. pp. 303–304. ISBN 978-1-56025-969-5.  ^ "America's dark and not-very-distant history of hating Catholics". The Guardian. September 18, 2016.  ^ Dempsey, Terrell, BOOK REVIEW: Mark Twain's Religion. William E. Phipps 2004 Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Forum ^ Letters from Earth. Ostara publications. 2013. p. back cover.  ^ Twain, Mark, ed. by Paul Baender. 1973. What is man?: and other philosophical writings. p. 56 ^ Phipps, William E., Mark Twain's Religion, pp. 263–266, 2003 Mercer Univ. Press ^ Twain, Mark, ed. by Paul Baender. 1973. What is man?: and other philosophical writings. pp.10, 486 ^ Mark Twain, "To the Person Sitting in Darkness", The North American Review 182:531 (February 1901):161–176; JSTOR 25105120 ^ Mark Twain, "To My Missionary
Missionary
Critics", The North American Review 172 (April 1901):520–534; JSTOR 25105150 ^ Gelb, Arthur (August 24, 1962). "Anti-Religious Work by Twain, Long Withheld, to Be Published". The New York Times. p. 23. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2008-04-22.  ^ Twain, Mark (1972). "Little Bessie". In John S. Tuckey; Kenneth M. Sanderson; Bernard L. Stein; Frederick Anderson. Mark Twain's Fables of Man. California: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-02039-9. [permanent dead link] ^ "Church Aided by Twain Is in a Demolition Dispute". The New York Times. Associated Press. April 2, 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-05.  ^ a b Paine, Albert Bigelow, The Adventures of Mark Twain, p. 281, Kessinger 2004 ^ Goy-Blanquet, Dominique, Joan of Arc, a saint for all reasons: studies in myth and politics, p. 132, 2003 Ashgate Publishing ^ Phipps, William E., Mark Twain's Religion, p. 304, 2003 Mercer Univ. Press ^ PBS NewsHour
PBS NewsHour
(July 7, 2010). " Mark Twain's Autobiography
Mark Twain's Autobiography
Set for Unveiling, a Century After His Death". Retrieved July 7, 2010.  ^ "Grand Master of Missouri
Missouri
Lecture".  ^ Masonic Information Center. "MIC Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Award". Retrieved October 28, 2017.  ^ Kathryn Jenkins Gordon (August 18, 2015). "What Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Really Thought About Mormons". LDS Living. Retrieved 2015-10-27.  ^ Roughing It
Roughing It
– Chapter 16 ^ Adam Gopnik (August 13, 2012). "I, Nephi". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2015-10-27.  ^ Mark Twain, Letter to Sidney G. Trist, Editor of the Animals' Friend Magazine, in his capacity as Secretary of the London Anti-Vivisection Society (26 May 1899), in Mark Twain's Notebooks, ed. Carlo De Vito (Black Dog & Leventhal, 2015). ^ " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Quotations – Vivisection". Retrieved 2006-10-24.  ^ Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Snodgrass, (Charles Honce, James Bennet, ed.), Pascal Covici, Chicago, 1928 ^ "Matthew 27:51 at that moment the curtain of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom. The earth shook, the rocks split". Bible.cc. Retrieved 2013-12-07.  ^ Life on the Mississippi, chapter 50 ^ Williams, III, George (1999). " Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Leaves Virginia
Virginia
City for San Francisco". Mark Twain
Mark Twain
and the Jumping Frog of Calaveras County: How Mark Twain's humorous frog story launched his legendary career. Tree by the River Publishing. ISBN 0-935174-45-1.  Cited in "Excerpt: The Singular Mark Twain". Retrieved 2007-06-26.  ^ Fatout, Paul. "Mark Twain's Nom de Plume." American Literature, v 34, n 1 (March 1962), pp. 1–7. doi:10.2307/2922241. JSTOR 2922241. ^ "Autobiography of Mark Twain." Volume 2; 10 September 1906, (2013, 2008), Paragraph 4. ^ Lemaster, J. R; Wilson, James Darrell; Hamric, Christie Graves (1993). The Mark Twain
Mark Twain
encyclopedia. Garland Publishing. p. 390. ISBN 978-0-8240-7212-4. Retrieved 2009-10-16.  ^ "Autobiography of Mark Twain", Volume 2, 8 October 1906 (2013, 2008), Paragraph 14.

Further reading

Samuel L. Clemens stamp, 1940

Lucius Beebe. Comstock Commotion: The Story of the Territorial Enterprise and Virginia
Virginia
City News, Stanford University Press, 1954 ISBN 1-122-18798-X Louis J. Budd, ed. Mark Twain, Collected Tales, Sketches, Speeches & Essays 1891–1910 (Library of America, 1992) (ISBN 978-0-940450-73-8) Ken Burns, Dayton Duncan, and Geoffrey C. Ward, Mark Twain: An Illustrated Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001 (ISBN 0-375-40561-5) Philip S. Foner. Mark Twain: Social Critic. New York: International Publishers. 1966. Gregg Camfield. The Oxford Companion to Mark Twain. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002 (ISBN 0-19-510710-1) Guy Cardwell, ed. Mark Twain, Mississippi Writings, (Library of America, 1982) (ISBN 978-0-940450-07-3) Guy Cardwell, ed. Mark Twain, The Innocents Abroad
The Innocents Abroad
& Roughing It, (Library of America, 1984) ISBN 978-0-940450-25-7 James M. Cox. Mark Twain: The Fate of Humor, Princeton University Press, 1966 (ISBN 0-8262-1428-2) Everett Emerson. Mark Twain: A Literary Life, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000 (ISBN 0-8122-3516-9) Shelley Fisher Fishkin, ed. A Historical Guide to Mark Twain. New York: Oxford University
Oxford University
Press, 2002 (ISBN 0-19-513293-9) Susan K. Harris, ed. Mark Twain, Historical Romances (Library of America, 1994) (ISBN 978-0-940450-82-0) Hamlin L. Hill, ed. Mark Twain, The Gilded Age
The Gilded Age
and Later Novels (Library of America, 2002) ISBN 978-1-931082-10-5 Jason Gary Horn. Mark Twain: A Descriptive Guide to Biographical Sources, Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1999 (ISBN 0-8108-3630-0) William Dean Howells. My Mark Twain, Mineloa, New York: Dover Publications, 1997 (ISBN 0-486-29640-7) Fred Kaplan. The Singular Mark Twain: A Biography, New York: Doubleday, 2003 (ISBN 0-385-47715-5) Justin Kaplan. Mr. Clemens and Mark Twain: A Biography, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966 (ISBN 0-671-74807-6) J. R. LeMaster and James D. Wilson, eds. The Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Encyclopedia, New York: Garland, 1993 (ISBN 0-8240-7212-X) Andrew Levy, Huck Finn's America: Mark Twain
Mark Twain
and the Era that Shaped His Masterpiece. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2015. Jerome Loving, Mark Twain: The Adventures of Samuel L. Clemens. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2010. Bruce Michelson, Mark Twain
Mark Twain
on the Loose, Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1995 (ISBN 0-87023-967-8) Patrick Ober, Mark Twain
Mark Twain
and Medicine: "Any Mummery Will Cure" Columbia: University of Missouri
Missouri
Press, 2003 (ISBN 0-8262-1502-5) Albert Bigelow Paine. Mark Twain, A Biography: The Personal and Literary Life of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, Harper & Bros., 1912. ISBN 1-84702-983-3 Ron Powers. Dangerous Water: A Biography of the Boy Who Became Mark Twain, New York: Da Capo Press, 1999. ISBN 0-306-81086-7 Ron Powers. Mark Twain: A Life, New York: Random House, 2005. (ISBN 0-7432-4899-6) R. Kent Rasmussen. Critical Companion to Mark Twain: A Literary Reference to His Life and Work, Facts On File, 2007. Revised edition of Mark Twain
Mark Twain
A to Z ISBN 0-8160-6225-0 R. Kent Rasmussen, ed. The Quotable Mark Twain: His Essential Aphorisms, Witticisms and Concise Opinions, Contemporary Books, 1997 ISBN 0-8092-2987-0 Anonymous (1873). Cartoon portraits and biographical sketches of men of the day. Illustrated by Frederick Waddy. London: Tinsley Brothers. p. 122. Retrieved 2011-03-13.  Radavich, David (2004). "Twain, Howells, and the Origins of Midwestern Drama". MidAmerica. XXXI: 25–42.  Tarnoff, Ben. The Bohemians: Mark Twain
Mark Twain
and the San Francisco
San Francisco
Writers Who Reinvented American Literature. New York: The Penguin Press, 2014

External links

Find more aboutMark Twainat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Mark Twain
Mark Twain
at Encyclopædia Britannica Mark Twain
Mark Twain
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Museum at the Territorial Enterprise
Territorial Enterprise
Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Museum, Territorial Enterprise
Territorial Enterprise
Building, Virginia City, Nevada
Virginia City, Nevada
Web site Mark Twain House
Mark Twain House
Museum Web site

Works by Mark Twain

Autobiography of Mark Twain, Volume 1, 2010 – Free Online – Mark Twain Project Online Autobiography of Mark Twain, Volume 2, 2013 – Free Online – Mark Twain Project Online 38 Facsimile copies of 1st editions Works by Mark Twain
Mark Twain
at Project Gutenberg Works by Mark Twain
Mark Twain
at Faded Page (Canada) Works by or about Mark Twain
Mark Twain
at Internet Archive Works by or about Samuel Langhorne Clemens at Internet Archive Works by Mark Twain
Mark Twain
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Library, University of California Press. This series reprints texts from the Papers and Works for students and the general reader. The Works of Mark Twain, University of California Press. This series prints authoritative critical editions of Mark Twain's published works. Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Papers, University of California Press. This series publishes Mark Twain's private papers – his letters, notebooks, unpublished literary works, and autobiography. Jumping Frogs: Undiscovered, Rediscovered, and Celebrated Writings of Mark Twain, University of California Press. The Jumping Frogs series of books brings neglected Mark Twain
Mark Twain
treasures—stories, tall tales, novels, travelogues, plays, imaginative journalism, speeches, sketches, satires, burlesques, and much more—to readers. "A True Story, Repeated Word for Word As I Heard It" from The Atlantic Monthly. Nov. 1874: 591–594. Boston: Atlantic Monthly
Atlantic Monthly
Co.

Academic studies and Archival Collections

The Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Papers and Project of the Bancroft Library, University of California Berkeley. Home to the largest archive of Mark Twain's papers and the editors of a critical edition of all of his writings. Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Room at Buffalo & Erie County Public Library, which houses the manuscript of Huckleberry Finn Samuel Langhorne Clemens collection of papers, 1856–1938 (bulk 1870–1938), held by the Henry W. and Albert A. Berg Collection of English and American Literature, New York Public Library Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Original Manuscripts from 1862–1909 Shapell Manuscript Foundation

Life

Full text of the biography Mark Twain
Mark Twain
by Archibald Henderson Obituary in San Francisco
San Francisco
Call Mark Twain's Mississippi at Northern Illinois University Libraries "Writings of Mark Twain" from C-SPAN's American Writers: A Journey Through History Samuel Clemens and His Cigars by Alejandro Benes, in Cigar Aficionado, Winter 1995/1996

Other

Literary Pilgrimages – Mark Twain
Mark Twain
sites PBS Twain Interactive Scrapbook and San Francisco
San Francisco
Chronicle article documenting that Clemens did not say "The coldest winter I ever spent was summer in San Francisco". The Fountain Pens used by Mark Twain article and rare pictures of Mark Twain
Mark Twain
and photographer Napoleon Sarony preserved color portrait of Twain sitting in garden in 1900 Google map with placemarks for places in America associated with Twain A film clip of Mark Twain
Mark Twain
is available at the Internet Archive

v t e

Mark Twain

Bibliography

Novels

The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today The Adventures of Tom Sawyer The Prince and the Pauper Adventures of Huckleberry Finn A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court The American Claimant Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
Abroad Pudd'nhead Wilson Tom Sawyer, Detective Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc A Double Barrelled Detective Story A Horse's Tale The Mysterious Stranger Hellfire Hotchkiss

Short stories

"The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" "Cannibalism in the Cars" "General Washington's Negro Body-Servant" "My Late Senatorial Secretaryship" "Some Learned Fables for Good Old Boys and Girls" "A Literary Nightmare" "A Murder, a Mystery, and a Marriage" "The Invalid's Story" "The Great Revolution in Pitcairn" "1601" "The Stolen White Elephant" "Luck" "The Million Pound Bank Note" "A Double Barrelled Detective Story" "Those Extraordinary Twins" "The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg" "A Dog's Tale" "Extracts from Adam's Diary" "The War Prayer" "Eve's Diary" "Captain Stormfield's Visit to Heaven" "My Platonic Sweetheart" "The Private Life of Adam and Eve" "Advice to Little Girls" "The Purloining of Prince Oleomargarine"

Short story collections

Mark Twain's (Burlesque) Autobiography and First Romance Sketches New and Old A True Story and the Recent Carnival of Crime Punch, Brothers, Punch! and Other Sketches Mark Twain's Library of Humor Merry Tales The £1,000,000 Bank Note and Other New Stories The $30,000 Bequest and Other Stories The Curious Republic of Gondour and Other Whimsical Sketches The Washoe Giant in San Francisco

Plays

Is He Dead? Colonel Sellers Colonel Sellers as a Scientist

Essays

"The Awful German Language" "Advice to Youth" "English As She Is Taught" How to Tell a Story and Other Essays "Concerning the Jews" "A Salutation Speech From the Nineteenth Century to the Twentieth" "To the Person Sitting in Darkness" "To My Missionary
Missionary
Critics" "Edmund Burke on Croker and Tammany" "What Is Man?" "Queen Victoria's Jubilee" "The United States of Lyncherdom" "Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses" Letters from the Earth

Non-fiction

Territorial Enterprise
Territorial Enterprise
letters Letters from Hawaii The Innocents Abroad Roughing It Old Times on the Mississippi A Tramp Abroad Life on the Mississippi Following the Equator Is Shakespeare Dead? Autobiography of Mark Twain Mark Twain's Notebook King Leopold's Soliloquy The Private History of a Campaign That Failed Mark Twain's Weapons of Satire The Bible According to Mark Twain Christian Science

Speeches

"Some Thoughts on the Science of Onanism" "Votes for Women"

Places and events

Conception Birthplace Historic Site

State Park

Boyhood Home and Museum Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Cave Mark Twain
Mark Twain
in Nevada

Territorial Enterprise Sagebrush School

Mark Twain
Mark Twain
House, Hartford, Connecticut Stormfield Publisher, Ulysses S. Grant's memoirs Twain–Ament indemnities controversy

In popular culture

Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Prize for American Humor Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Tonight! The Adventures of Mark Twain
Mark Twain
(1944 film) The Adventures of Mark Twain
Mark Twain
(1985 film) Mark Twain: The Musical

Family

Olivia Langdon Clemens
Olivia Langdon Clemens
(wife) Susy Clemens
Susy Clemens
(daughter) Clara Clemens
Clara Clemens
(daughter) Jean Clemens (daughter) John M. Clemens (father) Orion Clemens
Orion Clemens
(brother)

Related

Jap Herron

Associated subjects

v t e

Mark Twain's The Prince and the Pauper
The Prince and the Pauper
(1881)

Characters

Prince Edward Tudor Tom Canty

Films

The Prince and the Pauper
The Prince and the Pauper
(1915) The Prince and the Pauper
The Prince and the Pauper
(1920) The Prince and the Pauper
The Prince and the Pauper
(1937) Raja Aur Runk (1968) The Prince and the Pauper
The Prince and the Pauper
(1977) The Prince and the Surfer (1999) The Twins (2005) A Modern Twain Story: The Prince and the Pauper
The Prince and the Pauper
(2007) I Am the King
I Am the King
(2012)

Animated

The Prince and the Pauper
The Prince and the Pauper
(1990) Barbie as the Princess and the Pauper
Barbie as the Princess and the Pauper
(2004) Garfield: A Tail of Two Kitties (2006) "Double, Double, Boy in Trouble" (2008) "Princess and the Popstar" (2011) Barbie: The Princess and the Popstar
Princess and the Popstar
(2012)

Related

List of adaptations Cultural depictions of Edward VI of England Jake & Blake Trading Places Beggar Prince "King of Spain" "The Principal and the Pauper"

v t e

Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
and Huckleberry Finn
Huckleberry Finn
by Mark Twain

Characters

Huckleberry Finn Tom Sawyer Jim

Books

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
(1876) Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
(1884) Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
Abroad (1894) Tom Sawyer, Detective
Tom Sawyer, Detective
(1896) Schoolhouse Hill (1916)

Film

Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
(1907) Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
(1917) Huck and Tom
Huck and Tom
(1918) Huckleberry Finn
Huckleberry Finn
(1920) Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
(1930) Huckleberry Finn
Huckleberry Finn
(1931) The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
(1938) The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
(1939) The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
(1960) Hopelessly Lost
Hopelessly Lost
(1973) Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
(1973) Huckleberry Finn
Huckleberry Finn
(1974) Huckleberry Finn
Huckleberry Finn
(1975) The Adventures of Huck Finn (1993) Tom and Huck
Tom and Huck
(1995) Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
(2000) Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
& Huckleberry Finn
Huckleberry Finn
(2014)

Television

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
(1955) The New Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
(1968) Huckleberry no Bōken
Huckleberry no Bōken
(1976) Huckleberry Finn
Huckleberry Finn
and His Friends (1979) The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
(1980) Back to Hannibal: The Return of Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
and Huckleberry Finn
Huckleberry Finn
(1990)

Video games

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
(1989) Square's Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
(1989)

Stage

Big River The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
(musical)

Other

Huckleberry Finn
Huckleberry Finn
(EP)

v t e

Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court

Films

A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
(1921 silent) A Connecticut Yankee (1931) A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
(1949) Knight-mare Hare (1955) Unidentified Flying Oddball
Unidentified Flying Oddball
(1979) New Adventures of a Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1988) A Kid in King Arthur's Court
A Kid in King Arthur's Court
(1995) A Knight in Camelot (1998)

A Connecticut Yankee

"To Keep My Love Alive" "Thou Swell" "My Heart Stood Still"

v t e

Mark Twain's "The Million Pound Bank Note" (1893)

Films

The One Million Pound Note (1916) The Million Pound Note
The Million Pound Note
(1954) A Million to Juan
A Million to Juan
(1994)

Related

Trading Places
Trading Places
(1983)

v t e

Hall of Fame for Great Americans

John Adams John Quincy Adams Jane Addams Louis Agassiz Susan B. Anthony John James Audubon George Bancroft Clara Barton Henry Ward Beecher Alexander Graham Bell Daniel Boone Edwin Booth Louis Brandeis Phillips Brooks William Cullen Bryant Luther Burbank Andrew Carnegie George Washington
George Washington
Carver William Ellery Channing Rufus Choate Henry Clay Grover Cleveland James Fenimore Cooper Peter Cooper Charlotte Cushman James Buchanan Eads Thomas Alva Edison Jonathan Edwards Ralph Waldo Emerson David Farragut Stephen Foster Benjamin Franklin Robert Fulton Josiah W. Gibbs William C. Gorgas Ulysses S. Grant Asa Gray Alexander Hamilton Nathaniel Hawthorne Joseph Henry Patrick Henry Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Mark Hopkins Elias Howe Washington Irving Andrew Jackson Thomas J. Jackson Thomas Jefferson John Paul Jones James Kent Sidney Lanier Robert E. Lee Abraham Lincoln Henry Wadsworth Longfellow James Russell Lowell Mary Lyon Edward MacDowell James Madison Horace Mann John Marshall Matthew Fontaine Maury Albert A. Michelson Maria Mitchell James Monroe Samuel F. B. Morse William T. G. Morton John Lothrop Motley Simon Newcomb Thomas Paine Alice Freeman Palmer Francis Parkman George Peabody William Penn Edgar Allan Poe Walter Reed Franklin D. Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Augustus Saint-Gaudens William Tecumseh Sherman John Philip Sousa Joseph Story Harriet Beecher Stowe Gilbert Stuart Sylvanus Thayer Henry David Thoreau Mark Twain Lillian Wald Booker T. Washington George Washington Daniel Webster George Westinghouse James McNeill Whistler Walt Whitman Eli Whitney John Greenleaf Whittier Emma Willard Frances E. Willard Roger Williams Woodrow Wilson Orville Wright Wilbur Wright

v t e

Criticism of religion

By religion

Bahá'í Faith Buddhism Christianity

Catholic

Opus Dei

Jehovah's Witnesses Latter Day Saint movement Protestantism Seventh-day Adventist Unification Church Westboro Baptist Church

Hinduism Islam

Islamism Twelver Shia Islam Wahhabism

Jainism Judaism Monotheism New religious movement Scientology Sikhism Yazdânism Zoroastrianism

Religious texts

Bible Quran Hadiths Mormon sacred texts

Book
Book
of Mormon

Talmud

Religious figures

Aisha Charles Taze Russell Ellen White Jesus Moses Muhammad Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Saul

Religious violence

Buddhism Christianity

Mormonism

Judaism Islam Terrorism

Christian Hindu Islamic Jewish

Persecution

Christian thought on persecution and tolerance

War

In Islam In Judaism

Sectarian violence By country

India

Anti-Christian violence In Odisha

Nigeria Pakistan

Books

Atheist Manifesto Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon Christianity Unveiled God
God
in the Age of Science? God
God
Is Not Great God: The Failed Hypothesis Letter to a Christian Nation The Age of Reason The Blind Watchmaker The Caged Virgin The End of Faith The God
God
Delusion The Rage Against God Why I Am Not a Christian Why I Am Not a Muslim Books critical of Christianity Books critical of Islam

Movements

Agnosticism Antitheism Atheism Criticism of atheism Cārvāka New Atheism Nontheistic religions Parody religion

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 50566653 LCCN: n79021164 ISNI: 0000 0003 6864 1704 GND: 118624822 SELIBR: 98057 SUDOC: 027171876 BNF: cb11927291n (data) BIBSYS: 90056487 ULAN: 500020427 MusicBrainz: 4d584c99-249e-493f-8c5f-d022bd8de433 NLA: 35028957 NDL: 00459304 NKC: jn19981002263 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV02662 RLS: 000083946 BNE: XX945

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