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Marianne
Marianne
(pronounced [maʁjan]) is a national symbol of the French Republic, a personification of liberty and reason, and a portrayal of the Goddess of Liberty. Marianne
Marianne
is displayed in many places in France
France
and holds a place of honour in town halls and law courts. She symbolizes the Triumph of the Republic, a bronze sculpture overlooking the Place de la Nation
Place de la Nation
in Paris, and is represented with another Parisian statue in the Place de la République. Her profile stands out on the official government logo of the country, is engraved on French euro coins
French euro coins
and appears on French postage stamps;[1] it was also featured on the former franc currency. Marianne
Marianne
is one of the most prominent symbols of the French Republic, and is officially used on most government documents. Marianne
Marianne
is a significant republican symbol. As a national icon she represents opposition to monarchy and the championship of freedom and democracy against all forms of oppression. Other national symbols of France
France
include the tricolor flag, the national motto Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité, the national anthem "La Marseillaise", as well as the coat of arms and the official Great Seal of France.

20 French Centime
Centime
with Marianne
Marianne
on Obverse.

Obverse: Marianne
Marianne
wearing the Phrygian cap
Phrygian cap
of liberty. Reverse: Face value and French motto: "Liberté, égalité, fraternité".

This coin was minted from 1962 to 2001.

Contents

1 History

1.1 The First Republic 1.2 The Second Republic 1.3 The Second Empire 1.4 The Third Republic 1.5 Fifth Republic

2 Origin of the name 3 Models 4 Government logo 5 Debate about Islamic dress 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit]

Liberty
Liberty
Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix
Eugène Delacroix
(1830), which celebrates the July Revolution
July Revolution
(Louvre Museum).

In classical times it was common to represent ideas and abstract entities by gods, goddesses and allegorical personifications. Less common during the Middle Ages, this practice resurfaced during the Renaissance. During the French Revolution
French Revolution
of 1789, many allegorical personifications of 'Liberty' and 'Reason' appeared. These two figures finally merged into one: a female figure, shown either sitting or standing, and accompanied by various attributes, including the tricolor cockade and the Phrygian cap. This woman typically symbolised Liberty, Reason, the Nation, the Homeland, and the civic virtues of the Republic. (Compare the Statue of Liberty, created as Liberty Enlightening the World by French artist Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, with a copy in both Paris and Saint-Étienne.) In September 1792, the National Convention
National Convention
decided by decree that the new seal of the state would represent a standing woman holding a spear with a Phrygian cap held aloft on top of it. Historian Maurice Agulhon, who in several well-known works set out on a detailed investigation to discover the origins of Marianne, suggests that it is the traditions and mentality of the French that led to the use of a woman to represent the Republic. [2] A feminine allegory was also a manner to symbolise the breaking with the old monarchy headed by kings, and promote modern republican ideology. Even before the French Revolution, the Kingdom of France
France
was embodied in masculine figures, as depicted in certain ceilings of Palace of Versailles. Furthermore, France
France
and the Republic
Republic
themselves are, in French, feminine nouns (la France, la République),[3] as are the French nouns for liberty (fr:Liberté) and reason (fr:Raison). The use of this emblem was initially unofficial and very diverse. A female allegory of Liberty
Liberty
and of the Republic
Republic
makes an appearance in Eugène Delacroix's painting Liberty
Liberty
Leading the People, painted in July 1830 in honour of the Three Glorious Days
Three Glorious Days
(or July Revolution
July Revolution
of 1830). The First Republic[edit]

Bust of Marianne, displayed in the corridors of the Luxembourg Palace, seat of the French Senate. (anonymous artist)

Although the image of Marianne
Marianne
did not garner significant attention until 1792, the origins of this "goddess of Liberty" date back to 1775, when Jean-Michel Moreau
Jean-Michel Moreau
painted her as a young woman dressed in Roman style clothing with a Phrygian cap
Phrygian cap
atop a pike held in one hand [4] that years later would become a national symbol across France. Marianne
Marianne
made her first major appearance in the French spotlight on a medal in July 1789, celebrating the storming of the Bastille and other early events of the Revolution. From this time until September 1792, the image of Marianne
Marianne
was overshadowed by other figures such as Mercury and Minerva.[4] It was not until September 1792 when the new Republic
Republic
sought a new image to represent the State that her popularity began to expand. Marianne, the female allegory of Liberty, was chosen to represent the new regime of the French Republic, while remaining to symbolise liberty at the same time.[5] The imagery of Marianne
Marianne
chosen as the seal of the First French Republic
Republic
depicted her standing, young and determined.[6] It was symbolic of the First Republic
Republic
itself, a newly created state that had much to prove. Marianne
Marianne
is clad in a classical gown.[5] In her right hand, she wields the pike of revolution with the Phrygian cap
Phrygian cap
resting on it, which represents the liberation of France.[6] Marianne
Marianne
is shown leaning on a fasces, a symbol of authority. Although she is standing and holding a pike, this depiction of Marianne
Marianne
is "not exactly aggressive",[6] representing the ideology of the moderate-liberal Girondins
Girondins
in the National Convention
National Convention
as they tried to move away from the "frantic violence of the revolutionary days".[4] Although the initial figure of Marianne
Marianne
from 1792 stood in a relatively conservative pose, the revolutionaries were quick to abandon that figure when it no longer suited them. By 1793, the conservative figure of Marianne
Marianne
had been replaced by a more violent image; that of a woman, bare-breasted and fierce of visage, often leading men into battle.[6] The reason behind this switch stems from the shifting priorities of the Republic. Although the Marianne
Marianne
symbol was initially neutral in tone, the shift to radical action was in response to the beginning of the Terror, which called for militant revolutionary action against foreigners and counter-revolutionaries. As part of the tactics the administration employed, the more radical Marianne
Marianne
was intended to rouse the French people
French people
to action.[5] Even this change, however, was seen to be insufficiently radical by the republicans. After the arrest of the Girondin deputies in October 1793, the Convention sought to "recast the Republic
Republic
in a more radical mold",[7] eventually using the symbol of Hercules to represent the Republic. The use of increasingly radical images to symbolise the Republic
Republic
was in direct parallel to the beginning of the violence that came to be known as the Reign of Terror. After the Reign of Terror, there was a need for another change in the imagery, to showcase the more civil and non-violent nature of the Directory. In the Official Vignette of the Executive Directory, 1798, Marianne
Marianne
made a return, still depicted wearing the Phrygian cap, but now surrounded by different symbols. In contrast to the Marianne
Marianne
of 1792, this Marianne
Marianne
"holds no pike or lance", and leans "languorously" on the tablet of the Constitution of Year III.[8] Instead of looking straight at the observer, she casts her gaze towards the side, thus appearing less confrontational.[8] Similar imagery was used in the poster of the Republic's new calendar. The symbol of Marianne
Marianne
continued to evolve in response to the needs of the State long after the Directory was dissolved in 1799 following the coup spearheaded by Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès
Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès
and Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte. Whereas Mercury and Minerva and other symbolic figures diminished in prominence over the course of French history, Marianne
Marianne
endured because of her abstraction and impersonality.[6] The "malleability" of what she symbolised [4] allowed French political figures to continually manipulate her image to their specific purposes at any given time.

Great Seal of France
France
(1848). The headdress of the Republic
Republic
is identical to that of the Statue of Liberty. Both are prominent republican symbols.

The Second Republic[edit] On 17 March 1848, the Ministry of the Interior of the newly founded Second Republic
Republic
launched a contest to symbolise the Republic
Republic
on paintings, sculptures, medals, money and seals, as no official representations of it existed. After the fall of the monarchy, the Provisional Government had declared: "The image of liberty should replace everywhere the images of corruption and shame, which have been broken in three days by the magnanimous French people." For the first time, the allegory of Marianne
Marianne
condensed into itself Liberty, the Republic
Republic
and the Revolution. Two "Mariannes" were authorised. One is fighting and victorious, recalling the Greek goddess Athena: she has a bare breast, the Phrygian cap
Phrygian cap
and a red corsage, and has an arm lifted in a gesture of rebellion. The other is more conservative: she is rather quiet, wearing clothes in a style of Antiquity, with sun rays around her head—a transfer of the royal symbol to the Republic—and is accompanied by many symbols (wheat, a plough and the fasces of the Roman lictors). These two, rival Mariannes represent two ideas of the Republic, a bourgeois representation and a democratic and social representation – the June Days Uprising
June Days Uprising
hadn't yet occurred. Town halls voluntarily chose to have representations of Marianne, often turning her back to the church. Marianne
Marianne
made her first appearance on a French postage stamp in 1849.[3] The Second Empire[edit] During the Second Empire (1852–1870), this depiction became clandestine and served as a symbol of protest against the regime. The common use of the name "Marianne" for the depiction of "Liberty" started around 1848/1851, becoming generalised throughout France around 1875. The Third Republic[edit]

The 1904 cartoon on the Entente Cordiale
Entente Cordiale
from Punch by John Bernard Partridge; John Bull
John Bull
stalks off with a defiant Marianne
Marianne
and turns his back on the Kaiser, who pretends not to care.

" Freedom for France, freedom for the French " Marianne
Marianne
(1940)

The usage began to be more official during the Third Republic (1870–1940). The Hôtel de Ville in Paris (city hall) displayed a statue of "Marianne" wearing a Phrygian cap
Phrygian cap
in 1880, and was quickly followed by the other French cities. In Paris, where the Radicals had a strong presence, a contest was launched for the statue of Place de la République. It was won by the Morice brothers (with Léopold Morice producing the sculpture and the architect François-Charles Morice designing the pedestal), in 1879, with an academical Marianne, with an arm lifted towards the sky and a Phrygian cap, but with her breasts covered. Aimé-Jules Dalou
Aimé-Jules Dalou
lost the contest against the Morice brothers, but the City of Paris decided to build his monument on the Place de la Nation, inaugurated for the centenary of the French Revolution, in 1889, with a plaster version covered in bronze. Dalou's Marianne
Marianne
had the lictor's fasces, the Phrygian cap, a bare breast, and was accompanied by a Blacksmith representing Work, and allegories of Freedom, Justice, Education and Peace: all that the Republic
Republic
was supposed to bring to its citizens. The final bronze monument was inaugurated in 1899, in the turmoil of the Dreyfus Affair, with Waldeck-Rousseau, a Radical, in power. The ceremony was accompanied by a huge demonstration of workers, with red flags. The government's officials, wearing black redingotes, quit the ceremony. Marianne
Marianne
had been reappropriated by the workers, but as the representative of the Social and Democratic Republic
Republic
(la République démocratique et sociale, or simply La Sociale). From the signing of the Entente Cordiale
Entente Cordiale
between France
France
and Britain in April 1904, Marianne
Marianne
and John Bull
John Bull
personalised the agreement in a number of paintings and cartoons, most famously the Punch cartoon by John Bernard Partridge. Few Mariannes were depicted in the First World War memorials, but some living models of Marianne
Marianne
appeared in 1936, during the Popular Front as they had during the Second Republic
Republic
(then stigmatized by the right-wing press as "unashamed prostitutes"). During World War II, Marianne
Marianne
represented Liberty
Liberty
against the Nazi invaders, and the Republic
Republic
against the Vichy regime
Vichy regime
(see Paul Collin's representation). During Vichy, 120 of the 427 monuments of Marianne
Marianne
were melted, while the Milice
Milice
took out its statues in town halls in 1943.[3] Fifth Republic[edit]

Marianne
Marianne
« La semeuse » on a five French francs
French francs
coin (1970).

Marianne's presence became less important after World War II, although General Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
made a large use of it, in particular on stamps or for the referendums. The most recent subversive and revolutionary appearance of Marianne
Marianne
was during May '68. The liberal and conservative president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
replaced Marianne by La Poste on stamps, changed the rhythm of the Marseillaise
Marseillaise
and suppressed the commemoration of 8 May 1945. During the bicentenary of the Revolution, in 1989, Marianne
Marianne
hardly made any public appearance. The Socialist President François Mitterrand aimed to make the celebrations a consensual event, gathering all citizens, recalling more the Republic
Republic
than the Revolution. The American opera singer Jessye Norman
Jessye Norman
took Marianne's place, singing La Marseillaise
La Marseillaise
as part of an elaborate pageant orchestrated by avant-garde designer Jean-Paul Goude. The Republic, after harsh internal fighting throughout the 19th century and even the 20th century (6 February 1934 crisis, Vichy, etc.), had become consensual; the vast majority of French citizens were now republicans, leading to a lesser importance of a cult of Marianne.[3] Origin of the name[edit]

Marianne
Marianne
in Jonzac
Jonzac
(1894). The sculpture is similar to Liberty Enlightening the World, commonly known as the Statue of Liberty.[9]

At the time of the French Revolution, as the most common of people were fighting for their rights, it seemed fitting to name the Republic after the most common of French women's names : Marie (Mary) and Anne. The account made of their exploits by the Revolutionaries often contained a reference to a certain Marianne
Marianne
(or Marie-Anne) wearing a Phrygian cap. This pretty girl of legend inspired the revolutionaries, and looked after those wounded in the many battles across the country. A recent discovery establishes that the first written mention of the name of Marianne
Marianne
to designate the Republic
Republic
appeared in October 1792 in Puylaurens
Puylaurens
in the Tarn département near Toulouse. At that time people used to sing a song in the Provençal dialect of Occitan
Occitan
by the poet Guillaume Lavabre: "La garisou de Marianno" (French: "La guérison de Marianne"; "Marianne's recovery (from illness)"). At the time Marie-Anne was a very popular first name; according to Agulhon, it "was chosen to designate a régime that also saw itself as popular."[10] Some believe that the name came from the name of the Spanish Jesuit Juan de Mariana, the 16th century Monarchomach, a theoretician of tyrannicide. Others think it was the image of the wife of the politician Jean Reubell: according to an old 1797 story, Barras, one of the members of the Directoire, during an evening spent at Reubell's, asked his hostess for her name—"Marie-Anne," she replied—"Perfect," Barras exclaimed, "It is a short and simple name, which befits the Republic
Republic
just as much as it does yourself, Madame."[citation needed] The description by artist Honoré Daumier
Honoré Daumier
in 1848, as a mother nursing two children, Romulus
Romulus
and Remus, or by sculptor François Rude, during the July Monarchy, as a warrior voicing the Marseillaise
Marseillaise
on the Arc de Triomphe, are uncertain. The name of Marianne
Marianne
also appears to be connected with several republican secret societies. During the Second Empire, one of them, whose members had sworn to overthrow the monarchy, had taken her name. In any case, she has become a symbol in France: considered as a personification of the Republic, she was often used on republican iconography – and sometimes caricatured and reviled by those against the republic, especially royalists and monarchists. Models[edit]

Demonstration against same-sex marriage in Paris on 13 January 2013 by the group “Manif pour tous”.

The official busts of Marianne
Marianne
initially had anonymous features, appearing as women of the people. From 1969 however they began to take on the features of famous women, starting with the actress Brigitte Bardot.[3] She was followed by Mireille Mathieu
Mireille Mathieu
(1978), Catherine Deneuve (1985), Inès de La Fressange
Inès de La Fressange
(1989), Laetitia Casta (2000) and Évelyne Thomas (2003). Laetitia Casta was named the symbolic representation of France's Republic
Republic
in October 1999 in a vote open for the first time to the country's more than 36,000 mayors. She won from a shortlist of five candidates, scoring 36% among the 15,000 that voted. The other candidates were Estelle Hallyday, Patricia Kaas, Daniela Lumbroso, Lætitia Milot
Lætitia Milot
and Nathalie Simon.[11] In July 2013, a new stamp featuring the Marianne
Marianne
was debuted by President François Hollande, allegedly designed by the team of Olivier Ciappa and David Kawena. Ciappa claimed that Inna Shevchenko, a high-profile member of the Ukrainian protest group FEMEN
FEMEN
who had recently been granted political asylum in France, was a main inspiration for the new Marianne.[12] However, Kawena and his attorney later claimed that Ciappa was falsely representing himself as having had any level of creative input on the artwork. Kawena further stated that Shevchenko, or any other figure that Ciappa claimed to be an inspiration, was in no way the model for the work, and has sued Ciappa for violation of copyright on the Marianne
Marianne
artwork.[13][14] Ciappa later refuted the claims that Kawena was ignored, and also revealed his legal name ("David Kawena" being a pseudonym taken from the Lilo & Stitch films) in a retaliatory press release; Xavier Héraud, a writer for Yagg (a French LGBT news site), noted that in a 2013 Huffington Post
Huffington Post
piece by Ciappa[15] he never refers to Kawena and claims authorship of the images within the post.[16] Yagg later reported on a response to their posting from Ciappa where he said that he was not in editorial control of the Huffington Post
Huffington Post
piece and did not intend to have the phrasing be "My Marianne" as accused by Kawena in his suit; Yagg later contacted Huffington Post
Huffington Post
who informed them that they sent a draft for Ciappa to look at prior to publishing, which is the current version of the article.[17] Government logo[edit] Blue-white-red, Marianne, Liberté-Égalité-Fraternité, the Republic: these national symbols represent France, as a state and its values. Since September 1999, they have been combined in a new "identifier" created by the Plural Left government of Lionel Jospin under the aegis of the French Government Information Service (SIG) and the public relations officials in the principal ministries. As a federating identifier of the government departments, it appears on a wide range of material—brochures, internal and external publications, publicity campaigns, letter headings, business cards, etc.—emanating from the government, starting with the various ministries (which are able to continue using their own logo in combination with this) and the préfectures and départements.[18] Debate about Islamic dress[edit] Marianne
Marianne
has featured prominently in the Islamic scarf controversy in France
France
as a symbol of a certain idea of Frenchness. The American historian Joan Wallach Scott
Joan Wallach Scott
wrote in 2016 that it is no accident that Marianne
Marianne
is often depicted as bare-breasted regardless of where she is or what she is doing, as this reflects the French ideal of a woman, which has been used as an argument for why Islamic dress for women is not French.[19] Scott wrote the topless Marianne
Marianne
has become "...the embodiment of emancipated French women in contrast to the veiled woman said to be subordinated by Islam".[20] Later in 2016, the French Premier Manuel Valls
Manuel Valls
stated in a speech that the burkini swimsuit was an “enslavement” of women and that Marianne
Marianne
was usually topless which The Economist noted: "The implication seemed to be that women in burkinis are un-French, while true French women go topless."[21] In a speech on 29 August 2016, Valls said: “ Marianne
Marianne
has a naked breast because she is feeding the people! She is not veiled, because she is free! That is the republic!”.[22] Angelique Chisafis of The Guardian newspaper reported: "The inference that bare breasts were a symbol of France
France
while the Muslim headscarf was problematic sparked scorn from politicians and derision from historians and feminists".[23] The French president François Hollande
François Hollande
sparked much debate in France
France
with his controversial statement “The veiled woman will be the Marianne of tomorrow”.[24] Gallery[edit]

The Statue of Republic
Republic
by Léopold Morice
Léopold Morice
(1880), on the Place de la République, Paris . 

Le triomphe de la République (The Triumph of the Republic) by Aimé-Jules Dalou
Aimé-Jules Dalou
(1899), on the Place de la Nation, Paris. 

Marianne
Marianne
helmeted version (Louis-Oscar Roty). Randalls Lost NYC collection. 

Statue of Marianne
Marianne
in the post office of the French Assemblée Nationale. 

Bust of Marianne
Marianne
(2007). 

Masonic Marianne
Marianne
by Jacques France
France
(1879). 

Logo of the French government (since 1999) 

See also[edit]

National personification, contains the list of personifications for various nations and territories. Statue of Liberty
Liberty
( Liberty
Liberty
Enlightening the World), a gift from the French people
French people
to the American people to commemorate the American Declaration of Independence. Columbia, an equivalent symbol for the United States of America. Government of France

Notes[edit]

^ Marianne
Marianne
on French stamps ^ Agulhon, Maurice (1981). Marianne
Marianne
into Battle: Republican Imagery and Symbolism in France, 1789-1880.  ^ a b c d e Anne-Marie Sohn. Marianne
Marianne
ou l'histoire de l'idée républicaine aux XIXè et XXè siècles à la lumière de ses représentations (in French) ^ a b c d Hunt 1984, p. 62. ^ a b c Agulhon 1981, p. 18. ^ a b c d e Hunt 1984, p. 93. ^ Hunt 1984, p. 94. ^ a b Hunt 1984, p. 118. ^ Poitou-Charentes Region. "Monument commémoratif du Centenaire de la Révolution". La statue, réalisée par le sculpteur Gustave Michel, a été fondue par Louis Gasné. Elle représente une Liberté coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien ceint d'une couronne végétale. Elle porte un glaive suspendu à un baudrier, brandit de la main gauche le flambeau de la Liberté et maintient au sol de la main droite les Tables de la Loi, soit une position inverse de la statue de la Liberté de Bartholdi.  ^ Agulhon 1981, p. 10. ^ Laetitia Casta as Marianne
Marianne
Archived 10 August 2003 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "FEMEN's Inna Shevchenko
Inna Shevchenko
inspired France's Marianne
Marianne
stamp". BBC. 15 July 2013. The artist who designed the new Marianne
Marianne
image for French stamps has revealed that he was inspired by topless activist Inna Shevchenko.[...] The Ukrainian, who belongs to the protest group FEMEN, was recently granted political asylum in France.  ^ "Timbre Marianne: David Kawena affirme être le seul auteur et porte plainte contre Olivier Ciappa". Yagg. 2014-02-25. Retrieved 2014-05-16.  ^ "Timbre Femen : vers un procès en France". Lefigaro.fr. 2014-03-06. Retrieved 2014-05-16.  ^ "Olivier Ciappa: Pourquoi j'ai choisi une Femen pour Marianne". Huffingtonpost.fr. 15 July 2013. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2014.  ^ "Timbre Marianne: Olivier Ciappa se justifie, David Kawena sort de son silence". Yagg. 2014-03-03. Retrieved 2014-05-16.  ^ "Droit de réponse d'Olivier Ciappa". Yagg. 2014-03-21. Retrieved 2014-05-16.  ^ Service d'Information du Gouvernement (24 September 1999). "Charte Graphique de la Communication Gouvernementale" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2011.  ^ Scott Wallach, Joan (7 April 2016). "The Veil and the Political Unconscious of French Republicanism". Orient XXI. Retrieved 2015-11-29.  ^ Scott Wallach, Joan (7 April 2016). "The Veil and the Political Unconscious of French Republicanism". Orient XXI. Retrieved 2015-11-29.  ^ "Ill-Suited France's Identity Politics". The Economist. 3 September 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-04.  ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (30 August 2016). "French PM suggests naked breasts represent France
France
better than a headscarf". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-11-29.  ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (30 August 2016). "French PM suggests naked breasts represent France
France
better than a headscarf". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-11-29.  ^ "A president shouldn't say that ... but Hollande did anyway". Middle East Eye. 12 October 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-04. 

References[edit]

Agulhon, Maurice (1981). Marianne
Marianne
into Battle: Republican Imagery and Symbolism in France, 1789-1880. Translated by Janet Lloyd. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-28224-1. OCLC 461753884.  Hunt, Lynn (1984). Politics, Culture, and Class in the French Revolution. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05204-8.  Sohn, Anne-Marie (1998). " Marianne
Marianne
ou l'histoire de l'idée républicaine aux XIXè et XXè siècles à la lumière de ses représentations" [ Marianne
Marianne
or the History of the Republican Ideal in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries in the Light of its Representations]. In Agulhon, Maurice; Charle, Christophe; Laloutte, Jacqueline; Sohn, Anne-Marie; Pigenet, Michel. La F̈rance démocratique : (combats, mentalités, symboles) : mélanges offerts à Maurice Agulhon [Democratic France : (battles mentalities, symbols) : mélanges offered by Mauritius Agulhon]. Histoire de la France
France
aux XIXè et XXè siécles (in French). 45. Paris, France: Publications de la Sorbonne. ISBN 9782859443320. OCLC 61083007. 

Further reading[edit]

Censer, Jack R.; Hunt, Lynn (2001). Liberty, Equality and Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution. University Park, Penn.: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-02088-1.  Website <http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/>

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marianne.

Marianne
Marianne
- Official French website (in English) Marianne
Marianne
(French embassy in the USA) Marianne
Marianne
(French Prime Minister's office)

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(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire
Directoire
(1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist
Royalist
Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the

.