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The Maratha
Maratha
(IPA: [ˈˈməraʈʰa"]; IAST:Marāṭhā; archaically transliterated as Marhatta or Mahratta) is a group of castes in India found predominantly in the state of Maharashtra. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "Marathas are people of India, famed in history as yeoman warriors and champions of Hinduism"[1][note 1]. The Maratha
Maratha
group of castes is a largely rural class of peasant cultivators, landowners, and soldiers. They reside primarily in the Indian state of Maharashtra.[1]

Territory under Maratha
Maratha
control in 1760 (yellow), without its vassals.

Robert Vane Russell, an untrained ethnologist of the British Raj period, basing his research largely on Vedic
Vedic
literature,[2] wrote that the Marathas are subdivided into 96 different clans, known as the 96 Kuli Marathas or Shahānnau Kule[3] The general body of lists are often at great variance with each other.[4]

Contents

1 History 2 Internal diaspora 3 Varna status 4 Political participation 5 Military service 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 References 9 Further reading

History[edit]

Maratha
Maratha
armour

Typical Maratha
Maratha
helmet with curved back.

Maratha
Maratha
Armour from Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, Russia.

See also: Maratha
Maratha
Empire The term "Maratha" originally referred to the speakers of the Marathi language. In the 17th century, it emerged as a designation for soldiers serving in the armies of Deccan sultanates
Deccan sultanates
(and later Shivaji).[5] A number of Maratha
Maratha
warriors, including Shivaji's father, Shahaji, originally served in those Muslim armies.[6] By the mid-1660s, Shivaji
Shivaji
had established an independent Maratha
Maratha
kingdom.[7] After Shivaji's death, Marathas fought under his sons and defeated Aurangzeb in the war of 27 years. It was further expanded into a vast empire by the Maratha Confederacy
Maratha Confederacy
including Peshwas, stretching from central India[8] in the south, to Peshawar[9] (in modern-day Pakistan) on the Afghanistan border in the north, and with expeditions to Bengal in the east. By the 19th century, the empire had become a confederacy of individual states controlled by Maratha
Maratha
chiefs such as Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore, the Scindias of Gwalior, the Puars of Dhar and Dewas, and Bhonsles of Nagpur.[citation needed] The Confederacy remained the pre-eminent power in India until their defeat by the British East India Company
British East India Company
in the Third Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War (1817–1818).[10][page needed] By 19th century, the term Maratha
Maratha
had several interpretations in the British administrative records. In the Thane District
Thane District
Gazetteer of 1882, the term was used to denote elite layers within various castes: for example, "Maratha-Agri" within Agri caste, "Maratha-Koli" within Koli caste
Koli caste
and so on.[5] In the Pune District, the words Kunbi
Kunbi
and Maratha
Maratha
had become synonymous, giving rise to the Maratha- Kunbi
Kunbi
caste complex.[11] The Pune District Gazetteer of 1882 divided the Kunbis into two classes: Marathas and other Kunbis.[5] The 1901 census listed three groups within the Maratha- Kunbi
Kunbi
caste complex: "Marathas proper", " Maratha
Maratha
Kunbis" and Konkan Maratha.[12] According to Steele, in the early 19th century, Kunbis, who were agriculturists and the Marathas who claimed Rajput descent and Kshatriya
Kshatriya
status - were distinguished by their customs related to widow remarriage. The Kunbis allowed it and the higher status Marathas prohibited it. However, there is no statistical evidence for this.[13] The Maratha
Maratha
population was more than 31% in Western Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and the Kunbi
Kunbi
was 7%, whereas the upper castes - Brahmins, Saraswats, Prabhus(CKPs, Pathare Prabhus) were only about 4% of the population. The Other Backward Class population (other than the Kunbi) was 27% while the population of the Mahars was 8%.[14] Gradually, the term Maratha
Maratha
came to denote an endogamous caste.[5] From 1900 onwards, the Satyashodhak Samaj movement defined the Marathas as a broader social category of non- Brahmin
Brahmin
groups.[15] These non-Brahmins gained prominence in Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
during the Indian independence movement. In independent India, these Marathas became the dominant political force in the newly-formed state of Maharashtra.[16] The caste hierarchy in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
is led by the Brahmins - Deshasthas, Chitpawans, Karhades, Saraswats and the CKPs. The Maratha are ranked lower than the Pathare Prabhus, CKPs, Brahmins etc. in the caste hierarchy but are considered higher than the Kunbi
Kunbi
, backward castes and castes that were considered ritually impure.[17][18][19][20] Internal diaspora[edit]

Arms of Maratha

Leaving for the Hunt, Gwalior, Edwin Lord Weeks, 1887

The empire also resulted in the voluntary relocation of substantial numbers of Maratha
Maratha
and other Marathi-speaking people outside Maharashtra, and across a big part of India. Today several small but significant communities descended from these emigrants live in the north, south and west of India. These descendant communities tend often to speak the local languages, although many also speak Marathi in addition. Notable Maratha
Maratha
families outside Maharashtra
Maharashtra
include Bhonsle
Bhonsle
of Tanjore, Scindia
Scindia
of Gwalior, Gaekwad
Gaekwad
of Baroda, Holkar
Holkar
of Indore, Puar of Dewas and Dhar, Ghorpade of Mudhol.[citation needed] Varna status[edit] The varna of the Maratha
Maratha
is a contested issue, with arguments for their being of the Kshatriya
Kshatriya
(warrior) varna, and others for their being of Shudra
Shudra
origins. This issue was the subject of antagonism between the Brahmins and Marathas, dating back to the time of Pratap Singh, but by the late 19th century moderate Brahmins were keen to ally with the influential Marathas of Bombay in the interests of Indian independence from Britain. These Brahmins supported the Maratha claim to Kshatriya
Kshatriya
status, but their success in this political alliance was sporadic and fell apart entirely following independence in 1947.[21] As late as the turn of 20th century, the Brahmin
Brahmin
priests of Shahu, the Maratha
Maratha
ruler of Kolhapur refused to use Vedic
Vedic
mantras and would not take a bath before chanting, on the grounds that even the leading Marathas such as Shahu and his family belonged to the Shudra
Shudra
varna. This opinion about the Shudra
Shudra
varna was supported by Brahmin
Brahmin
Councils in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and they stuck to their opinion even when they (the Brahmins) were threatened with the loss of land and property. This led to Shahu supporting Satyashodhak Samaj as well as campaigning for the rights of the Maratha
Maratha
community.[22][23] He soon became the leader of the non- Brahmin
Brahmin
movement and united the Marathas under his banner.[24][25] In the 21st century, the Government of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
cited historical incidents for the claim of Shudra
Shudra
status of prominent Maratha
Maratha
families to form a case for reservation for the Marathas in the state.[26] Political participation[edit] The 1919 Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms
Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms
of the British colonial government called for caste based representation in legislative council.In anticipation a Maratha
Maratha
league party was formed. The league and other groups came together to form the non-Brahmins party in the Marathi speaking areas in the early 1920s under the leadership of Maratha
Maratha
leaders Keshavrao Jedhe and Baburao javalkar.Their early goals in that period were capturing the Ganpati and Shivaji
Shivaji
festivals from Brahmin
Brahmin
domination.[27] They combined nationalism with anti-casteism as the party's aims.[28]Later on in the 1930s, Jedhe merged the non- Brahmin
Brahmin
party with the Congress party and changed the Congress party in the Maharashtra
Maharashtra
region from an upper-caste dominated body to a more broadly based but Maratha-dominated party.[29].Apart from Jedhe,most Congress leaders from the Maratha
Maratha
/ Kunbi
Kunbi
community remained aloof from the Samyukta Maharashtra
Maharashtra
campaign of the 1950s.However,they have dominated the state politics of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
since its inception in 1960.[30] The INC was the preferred party of the Maratha/ Kunbi
Kunbi
community in the early days of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and the party was long without a major challenger, and enjoyed overwhelming support from the Maratha dominated sugar co-operatives and thousands of other cooperative organizations involved in the rural agricultural economy of the state such as marketing of dairy and vegetable produce, credit unions etc.[31][32] The domination by Marathas of the cooperative institutions and with it the rural economic power allowed the community to control politics from the village level up to the Assembly and Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
seats.[33][34]Since the 1980s, this group has also been active in setting up private educational institutions.[35][36][37] Major past political figures of Congress party from Maharashtra
Maharashtra
such as Keshavrao Jedhe, Yashwantrao Chavan[38], Shankarrao Chavan
Shankarrao Chavan
and Vilasrao Deshmukh
Vilasrao Deshmukh
have been from this group.[citation needed] Sharad Pawar, who had been a towering figure in Maharashtrian and national politics, belongs to this group.[39] The state has had many Maratha
Maratha
government ministers and officials, as well as in local municipal commissions, and panchayats. Marathas comprise around 32 per cent of the state population.[40][41] 10 out of 16 chief ministers of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
hailed from the Maratha
Maratha
community as of 2012.[42] The rise of the Hindu Nationalist Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
and Bharatiya Janata Party in recent years have not dented Maratha
Maratha
representation in Maharashtra Legislative assembly.[43] Military service[edit] Beginning early in the 20th century, the British categorized Maratha as a "martial race".[44] Earlier listings of martial races had often excluded them, with Lord Roberts, commander-in-chief of the Indian Army 1885–1893, stating the need to substitute "more warlike and hardy races for the Hindusthani sepoys of Bengal, the Tamils and Telugus of Madras and the so-called Marathas of Bombay."[45] Historian Sikata Banerjee notes a dissonance in British military opinions of the Maratha, wherein the British portrayed them as both "formidable opponents" and yet not "properly qualified" for fighting, criticising the Maratha
Maratha
guerrilla tactics as an improper way of war. Banerjee cites an 1859 statement as emblematic of this disparity:

There is something noble in the carriage of an ordinary Rajput, and something vulgar in that of the most distinguished Mahratta. The Rajput is the most worthy antagonist, the Mahratta the most formidable enemy.[46]

The Maratha Light Infantry
Maratha Light Infantry
regiment is one of the "oldest and most renowned" regiments of the Indian Army.[47] Its First Battalion, also known as the Jangi Paltan ("Warrior Platoon"),[48] traces its origins to 1768 as part of the Bombay Sepoys. The battle cry of Maratha Light Infantry
Maratha Light Infantry
is Bol Shri Chattrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
Maharaj ki Jai! ("Hail Victory to Emperor Shivaji!") in tribute to the Maratha
Maratha
sovereign and their motto is Shatrujeet (victory over enemy).[49] See also[edit]

Maratha
Maratha
clan system List of Maratha
Maratha
dynasties and states List of notable Maratha
Maratha
People Marhatta region Thanjavur Marathi people Maratha
Maratha
People in Uttar Pradesh

Footnotes[edit]

^ The cited source is ambiguous as to what group of people it is referring to when it states "Marathas are people of India, famed in history as yeoman warriors and champions of Hinduism". It is not clear whether Maratha
Maratha
means Marathi people
Marathi people
in this context or the people belonging to Maratha
Maratha
caste

References[edit]

^ a b " Maratha
Maratha
(people)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 July 2013.  ^ Bates, Crispin (1995). "Race, Caste and Tribe
Tribe
in Central India: the early origins of Indian anthropometry". In Robb, Peter. The Concept of Race in South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 240–242. ISBN 978-0-19-563767-0. Retrieved 2011-12-09.  ^ Russell, Robert Vane (1916). Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India. 4. Lal, Rai Bahadur Hira. London: Macmillan & Co. pp. 201–203. Retrieved 3 October 2012.  ^ O'Hanlon, Rosalind (2002). Caste, Conflict and Ideology: Mahatma Jotirao Phule and Low Caste Protest in Nineteenth-Century Western India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-52152-308-0. Retrieved 13 May 2011.  ^ a b c d Hansen 2001, p. 31. ^ Gordon, Stewart N. (1993). The Marathas 1600–1818. The New Cambridge History of India. Cambridge University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-52126-883-7. Second, we have that Marathas regularly served in the armies of the Muslim Deccan kingdoms.  ^ Pearson, M. N. (February 1976). " Shivaji
Shivaji
and the Decline of the Mughal Empire". The Journal of Asian Studies. Association for Asian Studies. 35 (2): 221–235. doi:10.2307/2053980. JSTOR 2053980.  ^ Mehta, J. L. Advanced study in the history of modern India 1707–1813 ^ Alexander Mikaberidze (31 July 2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 43–. ISBN 978-1-59884-337-8. Retrieved 15 September 2013.  ^ Chhabra, G.S. (2005) [1971]. Advanced Study in the History of Modern India. Lotus Press. ISBN 81-89093-06-1.  ^ O'Hanlon 2002, p. 45. ^ O'Hanlon 2002, p. 47. ^ Haynes 1992, p. 65The prohibition of widow remarriage, Steele reported, served also to mark a ranking within caste groupings, distinguishing Maratha
Maratha
families claiming a Rajput descent and Kshatriya
Kshatriya
status from ordinary Kunbi
Kunbi
communities of agriculturists: "such of them are the high Mahratta (as the families of the Satara Raja, and other houses of pure Mahratta descent) do not allow their widows to form Pat'. In the absence of any sort of statistical evidence, it is hard to know how accurate Steele's report was. ^ Christophe Jaffrelot; Sanjay Kumar, eds. (2009). Rise of the Plebeians?: The Changing Face of the Indian Legislative Assemblies (Exploring the Political in South Asia). Routledge India. p. 216,217.  ^ Hansen 2001, p. 32. ^ Hansen 2001, p. 34. ^ Sharmila Rege (2013). Writing Caste/Writing Gender: Narrating Dalit Women's Testimonies. Zubaan Books. p. 28. The traditional caste hierarchy was headed by the brahmin castes-the deshasthas, chitpawans, karhades saraswats and the chandraseniya kayastha prabhus.  ^ "The American Economic Review - Volume 96, Issues 3-4". Nashville, Tenn. American Economic Association. 2006: 1228. High castes include all the Brahmin
Brahmin
jatis, as well as a few other elite jatis ( CKP and Pathare Prabhus).Low castes include formerly untouchable and backward castes (Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Castes, as defined by the government of India). Medium castes are drawn mostly from the cultivator jatis, such as the Marathas and the Kunbis, as well as other traditional vocations that were not considered to be ritually impure.  ^ Bidyut Chakrabarty (2003). Communal Identity in India: Its Construction and Articulation in the Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press. Of the six groups, four are Brahmins; one is high non-brahmin caste, Chandraseniya Kayashth Prabhu (CKP), ranking next only to the Brahmins; and the other is a cultivating caste, Maratha (MK), belonging to the middle level of the hierarchy.  ^ V. B. Ghuge (1994). Rajarshi Shahu: a model ruler. kirti prakashan. p. 20. In the Hindu social hierarchy the privileged classes were Brahmins, CKP's and others. Similarly other elite classes were Parsis and Europeans.  ^ Kurtz, Donald V. (1994). Contradictions and Conflict: A Dialectical Political Anthropology of a University in Western India. Leiden: Brill. p. 63. ISBN 978-9-00409-828-2.  ^ Kashinath Kavlekar (1979). Non- Brahmin
Brahmin
Movement in Southern India, 1873-1949. p. 63.  ^ Mike Shepperdson, Colin Simmons (1988). The Indian National Congress and the political economy of India, 1885-1985. p. 109.  ^ "Pune's endless identity wars". Indian Express. Retrieved 1 August 2015.  ^ Rajarshi Shahu Chhatrapati Papers: 1900-1905 A.D.: Vedokta controversy. Shahu Research Institute, 1985 - Kolhapur (Princely State).  ^ "' Maharashtra
Maharashtra
to justify quota with historical evidence'". 2014.  ^ Hansen, Thomas Blom (2002). Wages of violence : naming and identity in postcolonial Bombay. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0691088402. Retrieved 10 January 2017.  ^ Jayapalan, N. (2000). Social and cultural history of India since 1556. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. p. 162. ISBN 9788171568260.  ^ Omvedt, Gail (1974). "Non-Brahmans and Nationalists in Poona". Economic and Political Weekly. 9 (6/8): 201–219. Retrieved 18 November 2016.  ^ Kurtz, Donald V. (1994). Contradictions and Conflict: A Dialectical Political Anthropology of a University in Western India. Leiden: Brill. p. 63. ISBN 978-9-00409-828-2.  ^ Brass, Paul R. (2006). The politics of India since independence (2nd ed.). [New Delhi]: Cambridge University Press. p. 142. ISBN 978-0521543057. Retrieved 1 February 2017.  ^ Mishra, Sumita (2000). Grassroot politics in India. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. p. 27. ISBN 9788170997320.  ^ Vora, Rajendra (2009). "Chapter 7 Maharashtra
Maharashtra
or Maratha
Maratha
Rashtra". In Kumar, Sanjay; Jaffrelot, Christophe. Rise of the plebeians? : the changing face of Indian legislative assemblies. New Delhi: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415460927.  ^ Kulkarni, A.R. (Editor); Wagle, N.K.(Editor); Sirsikar, V.M. (Author) (1999). State intervention and popular response : western India in the nineteenth century. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. p. 9. ISBN 81-7154-835-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Dahiwale, S. M. (1995). "Consolidation of Maratha
Maratha
Dominance in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Economic and Political Weekly Vol. 30, No. 6 (Feb. 11, 1995), pp. 336-342 Published by:". Economic and Political Weekly. 30, (6): 336–342. JSTOR 4402382.  ^ Kurtz, Donald V. (1994). Contradictions and conflict : a dialectical political anthropology of a University in Western India. Leiden [u.a.]: Brill. p. 50. ISBN 978-9004098282.  ^ Singh, R.; Lele, J.K. (1989). Language and society : steps towards an integrated theory. Leiden: E.J. Brill. pp. 32–42. ISBN 9789004087897.  ^ Kulkarni, A.R. (Editor); Wagle, N.K.(Editor); Sirsikar, V.M. (Author) (1999). State intervention and popular response : western India in the nineteenth century. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. p. 9. ISBN 81-7154-835-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Paul Wallace; Ramashray Roy, eds. (May 9, 2011). India′s 2009 Elections: Coalition Politics, Party Competition and Congress Continuity. SAGE Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 252. ...Sharad Pawar, the founder of the NCP and also described as the Maratha
Maratha
Strong Man, who has been...  ^ Mishra, Sumita (2000). Grassroot Politics in India. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. p. 27. ISBN 9788170997320.  ^ Dhanagare, D. N. (1995). "The Class Character and Politics of the Farmers' Movement in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
during the 1980s". In Brass, Tom. New Farmers' Movements in India. Ilford: Routledge/Frank Cass. p. 80. ISBN 9780714646091.  ^ Economic and Political Weekly: January 2012 First Volume Pg 45 ^ Vora, Rajendra (2009). "Chapter 7 Maharashtra
Maharashtra
or Maratha
Maratha
Rashtra". In Kumar, Sanjay; Jaffrelot, Christophe. Rise of the plebeians? : the changing face of Indian legislative assemblies. New Delhi: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415460927.  ^ Deshpande, Prachi (2007) [2006 (Permanent Black]. Creative Pasts: Historical Memory And Identity in Western India, 1700–1960. New York & Chichester: Columbia University Press. p. 189. ISBN 9780231124867. Retrieved 2012-10-03.  ^ Samanta, Amiya K. (2000). Gorkhaland Movement: A Study in Ethnic Separatism. New Delhi: APH Publishing. p. 26. ISBN 9788176481663. Retrieved 2012-10-03.  ^ Banerjee, Sikata (2005). Make Me a Man!: Masculinity, Hinduism, and Nationalism in India. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780791463673. Retrieved 2012-10-03.  ^ Frank Edwards (2003). The Gaysh: A History of the Aden Protectorate Levies 1927–61 and the Federal Regular Army of South Arabia 1961–67. Helion & Company Limited. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-1-874622-96-3. Retrieved 15 September 2013.  ^ Roger Perkins (1994). Regiments: Regiments and Corps of the British Empire and Commonwealth, 1758–1993 : a Critical Bibliography of Their Published Histories. Roger Perkins. ISBN 978-0-9506429-3-2. Retrieved 15 September 2013.  ^ Gautam Sharma (2000). Indian Army: A Reference Manual. Reliance Publishing House/ Reliance Books. p. 89. 

Further reading[edit]

Asher, Catherine B.; Talbot, Cynthia (2006). India Before Europe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80904-7. Retrieved 20 October 2013.  Bayly, Christopher Alan (1990). Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-38650-0. Retrieved 20 October 2013.  Bayly, Susan (2001). Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79842-6. Retrieved 20 October 2013.  Hansen, Thomas Blom (2001). Wages of Violence: Naming and Identity in Postcolonial Bombay. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08840-3.  Haynes, Douglas E. (1992). Contesting Power: Resistance and Everyday Social Relations in South Asia. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07585-6.  Ludden, David (2013). India and South Asia: A Short History. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1-85168-936-1.  Hendre Patil Ludden, David (1999). An Agrarian History of South Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-36424-9. Retrieved 20 October 2013.  Metcalf, Barbara D.; Metcalf, Thomas R. (28 September 2006). A Concise History of Modern India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-45887-0. Retrieved 20 October 2013.  O'Hanlon, Rosalind (2002). Caste, Conflict and Ideology: Mahatma Jotirao Phule and Low Caste Protest in Nineteenth-Century Western India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52308-0.  Robb, Peter (2011). A History of India. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-34549-2.  Singh, K. S. (1998). India's Communities. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-563354-2.  Stein, Burton (2010). A History of India. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4443-2351-1. Retrieved 20 October 2013.  Wink, André (2007). Land and Sovereignty in India: Agrarian Society and Politics Under the Eighteenth-Century Maratha
Maratha
Svarājya. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-05180-4. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 

v t e

Ethnic groups, social groups and tribes of Goa
Goa
and the Konkan region

Saraswats

Chitrapur Saraswat Brahmins Kudaldeshkar Gaud Brahman Goud Saraswat Brahmins Rajapur Saraswat Brahmins

Karhades

Karhade Padye Bhatt Prabhu

Konkanasthas

Chitpavan
Chitpavan
Brahmins

Daivadnya

Daivadnya Shett

Maratha

Konkan Maratha Konkanastha Maratha

Vaishya

Vaishya Vani

Gomantak Maratha

Gomantak Maratha
Maratha
Samaj Naik Maratha
Maratha
Samaj Nutan Maratha
Maratha
Samaj

Others

Bhandari Chamar Dhangar Gauda and Kunbi Gavli Kharvi Madval Mahar
Mahar
(Mhar) Siddis of Karnataka

Roman Catholics

Goan Catholics Karwari Catholics Mangalorean Catholics East Indians

Islam

Goan Muslims Konkani Muslims Nawayath

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