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The Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
or the Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
and ended in 1818 with the defeat of Peshwa
Peshwa
Bajirao
Bajirao
II. The Marathas are credited to a large extent for ending Mughal rule in India.[3][note 1][4][5][6] The Marathas were a Marathi warrior group from the western Deccan Plateau (present day Maharashtra) that rose to prominence by establishing a Hindavi Swarajya. The Marathas became prominent in the seventeenth century under the leadership of Shivaji
Shivaji
who revolted against the Adil Shahi dynasty
Adil Shahi dynasty
and the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and carved out a kingdom with Raigad as his capital. Known for their mobility, the Marathas were able to consolidate their territory during the Mughal–Maratha Wars
Mughal–Maratha Wars
and later controlled a large part of the Indian subcontinent. Chhattrapati Shahu, grandson of Shivaji, was released by the Mughals after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb. Following a brief struggle with his aunt Tarabai, Shahu became the ruler and appointed Balaji Vishwanath and later, his descendants, as the peshwas or prime ministers of the empire.[7] Balaji and his descendants played a key role in the expansion of Maratha
Maratha
rule. The empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu[8] in the south, to Peshawar
Peshawar
(modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan[9] [note 2]) in the north, and Bengal
Bengal
in the east. In 1761, the Maratha Army
Maratha Army
lost the Third Battle of Panipat to Ahmad Shah Abdali
Ahmad Shah Abdali
of the Afghan Durrani Empire, which halted their imperial expansion into Afghanistan. Ten years after Panipat, the young Peshwa
Peshwa
Madhavrao I's Maratha Resurrection reinstated Maratha authority over North India. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, Madhavrao I
Madhavrao I
gave semi-autonomy to the strongest of the knights, which created a confederacy of Maratha
Maratha
states. They became known as the Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore
Indore
and Malwa, the Scindias of Gwalior
Gwalior
and Ujjain, the Bhonsales of Nagpur
Nagpur
and the Puars of Dhar
Dhar
and Dewas. In 1775, the East India
India
Company intervened in a Peshwa
Peshwa
family succession struggle in Pune, which led to the First Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War, resulting in a Maratha
Maratha
victory.[11] The Marathas remained the pre-eminent power in India
India
until their defeat in the Second and Third Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
Wars (1805-1818), which left the East India
India
Company in control of most of India. A large portion of the Maratha
Maratha
empire was coastline, which had been secured by the potent Maratha Navy
Maratha Navy
under commanders such as Kanhoji Angre. He was very successful at keeping foreign naval ships, particularly of the Portuguese and British, at bay.[12] Securing the coastal areas and building land-based fortifications were crucial aspects of the Maratha's defensive strategy and regional military history.

Contents

1 Nomenclature 2 History 3 Shivaji
Shivaji
and his descendants

3.1 Shivaji 3.2 Sambhaji 3.3 Rajaram and Tarabai 3.4 Shahu

4 Peshwa
Peshwa
era

4.1 Balaji Vishwanath 4.2 Baji Rao I 4.3 Balaji Baji Rao

4.3.1 Invasions in Bengal 4.3.2 Maratha's Afghan conquests 4.3.3 Maratha
Maratha
invasion of Delhi
Delhi
and Rohilkhand 4.3.4 Third battle of Panipat

4.4 Peshwa
Peshwa
Madhav Rao I

5 Confederacy era

5.1 Major events 5.2 Mysore
Mysore
war, Sringeri
Sringeri
sacking, British alliance 5.3 British intervention

6 Administration 7 Geography 8 Legacy

8.1 Military contributions 8.2 Development of towns and civic amenities 8.3 Patronizing religion 8.4 Fine arts and palaces

9 Military

9.1 Afghan accounts 9.2 European accounts

10 Notable generals and administrators

10.1 Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Bawdekar 10.2 Nana Phadnavis

11 Rulers, administrators and generals

11.1 Royal houses 11.2 Peshwas

11.2.1 Peshwas from Bhat family

12 Houses of Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy 13 Maps showing the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
at different stages of history 14 Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Maratha
Maratha
Kingdom (Tamil Nadu) 15 See also 16 Footnotes 17 Citations 18 Bibliography

Nomenclature[edit] The Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
is also referred to as the Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy. The historian Barbara Ramusack says that the former is a designation preferred by Indian nationalists, while the latter was that used by British historians. She notes, "neither term is fully accurate since one implies a substantial degree of centralisation and the other signifies some surrender of power to a central government and a longstanding core of political administrators. Maratha
Maratha
power was fragmented among several discrete fragments".[citation needed] Although at present, the word Maratha
Maratha
refers to a particular caste of warriors and peasants, in the past the word has been used to describe Marathi people, including Marathas themselves.[13][14] History[edit] The empire had its head in the Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
as de jure, but the de facto governance was in the hands of the Peshwas.[citation needed] After the death of Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
Shahu and with the death of Madhavrao – I, various chiefs played the role of the de facto rulers in their own regions. Shivaji
Shivaji
and his descendants[edit] Shivaji[edit] Main article: Shivaji

A portrait of Chattrapati Shivaji

Shivaji
Shivaji
(1627–1680) was a Maratha
Maratha
aristocrat of the Bhosle
Bhosle
clan who is considered to be the founder of the Maratha
Maratha
empire.[4] Shivaji
Shivaji
led a resistance to free the Marathi people
Marathi people
from the Sultanate of Bijapur from 1645 and establish Hindavi Swarajya (self-rule of Hindu people[15]). He created an independent Maratha
Maratha
kingdom with Raigad as its capital[16] and successfully fought against the Mughals to defend his kingdom. He was crowned as Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
(sovereign) of the new Maratha
Maratha
kingdom in 1674. The state Shivaji
Shivaji
founded was a Maratha kingdom comprised about 4.1% of the subcontinent, but spread over large tracts. At the time of his death[4] it was dotted with about 300 forts, about 40,000 cavalry, 50,000 foot soldiers and naval establishments all over the west coast. Over time, the kingdom would increase in size and heterogeneity;[17] by the time of his grandson, and later under the Peshwas in the early 18th century, it was a full-fledged empire.[18] Sambhaji[edit] Main article: Sambhaji

Sambhaji, eldest son of Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
Shivaji
Shivaji
Maharaj

Shivaji
Shivaji
had two sons: Sambhaji
Sambhaji
and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers.[citation needed] In 1681, Sambhaji
Sambhaji
had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji
Sambhaji
had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify alliance between his rebel son, Akbar, and the Marathas,[19] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
himself headed south in 1681. With his entire imperial court, administration and an army of about 500,000 troops he proceeded to expand the Mughal empire, gaining territories such as the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji
Sambhaji
led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb.[citation needed] In early 1689, Sambhaji
Sambhaji
called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar
Sangameshwar
to consider a final onslaught on the Mughal forces.[citation needed] In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan, attacked Sangameshwar
Sangameshwar
when Sambhaji
Sambhaji
was accompanied by just a few men. Sambhaji
Sambhaji
was ambushed and captured by Mughal troops on February 01, 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash, were taken to Bahadurgad, where they were executed by the Mughals on 21 March 1689.[20] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
had Sambhaji
Sambhaji
executed on charges of atrocities committed by Maratha
Maratha
forces in the attack on Burhanpur
Burhanpur
that included plunder, killing, rape, and torture.[21][22] Rajaram and Tarabai[edit] Main articles: Rajaram and Tarabai Upon Sambhaji's death, his half-brother Rajaram assumed the throne. The Mughal siege of Raigad continued, and he had to flee to Vishalgad and then to Gingee
Gingee
for safety. From there the Marathas raided Mughal territory, and many forts were recaptured by Maratha
Maratha
commanders such as Santaji Ghorpade, Dhanaji Jadhav, Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi, Shankaraji Narayan Sacheev and Melgiri Pandit. In 1697, Rajaram offered a truce but this was rejected by Aurangzeb. Rajaram died in 1700 at Sinhagad. His widow, Tarabai, assumed control in the name of her son, Ramaraja ( Shivaji
Shivaji
II). She led the Marathas against the Mughals, and by 1705 they had crossed the Narmada River
Narmada River
and entered Malwa, then in Mughal possession.[citation needed] Shahu[edit] After Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Shahu, son of Sambhaji
Sambhaji
(and grandson of Shivaji), was released by Bahadur Shah I, the new Mughal emperor. His mother was kept as a hostage of the Mughals, however, in order to ensure that Shahu adhered to the release conditions. Upon release, Shahu immediately claimed the Maratha
Maratha
throne and challenged his aunt Tarabai
Tarabai
and her son. This promptly turned the now-spluttering Mughal- Maratha
Maratha
war into a three-cornered affair. The states of Satara and Kolhapur
Kolhapur
came into being in 1707 because of the succession dispute over the Maratha
Maratha
kingship. Shahu appointed Balaji Vishwanath
Balaji Vishwanath
as Peshwa.[23] The Peshwa
Peshwa
was instrumental in getting Shahu accepted as rightful heir of Shivaji
Shivaji
and the Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
of the Marathas by The Mughals.[24] Balaji also got Shahu's mother, Yesubai, released from Mughal captivity in 1719.[25] During Shahu's reign, Raghoji Bhosale expanded the empire in the East, reaching present-day Bengal. Khanderao Dabhade and later his son, Trimbakrao, expanded in the West in Gujarat.[26] Peshwa
Peshwa
Bajirao
Bajirao
and his three chiefs, Pawar (Dhar), Holkar
Holkar
(Indore), and Scindia (Gwalior), expanded in the North. All these houses became hereditary, thereby eventually undermining the Chhatrapati's authority there.[citation needed] Peshwa
Peshwa
era[edit]

Shaniwarwada
Shaniwarwada
palace fort in Pune, it was the seat of the Peshwa
Peshwa
rulers of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
until 1818.

During this era, Peshwas belonging to the Bhat family
Bhat family
controlled the Maratha Army
Maratha Army
and later became de facto rulers of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire. During their reign, the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
dominated most of the Indian subcontinent. Balaji Vishwanath[edit]

Peshwa
Peshwa
Balaji Vishwanath

Shahu appointed Peshwa
Peshwa
Balaji Vishwanath
Balaji Vishwanath
in 1713. From his time, the office of Peshwa
Peshwa
became supreme while Shahuji became a figurehead.[23]

His first major achievement was the conclusion of the Treaty of Lanavala in 1714 with Kanhoji Angre, the most powerful naval chief on the Western Coast. He later joined the Marathas.[citation needed] In 1719, an army of Marathas marched to Delhi
Delhi
along with Sayyid Hussain Ali, the Mughal governor of Deccan, and managed to depose the Mughal emperor. Thus, Marathas realised for the first time their potential to make and unmake Mughal Emperors.[27]

Baji Rao I[edit]

Peshwa
Peshwa
Baji Rao I

After Balaji Vishwanath's death in April 1720, his son, Baji Rao I, was appointed Peshwa
Peshwa
by Shahu. Bajirao
Bajirao
is credited with expanding the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
tenfold from 3% to 30% of the modern Indian landscape during 1720–1740. He fought over 41 battles before his death in April 1740 and is reputed to have never lost one.[28][better source needed]

The Battle of Palkhed was a land battle that took place on February 28, 1728 at the village of Palkhed, near the city of Nashik, Maharashtra, India
India
between Baji Rao I
Baji Rao I
and the Qamar-ud-din Khan, Asaf Jah I of Hyderabad. The Marathas defeated the Nizam.The battle is considered an example of brilliant execution of military strategy.[27] In 1737, Marathas under Bajirao I
Bajirao I
raided the suburbs of Delhi
Delhi
in a blitzkrieg in the Battle of Delhi
Delhi
(1737).[29][30] The Nizam
Nizam
left Deccan to rescue Mughals from the invasion of Marathas, but was defeated decisively in the Battle of Bhopal.[30][31] The Marathas extracted a large tribute from the Mughals and signed a treaty which ceded Malwa
Malwa
to the Marathas.[32] The Battle of Vasai
Battle of Vasai
was fought between the Marathas and the Portuguese rulers of Vasai, a village lying on the northern shore of Vasai
Vasai
creek, 50 km north of Mumbai. The Marathas were led by Chimaji Appa, brother of Baji Rao. The Maratha
Maratha
victory in this war was a major achievement of Baji Rao's time in office.[30]

Balaji Baji Rao[edit]

Peshwa
Peshwa
Balaji Bajirao

Baji Rao's son, Balaji Bajirao
Balaji Bajirao
(Nanasaheb), was appointed as the next Peshwa
Peshwa
by Shahuji despite opposition of other chiefs.

In 1740, the Maratha
Maratha
forces, under Raghoji Bhosale, came down upon Arcot
Arcot
and defeated the Nawab of Arcot, Dost Ali, in the pass at Damalcherry. In the war that followed, Dost Ali, one of his sons Hasan Ali, and a number of other prominent persons lost their lives. This initial success at once enhanced Maratha
Maratha
prestige in the south. From Damalcherry, the Marathas proceeded to Arcot, which surrendered to them without much resistance. Then, Raghuji invaded Trichinopoly in December 1740. Unable to resist, Chanda Saheb surrendered the fort to Raghuji on March 14, 1741. Chanda Saheb and his son were arrested and sent to Nagpur.[33] Rajputana
Rajputana
also came under Maratha
Maratha
domination during this time.[34]

Invasions in Bengal[edit] Main article: Maratha
Maratha
expeditions in Bengal After the successful campaign of Karnatak and the Battle of Trichinopolly, Raghuji returned from Karnatak. He undertook six expeditions in Bengal
Bengal
from 1741 to 1748.[35] Raghuji was able to annex Odisha
Odisha
to his kingdom permanently as he successfully exploited the chaotic conditions prevailing in Bengal, Bihar
Bihar
and Odisha
Odisha
after the death of their Governor, Murshid Quli Khan, in 1727. Constantly harassed by the Bhonsles, Odisha
Odisha
or Cuttack, Bengal
Bengal
and parts of Bihar were economically ruined. Alivardi Khan, Nawab of Bengal
Bengal
made peace with Raghuji in 1751 ceding in perpetuity Cuttack up to the river Subarnarekha, and agreeing to pay Rs.1.2 million annually in lieu of the Chauth of Bengal
Bengal
and Bihar.[34] During the their occupuation of western Bengal, the Marathas perpetrated atrocities against the local population.[36] The Maratha atrocities were recorded by both Bengali and European sources, which reported that the Marathas demanded payments, and tortured and killed anyone who couldn't pay. Dutch sources estimate a total of 400,000 people in Bengal
Bengal
were killed by the Marathas. According to Bengali sources, the atrocities led to much of the local population opposing the Marathas and increasing support for the Nawabs.[36] Maratha's Afghan conquests[edit]

Balaji Bajirao
Balaji Bajirao
encouraged agriculture, protected the villagers and brought about a marked improvement in the state of the territory. Raghunath Rao, brother of Nanasaheb, pushed into the wake of the Afghan withdrawal after Ahmed Shah Abdali's plunder of Delhi
Delhi
in 1756. Delhi
Delhi
was captured by the Maratha
Maratha
army under Raghunath Rao
Raghunath Rao
in August 1757, defeating the Afghan garrison in the Battle of Delhi. This laid the foundation for the Maratha
Maratha
conquest of North-west India. In Lahore, as in Delhi, the Marathas were now major players.[37] After the Battle of Attock, 1758, the Marathas captured Peshawar
Peshawar
defeating the Afghan troops in the Battle of Peshawar
Peshawar
on 8 May 1758.[9]

Maratha
Maratha
invasion of Delhi
Delhi
and Rohilkhand[edit] Just prior to the battle of Panipat in 1761, Marathas looted "Diwan-i-Khas" or Hall of Private Audiences in the Red Fort
Red Fort
of Delhi, which was the place where the Mughal emperors used to receive courtiers and state guests, in one of their expeditions of Delhi.

"The Marathas who were hard pressed for money stripped the ceiling of Diwan-i-Khas of its silver and looted the shrines dedicated to Muslim saints".[38]

During the Maratha
Maratha
invasion of Rohilkhand
Rohilkhand
in the 1750s

"The Marathas defeated the Rohillas, forced them to seek shelter in hills and ransacked their country in such a manner that the Rohillas dreaded the Marathas and hated them ever afterwards".[38]

Third battle of Panipat[edit] In 1759, the Marathas under Sadashivrao Bhau
Sadashivrao Bhau
(referred to as the Bhau or Bhao in sources) responded to the news of the Afghans' return to North India
India
by sending a large army north. Bhau's force was bolstered by some Maratha
Maratha
forces under Holkar, Scindia, Gaikwad
Gaikwad
and Govind Pant Bundele. The combined army of over 100,000 regular troops re-captured the former Mughal capital, Delhi, from an Afghan garrison in August 1760.[39] Delhi
Delhi
had been reduced to ashes many times due to previous invasions, and there was an acute shortage of supplies in the Maratha camp. Bhau ordered the sacking of the already depopulated city.[38][40] He is said to have planned to place his nephew and the Peshwa's son, Vishwasrao, on the Mughal throne. By 1760, with defeat of the Nizam
Nizam
in the Deccan, Maratha
Maratha
power had reached its zenith with a territory of over 2,500,000 km² acres.[41]

Signature Maratha
Maratha
helmet with curved back, front view

Signature Maratha
Maratha
helmet with curved back, side view

Maratha
Maratha
armour from Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia

Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
called on the Rohillas
Rohillas
and the Nawab of Oudh
Nawab of Oudh
to assist him in driving out the Marathas from Delhi.[citation needed] Huge armies of Muslim forces and Marathas collided with each other on January 14, 1761 in the Third Battle of Panipat. The Maratha Army
Maratha Army
lost the battle, which halted their imperial expansion. The Jats and Rajputs
Rajputs
did not support the Marathas. Their withdrawal from the ensuing battle played a crucial role in its result.[citation needed] Historians have criticised the Maratha
Maratha
treatment of fellow Hindu groups. Kaushik Roy says "The treatment of Marathas with their co-religionist fellows – Jats and Rajputs
Rajputs
was definitely unfair and ultimately they had to pay its price in Panipat where Muslim forces had united in the name of religion."[37] The Marathas had antagonised the Jats and Rajputs
Rajputs
by taxing them heavily, punishing them after defeating the Mughals and interfering in their internal affairs. The Marathas were abandoned by Raja
Raja
Suraj Mal
Suraj Mal
of Bharatpur and the Rajputs, who quit the Maratha
Maratha
alliance at Agra
Agra
before the start of the great battle and withdrew their troops as Maratha
Maratha
general Sadashivrao Bhau did not heed the advice to leave soldier's families (women and children) and pilgrims at Agra
Agra
and not take them to the battle field with the soldiers, rejected their co-operation. Their supply chains (earlier assured by Raja
Raja
Suraj Mal
Suraj Mal
and Rajputs) did not exist.[citation needed] Peshwa
Peshwa
Madhav Rao I[edit]

Peshwa
Peshwa
Madhavrao I

Peshwa
Peshwa
Madhavrao I
Madhavrao I
was the fourth Peshwa
Peshwa
of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire. It was during his tenure that the Maratha Resurrection took place. He worked as a unifying force in the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
and moved to the south to subdue Nizam
Nizam
and Mysore
Mysore
to assert Maratha
Maratha
power. He sent generals such as Bhonsle, Scindia
Scindia
and Holkar
Holkar
to the north, where they re-established Maratha
Maratha
authority by the early 1770s.[citation needed] Prof G. S. Chhabra wrote:

Young though he was, Madhav Rao had a cool and calculating head of a seasoned and experienced man. The diplomacy by which he could win over his uncle Raghoba when he had no strength to fight and the way he could crush his power when he had the means to do so later on proved in him a genius who knows when and how to act. The formidable power of the Nizam
Nizam
was crushed, Hyder Ali, who was a terror even to the British, was effectually humbled and before he died in 1772, the Marathas were almost there in the north where they had been before Panipat. What could not have the Marathas achieved if Madhav had continued living just for a few years more? Destiny was not in favour of the Marathas, the death of Madhav was a greater blow than their defeat of Panipat and from this blow they could never again recover.[42]

Madhav Rao died in 1772, at the age of 27. His death is considered to be a fatal blow to the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
and from that time Maratha
Maratha
power started to move on a downward trajectory, less an empire than a confederacy.[citation needed] Confederacy era[edit]

Mahadaji Scindia
Scindia
restored the Maratha
Maratha
domination of northern India.

In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, Madhavrao Peshwa
Peshwa
gave semi-autonomy to the strongest of the knights. After the death of Peshwa
Peshwa
Madhavrao I, various chiefs and statesman became de facto rulers and regents for the infant Peshwa
Peshwa
Madhavrao II.[citation needed] Thus, the semi-autonomous Maratha
Maratha
states came into being in far-flung regions of the empire:[citation needed]

Peshwas of Pune Gaekwads of Baroda Holkars of Indore Scindias (aka Shindes) of Gwalior
Gwalior
(Chambal region) and Ujjain
Ujjain
(Malwa Region) Bhonsales of Nagpur
Nagpur
(no blood relation with Shivaji's or Tarabai's family) Puars (or Pawars) of Dewas
Dewas
and Dhar Even in the original kingdom of Shivaji
Shivaji
itself, many knights were given semi-autonomous charges of small districts, which led to princely states Sangli, Aundh, Bhor, Bawda, Phaltan, Miraj, etc. Pawars of Udgir
Udgir
were also part of confederacy.

Major events[edit]

After the 1761 Battle of Panipat, Malhar Rao Holkar
Holkar
attacked the Rajputs
Rajputs
and defeated them at the battle of Mangrol. This largely restored Maratha
Maratha
power in Rajasthan.[43] Under the leadership of Mahadji Shinde, the ruler of the state of Gwalior
Gwalior
in central India, the Marathas defeated the Jats, the Rohilla Afghans and took Delhi
Delhi
which remained under Maratha
Maratha
control for the next three decades.[44] His forces conquered modern day Haryana[45] Shinde was instrumental in resurrecting Maratha
Maratha
power after the débâcle of the Third Battle of Panipat, and in this he was assisted by Benoît de Boigne. In 1767 Madhavrao I
Madhavrao I
crossed the Krishna River
Krishna River
and defeated Hyder Ali in the battles of Sira and Madgiri. He also rescued the last queen of the Keladi Nayaka Kingdom, who had been kept in confinement by Hyder Ali in the fort of Madgiri.[46] In early 1771, ten years after the collapse of Maratha
Maratha
authority over North India
India
following the Third Battle of Panipat, Mahadji recaptured Delhi
Delhi
and installed Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
as a puppet ruler on the Mughal throne.[47] receiving in return the title of deputy Vakil-ul-Mutlak or vice-regent of the Empire
Empire
and that of Vakil-ul-Mutlak being at his request conferred on the Peshwa. The Mughals also gave him the title of Amir-ul-Amara (head of the amirs).[48]

Maratha
Maratha
king of Gwalior
Gwalior
at his palace

After taking control of Delhi, the Marathas sent a large army in 1772 to punish Afghan Rohillas
Rohillas
for their involvement in Panipat. Their army devastated Rohilkhand
Rohilkhand
by looting and plundering as well as taking members of the royal family as captives.[47] After the growth in power of feudal lords like Malwa
Malwa
sardars, landlords of Bundelkhand and Rajput
Rajput
kingdoms of Rajasthan, they refused to pay tribute to Mahadji. So he sent his army conquer the states such as Bhopal, Datiya, Chanderi, Narwar, Salbai and Gohad. However, he launched an unsuccessful expedition against the Raja
Raja
of Jaipur, but withdrew after the inconclusive Battle of Lalsot in 1787.[49] The Battle of Gajendragad
Battle of Gajendragad
was fought between the Marathas under the command of Tukojirao Holkar
Holkar
(the adopted son of Malharrao Holkar) and Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
from March 1786 to March 1787 in which Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
was defeated by the Marathas. By the victory in this battle, the border of the Maratha
Maratha
territory extended till Tungabhadra
Tungabhadra
river.[50] The strong fort of Gwalior
Gwalior
was then in the hands of Chhatar Singh, the Jat
Jat
ruler of Gohad. In 1783, Mahadji besieged the fort of Gwalior
Gwalior
and conquered it. He delegated the administration of Gwalior
Gwalior
to Khanderao Hari Bhalerao. After celebrating the conquest of Gwalior, Mahadji Shinde turned his attention to Delhi
Delhi
again.[51] In 1788, Mahadji's armies defeated Ismail Beg, a Mughal noble who resisted the Marathas.[52] The Rohilla
Rohilla
chief Ghulam Kadir, Ismail Beg's ally, took over Delhi, capital of the Mughal dynasty and deposed and blinded the king Shah Alam II, placing a puppet on the Delhi throne. Mahadji intervened and killed him, taking possession of Delhi on October 02 restoring Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
to the throne and acting as his protector.[53] Jaipur
Jaipur
and Jodhpur, the two most powerful Rajput
Rajput
states, were still out of direct Maratha
Maratha
domination. So, Mahadji sent his general Benoît de Boigne to crush the forces of Jaipur
Jaipur
and Jodhpur
Jodhpur
at the Battle of Patan.[54] Marwar was also captured on September 10, 1790. Another achievement of the Marathas was their victories over the Nizam of Hyderabad's armies including in the Battle of Kharda.[55][56]

Mysore
Mysore
war, Sringeri
Sringeri
sacking, British alliance[edit] Further information: Maratha– Mysore
Mysore
War, Sringeri
Sringeri
Sharada Peetham, and Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
Wars The Marathas came into conflict with Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
and his Kingdom of Mysore, leading to the Maratha– Mysore
Mysore
War in 1785. The war ended in 1787 with the Marathas being defeated by Tipu Sultan.[57] In 1791–92, large areas of the Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy suffered massive population loss due to the Doji bara famine.[58] In 1791, irregulars like lamaans and pindari of Maratha
Maratha
army raided and looted the temple of Sringeri
Sringeri
Shankaracharya, killing and wounding many people including Brahmins, plundering the monastery of all its valuable possessions, and desecrating the temple by displacing the image of goddess Sarada [59]. The incumbent Shankaracharya
Shankaracharya
petitioned Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
for help. A bunch of about 30 letters written in Kannada, which were exchanged between Tipu Sultan's court and the Sringeri Shankaracharya
Shankaracharya
were discovered in 1916 by the Director of Archaeology in Mysore. Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
expressed his indignation and grief at the news of the raid:[60]

"People who have sinned against such a holy place are sure to suffer the consequences of their misdeeds at no distant date in this Kali age in accordance with the verse: "Hasadbhih kriyate karma rudadbhir-anubhuyate" (People do [evil] deeds smilingly but suffer the consequences crying)."[61]

Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
immediately ordered the Asaf of Bednur
Bednur
to supply the Swami with 200 rahatis (fanams) in cash and other gifts and articles. Tipu Sultan's interest in the Sringeri
Sringeri
temple continued for many years, and he was still writing to the Swami in the 1790s.[62] The Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
soon allied with the British East India
India
Company (based in the Bengal
Bengal
Presidency) against Mysore
Mysore
in the Anglo-Mysore Wars. After the British had suffered defeat against Mysore
Mysore
in the first two Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War, the Maratha
Maratha
cavalry assisted the British in the last two Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
Wars from 1790 onwards, eventually helping the British conquer Mysore
Mysore
in the Fourth Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War in 1799.[63] After the British conquest, however, the Marathas launched frequent raids in Mysore
Mysore
to plunder the region, which they justified as compensation for past losses to Tipu Sultan.[64] British intervention[edit] Main article: Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
Wars Further information: Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
Wars

A mural depicting the British surrender during the First Anglo-Maratha War. The mural is a part of the Victory Memorial (Vijay Stambh) located at Vadgaon Maval
Vadgaon Maval
(off NH-4, Malinagar, Vadgaon Maval, Pune)

In 1775, the British East India
India
Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), who wanted to become Peshwa
Peshwa
of the empire. Marathas forces under Tukojirao Holkar
Holkar
and Mahadaji Shinde defeated a British expeditionary force at the Battle of Wadgaon, but the heavy surrender terms, which included the return of annexed territory and a share of revenues, were disavowed by the British authorities at Bengal and fighting continued. What became known as the First Anglo-Maratha War ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo and the East India
India
Company's abandonment of Raghunathrao's cause.[65]

Peshwa
Peshwa
Madhavrao II
Madhavrao II
in his court in 1790, concluding a treaty with the British

In 1799, Yashwantrao Holkar
Holkar
was crowned King of Holkars, he captured Ujjain. He started campaigning towards the north to expand his empire in that region. Yashwant Rao rebelled against the policies of the Peshwa
Peshwa
Baji Rao II. In May 1802, he marched towards Pune
Pune
the seat of the Peshwa. This gave rise to the Battle of Poona in which the Peshwa was defeated. After the Battle of Poona, the flight of Peshwa
Peshwa
left the government of Maratha
Maratha
state in the hands of Yashwantrao Holkar.[66] He appointed Amrutrao as the Peshwa
Peshwa
and went to Indore
Indore
on March 13, 1803. All except Gaikwad
Gaikwad
chief of Baroda, who had already accepted British protection by a separate treaty on July 26, 1802, supported the new regime. He made a treaty with the British. Also, Yashwant-Rao successfully resolved the disputes with Scindia
Scindia
and the Peshwa. He tried to unite the Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy but to no avail. In 1802, the British intervened in Baroda
Baroda
to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognising his independence from the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. Before the Second Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War (1803–1805), the Peshwa
Peshwa
Baji Rao II
Baji Rao II
signed a similar treaty. The defeat in Battle of Delhi, 1803
Battle of Delhi, 1803
during Second Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War resulted in the loss of the city of Delhi
Delhi
for the Marathas.[67] The Second Anglo-Maratha War
Second Anglo-Maratha War
represents the military high-water mark of the Marathas who posed the last serious opposition to the formation of the British Raj. The real contest for India
India
was never a single decisive battle for the subcontinent. Rather it turned on a complex social and political struggle for control of the South Asian military economy. The victory in 1803 hinged as much on finance, diplomacy, politics and intelligence as it did on battlefield manoeuvre and war itself.[68]

Battle of Assaye
Battle of Assaye
during the Second Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War

Ultimately, the Third Anglo-Maratha War
Third Anglo-Maratha War
(1817–1818) resulted in the loss of Maratha
Maratha
independence. It left the British in control of most of India. The Peshwa
Peshwa
was exiled to Bithoor
Bithoor
(Marat, near Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha
Maratha
heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur
Kolhapur
and Satara, which retained local Maratha
Maratha
rulers (descendants of Shivaji
Shivaji
and Sambhaji
Sambhaji
II ruled over Kolhapur). The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur
Nagpur
all lost territory and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj
British Raj
as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British paramountcy. Other small princely states of Maratha
Maratha
knights were retained under the British Raj
British Raj
as well.[citation needed]

Peshwa
Peshwa
Baji Rao II
Baji Rao II
signing of the Treaty of Bassein with the British

The Third Anglo-Maratha War
Third Anglo-Maratha War
was fought by Maratha
Maratha
war lords separately instead of forming a common front and they surrendered one by one. Shinde and the Pashtun Amir Khan were subdued by the use of diplomacy and pressure, which resulted in the Treaty of Gwalior[69] on November 05, 1817.[citation needed] All other Maratha
Maratha
chiefs like Holkars, Bhonsles and Peshwa
Peshwa
gave up arms by 1818. British historian Percival Spear describes 1818 as a watershed year in the history of India, saying that by the year "the British dominion in India
India
became the British dominion of India".[70][71] The war left the British, under the auspices of the British East India Company, in control of virtually all of present-day India
India
south of the Sutlej River. The famed Nassak Diamond
Nassak Diamond
was acquired by the Company as part of the spoils of the war.[72] The British acquired large chunks of territory from the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
and in effect put an end to their most dynamic opposition.[73] The terms of surrender Major-general John Malcolm offered to the Peshwa
Peshwa
were controversial amongst the British for being too liberal: The Peshwa
Peshwa
was offered a luxurious life near Kanpur and given a pension of about 80,000 pounds.[citation needed] Administration[edit] See also: Ashtapradhan

Maratha
Maratha
Court

The Ashtapradhan (The Council of Eight) was a council of eight ministers that administered the Maratha
Maratha
empire. This system was formed by Shivaji.[74] Ministerial designations were drawn from the Sanskrit language and comprised:[citation needed]

Pantpradhan or Peshwa
Peshwa
– Prime Minister, general administration of the Empire Amatya or Mazumdar – Finance Minister, managing accounts of the Empire[75][unreliable source?] Sachiv – Secretary, preparing royal edicts Mantrin – Interior Minister, managing internal affairs especially intelligence and espionage Senapati – Commander-in-Chief, managing the forces and defence of the Empire Sumant – Foreign Minister, to manage relationships with other sovereigns Nyayadhyaksh – Chief Justice, dispensing justice on civil and criminal matters Panditrao – High Priest, managing internal religious matters

With the notable exception of the priestly Panditrao and the judicial Nyayadisha, the other pradhans held full-time military commands and their deputies performed their civil duties in their stead. In the later era of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire, these deputies and their staff constituted the core of the Peshwa's bureaucracy.[citation needed] The Peshwa
Peshwa
was the titular equivalent of a modern Prime Minister. Shivaji
Shivaji
created the Peshwa
Peshwa
designation in order to more effectively delegate administrative duties during the growth of the Maratha Empire. Prior to 1749, Peshwas held office for 8–9 years and controlled the Maratha
Maratha
Army. They later became the de facto hereditary administrators of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
from 1749 till its end in 1818.[citation needed] Under Peshwa
Peshwa
administration and with the support of several key generals and diplomats (listed below), the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
reached its zenith, ruling most of the Indian subcontinent. It was also under the Peshwas that the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
came to its end through its formal annexation into the British Empire
British Empire
by the British East India
India
Company in 1818.

Gold coins minted during Shivaji's era, 17th century

The Marathas used a secular policy of administration and allowed complete freedom of religion.[76][full citation needed] There were many notable Muslims in the military and administration of Marathas like Ibrahim Khan Gardi, Haider Ali Kohari, Daulat Khan, Siddi Ibrahim, and Jiva Mahal.[citation needed] Shivaji
Shivaji
was an able administrator who established a government that included modern concepts such as cabinet, foreign policy and internal intelligence.[77] He established an effective civil and military administration. He believed that there was a close bond between the state and the citizens. He is remembered as a just and welfare-minded king. Cosme da Guarda says of him that:[78]

Such was the good treatment Shivaji
Shivaji
accorded to people and such was the honesty with which he observed the capitulations that none looked upon him without a feeling of love and confidence. By his people he was exceedingly loved. Both in matters of reward and punishment he was so impartial that while he lived he made no exception for any person; no merit was left unrewarded, no offence went unpunished; and this he did with so much care and attention that he specially charged his governors to inform him in writing of the conduct of his soldiers, mentioning in particular those who had distinguished themselves, and he would at once order their promotion, either in rank or in pay, according to their merit. He was naturally loved by all men of valor and good conduct.

English traveller John Fryer found Shivaji's tax-collecting regime oppressive, describing it as poor people having land "imposed upon them at double the former Rates," and if they refused it, being "carried to Prison, there they are famished almost to death. While French physician Dellon reports that Shivaji
Shivaji
was "looked upon as one of the most politic princes in those parts." Maratha
Maratha
empire carried out a number of sea raids, such as plunders targeting Mughal pilgrim ships and European trading vessels. European traders described these attacks as piracy, but the Marathas viewed them as legitimate targets because they were trading with, and thus financially supporting, their Mughal and Bijapur enemies. After the representatives of various European powers signed agreements with Shivaji
Shivaji
or his successors that the threat of plundering or raids against Europeans began to reduce. Geography[edit] The Maratha
Maratha
Empire, at its peak, ruled over a large area in the Indian sub-continent. Apart from capturing various regions, the Marathas maintained a large number of tributaries who were bounded by agreement to pay a certain amount of regular tax, known as Chauth. The empire defeated the Sultanate of Mysore
Mysore
under Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
and Tipu Sultan, Nawab of Oudh, Nawab of Bengal, Nizam
Nizam
of Hyderabad and Nawab of Arcot as well as the Polygar
Polygar
kingdoms of South India. They extracted chauth from the rulers in Delhi, Oudh, Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Punjab, Hyderabad, Mysore, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and Rajputana.[79][80] The Marathas were requested by Safdarjung, the Nawab of Oudh, in 1752 to help him defeat Afghani Rohilla. The Maratha
Maratha
force left Pune
Pune
and defeated Afghan Rohilla
Rohilla
in 1752, capturing the whole of Rohilkhand (present-day northwestern Uttar Pradesh).[38] In 1752, Marathas entered into an agreement with the Mughal emperor, through his wazir, Safdarjung, Mughals gave Marathas the chauth of Punjab, Sindh
Sindh
and Doab in addition to the subedari of Ajmer
Ajmer
and Agra.[81] In 1758, Marathas started their north-west conquest and expanded their boundary till Afghanistan. They defeated Afghan forces of Ahmed Shah Abdali, in what is now Pakistan, including Pakistani Punjab
Punjab
Province and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The Afghans were numbered around 25,000–30,000 and were led by Timur Shah, the son of Ahmad Shah Durrani. The Marathas massacred and looted thousands of Afghan soldiers and captured Lahore, Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan, Attock, Peshawar
Peshawar
in the Punjab
Punjab
region and Kashmir.[82][83] During the confederacy era, Mahadji Sindhia
Mahadji Sindhia
resurrected the Maratha domination on much of North India, which was lost after the Third battle of Panipat including the cis-Sutlej states (south of Sutlej) like Kaithal, Patiala, Jind, Thanesar, Maler Kotla
Maler Kotla
and Faridkot, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
were under the suzerainty of the Scindhias
Scindhias
of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire, following the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Second Anglo-Maratha War
of 1803–1805, Marathas lost these territories to the British East India Company.[48][84] Legacy[edit] During the 17th century through late 18th century, the Maratha emperors, prime ministers, and dominion/fiefdom chiefs contributed on military as well as non-military fronts such as building forts, naval facilities, development of towns, constructing and patronizing temples, among others. During the 19th and 20th centuries, when Maratha
Maratha
principalities ruled as a feudatory of the British, Maratha rulers built palaces, contributed towards fine arts, introduced social reforms, and developed civic amenities in their territories. Military contributions[edit]

A painted scroll depicting different types of ships of the Marathan Navy including some captured English ships

Some historians have credited Maratha Navy
Maratha Navy
for laying the foundation of Indian Navy
Indian Navy
and bringing significant changes in naval warfare. A series of sea forts and battleships were built in 17th century during the reign of Shivaji. It has been noted that vessels built in the dockyards of Konkan
Konkan
were mostly indigenous, constructed without foreign aid.[85] Further, in 18th centuries, during the reign of Admiral Kanhoji Angre, a host of dockyard facilities were built along the entire western coastline of present-day Maharashtra. The Marathas fortified the entire coastline with sea fortresses with navigational facilities.[86]

Nearly all the hill forts, which dot the landscape of present-day western Maharashtra
Maharashtra
were built by the Marathas. The renovation of Gingee
Gingee
fortress in Tamil Nadu, has been particularly applauded.[87]

Development of towns and civic amenities[edit]

During the 18th century, the Peshwas of Pune
Pune
brought significant changes to the town of Pune
Pune
building dams, bridges, and an underground water supply system.[88] During the 18th century, misrule and pursuance of oppressive policies by the Marathas have been noted in the town of Ahmedabad[89]

Patronizing religion[edit]

Queen Ahilyabai Holkar
Holkar
has been noted as a just ruler and an avid patron of religion. She has been credited for building and patronizing numerous temples in the town of Maheshwar
Maheshwar
in Madhya Pradesh. Its handloom industry is also said to have been flourished under the rule of Holkars.[90] The Bhosales of Nagpur
Nagpur
ruled present-day state of Odisha
Odisha
in the latter half of the 18th century, during which misrule, anarchy, and violence has been reported. However at the same time, it is to be noted that the Maratha
Maratha
rulers patronized religion and religious institutions which made Odisha
Odisha
a center of attraction.[91] Several Ghats in Varanasi
Ghats in Varanasi
(in present-day Uttar Pradesh) were repaired and re-constructed during the Maratha
Maratha
rule of 18th century.[92] The Maratha
Maratha
rulers of Tanjore are said to have constructed several temples in the town of Tanjore

Fine arts and palaces[edit]

The Maratha
Maratha
rulers of Tanjore (present-day Tamil Nadu) were patrons of fine arts and their reign has been considered as the golden period of Tanjore history. Art and culture reached new heights during their rule. They also considered themselves as representatives of Cholas referring themselves as Cholasimhasanathipathi.[93] They made significant contributions towards Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Marathi literature,[94] Bharatanatyam
Bharatanatyam
(dance form), and Carnatic music.[95] Several majestic palaces were built by Maratha
Maratha
principalities which include the Shaniwar Wada
Shaniwar Wada
(built by the Peshwas of Pune)

Military[edit] Main article: Maratha
Maratha
Navy Main article: Maratha
Maratha
Army The Maratha
Maratha
army was not homogenous, but employed soldiers of different backgrounds, both locals and foreign mercenaries, including large numbers of Arabs, Sikhs, Rajputs, Sindhis, Rohillas, Abyssinians, Pathans, Topiwalas and Europeans. The army of Nana Fadnavis, for example, included 5,000 Arabs.[96] Afghan accounts[edit]

Maratha
Maratha
Gurabs ships attacking a British East India
India
Company ship

The Maratha
Maratha
army, especially its infantry, was praised by almost all the enemies of Maratha
Maratha
Empire, ranging from Duke of Wellington
Duke of Wellington
to Ahmad Shah Abdali[citation needed]. After the Third Battle of Panipat, Abdali was relieved as Maratha
Maratha
army in the initial stages were almost in the position of destroying the Afghan armies and their Indian Allies Nawab of Oudh
Nawab of Oudh
and Rohillas. The grand wazir of Durrani Empire, Sardar Shah Wali Khan
Sardar Shah Wali Khan
was shocked when Maratha
Maratha
commander-in-chief Sadashivrao Bhau
Sadashivrao Bhau
launched a fierce assault on the centre of Afghan Army, over 3,000 Durrani soldiers were killed alongside Haji Atai Khan, one of the chief commander of Afghan army and nephew of wazir Shah Wali Khan. Such was the fierce assault of Maratha
Maratha
infantry in hand-to-hand combat that Afghan armies started to flee and the wazir in desperation and rage shouted, "Comrades Whither do you fly, our country is far off".[97] Post battle, Ahmad Shah Abdali
Ahmad Shah Abdali
in a letter to one Indian ruler claimed that Afghans were able to defeat the Marathas only because of the blessings of almighty and any other army would have been destroyed by the Maratha
Maratha
army on that particular day even though Maratha
Maratha
army was numerically inferior to Afghan army and its Indian allies.[98][full citation needed] Though Abdali won the battle, he also had heavy casualties on his side. So, he sought immediate peace with the Marathas. Abdali wrote in his letter to Peshwa
Peshwa
on February 10, 1761:

There is no reason to have animosity amongst us. Your son Vishwasrao and your brother Sadashivrao died in battle, was unfortunate. Bhau started the battle, so I had to fight back unwillingly. Yet I feel sorry for his death. Please continue your guardianship of Delhi
Delhi
as before, to that I have no opposition. Only let Punjab
Punjab
until Sutlaj remain with us. Reinstate Shah Alam on Delhi's throne as you did before and let there be peace and friendship between us, this is my ardent desire. Grant me that desire.[99]

European accounts[edit]

Arms of Maratha

Similarly, the Duke of Wellington, after defeating the Marathas, noted that the Marathas, though poorly led by their Generals, had regular infantry and artillery that matched the level of that of the Europeans and warned other British officers from underestimating the Marathas on the battlefield. He cautioned one British general that: "You must never allow Maratha
Maratha
infantry to attack head on or in close hand to hand combat as in that your army will cover itself with utter disgrace".[100] Even when Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, became the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of Britain, he held the Maratha
Maratha
infantry in utmost respect, claiming it to be one of the best in the world. However, at the same time he noted the poor leadership of Maratha Generals, who were often responsible for their defeats.[100] Charles Metcalfe, one of the ablest of the British Officials in India
India
and later acting Governor-General, wrote in 1806:

India
India
contains no more than two great powers, British and Mahratta, and every other state acknowledges the influence of one or the other. Every inch that we recede will be occupied by them.[101][102]

Norman Gash
Norman Gash
says that the Maratha
Maratha
infantry was equal to that of British infantry. After the Third Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
war in 1818, Britain listed the Marathas as one of the Martial Races to serve in the British Indian Army.[103] The 19th century diplomat Sir Justin Sheil commented about the British East India
India
Company copying the French Indian army in raising an army of Indians:

It is to the military genius of the French that we are indebted for the formation of the Indian army. Our warlike neighbours were the first to introduce into India
India
the system of drilling native troops and converting them into a regularly disciplined force. Their example was copied by us, and the result is what we now behold. The French carried to Persia the same military and administrative faculties, and established the origin of the present Persian regular army, as it is styled. When Napoleon the Great resolved to take Iran under his auspices, he dispatched several officers of superior intelligence to that country with the mission of General Gardanne in 1808. Those gentlemen commenced their operations in the provinces of Azerbaijan and Kermanshah, and it is said with considerable success. — Sir Justin Sheil (1803–1871).[104]

Notable generals and administrators[edit] Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Bawdekar[edit]

Sadashivrao Bhau
Sadashivrao Bhau
(centre)

Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Bawdekar was a court administrator who rose from the ranks of a local Kulkarni to the ranks of Ashtapradhan under guidance and support of Shivaji. He was one of the prominent Peshwas from the time of Shivaji, prior to the rise of the later Peshwas who controlled the empire after Shahuji.[74] When Rajaram fled to Jinji in 1689 leaving Maratha
Maratha
Empire, he gave a Hukumat Panha (King Status) to Pant before leaving. Ramchandra Pant managed the entire state under many challenges like influx of Mughals, betrayal from Vatandars (local satraps under the Maratha
Maratha
state) and social challenges like scarcity of food. With the help of Pantpratinidhi, Sachiv, he kept the economic condition of Maratha Empire
Empire
in an appropriate state. He received military help from the Maratha
Maratha
commanders – Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. On many occasions he himself participated in battles against Mughals.[citation needed] In 1698, he stepped down from the post of Hukumat Panha when Rajaram offered this post to his wife, Tarabai. Tarabai
Tarabai
gave an important position to Pant among senior administrators of Maratha
Maratha
State. He wrote Adnyapatra (मराठी: आज्ञापत्र) in which he has explained different techniques of war, maintenance of forts and administration etc. But owing to his loyalty to Tarabai against Shahuji (who was supported by more local satraps), he was sidelined after arrival of Shahuji in 1707.[citation needed] Nana Phadnavis[edit] Nana Phadnavis
Nana Phadnavis
was an influential minister and statesman of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
during the Peshwa
Peshwa
administration.After the assassination of Peshwa
Peshwa
Narayanrao
Narayanrao
in 1773, Nana Phadnavis
Nana Phadnavis
managed the affairs of the state with the help of a twelve-member regency council known as the Barbhai council and he remained the chief strategist of Maratha
Maratha
state till his death in 1800 AD.[105] Nana Phadnavis
Nana Phadnavis
played a pivotal role in holding the Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy together in the midst of internal dissension and the growing power of British. Nana's administrative, diplomatic and financial skills brought prosperity to the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
and his management of external affairs kept the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
away from the thrust of the British East India
India
Company. Rulers, administrators and generals[edit] Royal houses[edit]

Shivaji
Shivaji
(1630–1680) Sambhaji
Sambhaji
(1657–1689) Rajaram Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
(1670–1700)

Satara:

Chhattrapati Shahu
Chhattrapati Shahu
(r. 1708–1749) (alias Shivaji
Shivaji
II, son of Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
Sambhaji) Ramaraja II (nominally, grandson of Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
Rajaram and Queen Tarabai) (r. 1749–1777) Shahu II (r. 1777–1808) Pratap Singh (r. 1808–1839) – signed a treaty with the East India
India
company ceding part of sovereignty to the company[106]

Kolhapur:

Tarabai
Tarabai
(1675–1761) (wife of Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
Rajaram) in the name of her son Shivaji
Shivaji
II Shivaji
Shivaji
II (1700–1714) Sambhaji
Sambhaji
II (1714 to 1760) – came to power by deposing his half brother Shivaji
Shivaji
II Shivaji
Shivaji
III (1760–1812) (adopted from the family of Khanwilkar)

Peshwas[edit]

The Sati of Ramabai, wife of Peshwa
Peshwa
Madhavrao I

Moropant Trimbak Pingle
Moropant Trimbak Pingle
(1657–1683) Bahiroji Pingale
Bahiroji Pingale
(1708–1711)

Peshwas from Bhat family[edit] From Balaji Vishwanath
Balaji Vishwanath
onwards, actual power gradually shifted to the Bhat family
Bhat family
Peshwas based in Pune.

Balaji Vishwanath
Balaji Vishwanath
(1713–1720) Bajirao
Bajirao
(1720–1740) Balaji Bajirao
Balaji Bajirao
(4 Jul. 1740-23 Jun. 1761) (b. 8 Dec. 1721, d. 23 Jun. 1761) Madhavrao Peshwa
Peshwa
(1761–18 Nov.1772) (b. 16 Feb. 1745, d. 18 Nov. 1772) Narayanrao
Narayanrao
Bajirao
Bajirao
(13 Dec. 1772–30 Aug.1773) (b. 10 Aug. 1755, d. 30 Aug. 1773) Raghunathrao
Raghunathrao
(5 Dec. 1773–1774) (b. 18 Aug. 1734, d. 11 Dec. 1783) Sawai Madhava Rao II Narayan
Sawai Madhava Rao II Narayan
(1774–27 Oct. 1795) (b. 18 Apr. 1774, d. 27 Oct. 1795) Baji Rao II
Baji Rao II
(6 Dec. 1796 – 3 Jun.1818) (d. 28 Jan. 1851)

Houses of Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy[edit]

Holkars of Indore Scindias of Gwalior Gaikwads of Baroda Bhonsales of Nagpur Puars of Dewas
Dewas
and Dhar Patwardhans

Maps showing the Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
at different stages of history[edit]

Maratha
Maratha
kingdom in 1680 (green)

Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
in 1760 (yellow)

Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
in 1765 (yellow)

Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
in 1794 (yellow)

Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
in 1805 (yellow)

Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Maratha
Maratha
Kingdom (Tamil Nadu)[edit] Main article: Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathas

Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Maratha
Maratha
palace

The Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathas were the rulers of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
principality of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
between the 17th and 19th centuries. Their native language was Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Marathi. Venkoji, Shahaji's son and Shivaji's half brother, was the founder of the dynasty.[107] List of rulers of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Maratha
Maratha
dynasty :

Venkoji Shahuji I of Thanjavur Serfoji I Tukkoji Pratapsingh of Thanjavur Thuljaji Serfoji II Shivaji
Shivaji
II of Thanjavur

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maratha
Maratha
Empire.

Maratha
Maratha
clan system List of Maratha
Maratha
dynasties and states Maratha
Maratha
War of Independence Battles involving the Maratha
Maratha
Empire Maratha
Maratha
titles Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Maratha
Maratha
kingdom List of people involved in the Maratha
Maratha
Empire

Footnotes[edit]

^ Some historians[who?] may consider 1645 as the founding of the empire because that was the year when the teenaged Shivaji
Shivaji
captured a fort from Adilshahi sultanate ^ Many historians consider Attock
Attock
to be the final frontier of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire[10]

Citations[edit]

^ https://books.google.com/books?id=oUTRAAAAMAAJ ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, pp. 609, 634. ^ "Bal Gangadhar Tilak". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica.  ^ a b c Pearson, M. N. (February 1976). " Shivaji
Shivaji
and the Decline of the Mughal Empire". The Journal of Asian Studies. 35 (2): 221–235. doi:10.2307/2053980. JSTOR 2053980. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Delhi, the Capital of India
India
By Anon, John Capper, p.28. "This source establishes the Maratha
Maratha
control of Delhi
Delhi
before the British" ^ An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen p.Introduction-14. The author says: "The victory at Bhopal in 1738 established Maratha
Maratha
dominance at the Mughal court" ^ The Journal of Asian Studies The Journal of Asian Studies / Volume 21 / Issue 04 / August 1962, pp 577–578 ^ Mehta (2005), p. 204 ^ a b An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen, p.16 ^ Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bharatiya Itihasa Samiti, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar – The History and Culture of the Indian People: The Maratha supremacy ^ Naravane, M.S. (2014). Battles of the Honorourable East India Company. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. p. 63. ISBN 9788131300343.  ^ Pagadi, Setumadhavarao S. (1993). Shivaji. National Book Trust. p. 21. ISBN 81-237-0647-2.  ^ Jones, Rodney W. (1974). Urban Politics in India: Area, Power, and Policy in a Penetrated System. University of California Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-520-02545-5.  ^ Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind (1988). Poona in the eighteenth century: an urban history. Oxford University Press. p. 112.  ^ Jackson, William Joseph (2005). Vijayanagara voices: exploring South Indian history and Hindu literature. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-7546-3950-3.  ^ Vartak, Malavika (8–14 May 1999). " Shivaji
Shivaji
Maharaj: Growth of a Symbol". Economic and Political Weekly. 34 (19): 1126–1134. JSTOR 4407933. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ M. R. Kantak (1993). The First Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War, 1774–1783: A Military Study of Major Battles. Popular Prakashan. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-81-7154-696-1.  ^ Mehta (2005), p. 707:quote:It explains the rise to power of his Peshwa
Peshwa
(prime minister) Balaji Vishwanath
Balaji Vishwanath
(1713–20) and the transformation of the Maratha
Maratha
kingdom into a vast empire, by the collective action of all the Maratha
Maratha
stalwarts. ^ Richards, J.F. (1995). Mughal empire (Transferred to digital print. ed.). Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press. pp. 217–218. ISBN 978-0521566032. Retrieved 22 August 2017.  ^ Jaswant Lal Mehta (1995). Advanced Study in the History of Modern India
India
1707-1813. New Dawn Press Group. p. 50. ISBN 1-932705546.  ^ John F. Richards (1995). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 217–223.  ^ Richards, J.F. (1995). Mughal empire (Transferred to digital print. ed.). Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-0521566032. Retrieved 22 August 2017.  ^ a b An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen, p.11 ^ An Advanced History of Modern India
India
by Sailendra Nath Sen, p11 ^ Mehta, J. L. (2005). Advanced study in the history of modern India, 1707–1813. Slough: New Dawn Press, Inc. p. 81. ISBN 9781932705546.  ^ Mehta, J. L. (2005). Advanced study in the history of modern India, 1707–1813. Slough: New Dawn Press, Inc. pp. 101–103. ISBN 9781932705546.  ^ a b An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen, p.12 ^ The Concise History of Warfare By Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, p.132 ^ J.L. Mehta, Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707–1813 (2005) ^ a b c S.N. Sen, History Modern India
India
(3rd ed. 2006) ^ An Advanced History of Modern India ^ An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen, p13 ^ Advanced Study in the History of Modern India
India
1707–1813 By Jaswant Lal Mehta, p 202 ^ a b An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen, p.15 ^ Fall Of The Mughal Empire- Volume 1 (4Th Edn.), J. N.Sarkar ^ a b P. J. Marshall (2006). Bengal: The British Bridgehead: Eastern India
India
1740–1828. Cambridge University Press. pp. 72–73.  ^ a b Roy, Kaushik. India's Historic Battles: From Alexander the Great to Kargil. Permanent Black, India. pp. 80–1. ISBN 978-81-7824-109-8.  ^ a b c d Agrawal, Ashvini (1983). "Events leading to the Battle of Panipat". Studies in Mughal History. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 26. ISBN 81-208-2326-5.  ^ Mehta, Advanced Study in the History of Modern India
India
1707–1813, p.140 ^ Mehta (2005), p. 274 ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of world-systems research. 12 (2): 223. ISSN 1076-156X ^ Advance Study in the History of Modern India
India
(Volume-1: 1707–1803) By G.S.Chhabra, p.56 ^ The Marathas 1600–1818, Band 2 by Stewart Gordon p.157 ^ The Marathas 1600–1818, Band 2 by Stewart Gordon p.158 ^ "Haryana, a Historical Perspective". google.co.in.  ^ Mehta (2005), p. 458 ^ a b Rathod (1994), p. 8 ^ a b A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid ... – Farooqui Salma Ahmed, Salma Ahmed Farooqui – Google Books.  ^ The Great Maratha
Maratha
Mahadaji Scindia
Scindia
By N. G. Rathod, p.95 ^ "SPLENDOURS OF ROYAL MYSORE (PB)". google.co.in.  ^ The Great Maratha
Maratha
Mahadaji Scindia
Scindia
By N. G. Rathod, p.30 ^ Rathod (1994), p. 106 ^ "Marathas and the Marathas Country: The Marathas". google.co.in.  ^ Sir Jadunath Sarkar
Jadunath Sarkar
(1994). A History of Jaipur
Jaipur
1503–1938. Orient Longman. ISBN 81-250-0333-9. ^ Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. The History and Culture of the Indian People: The Maratha supremacy ^ The State at War in South Asia By Pradeep Barua, p.91 ^ Mohibbul Hasan, History of Tipu Sultan, pp. 105–107  ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. III 1907, p. 502 ^ Kulkarni, Uday. "What Exactly Happened At Sringeri
Sringeri
Math In April 1791?". Swarajya. Retrieved 3 March 2018.  ^ Mohibbul Hasan, History of Tipu Sultan, p. 358  ^ Annual Report of the Mysore
Mysore
Archaeological Department 1916 pp 10–11, 73–6 ^ Hasan, History of Tipu Sultan, p. 359 ^ Randolf G. S. Cooper (2003). The Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
Campaigns and the Contest for India: The Struggle for Control of the South Asian Military Economy. Cambridge University Press.  ^ Randolf G. S. Cooper (2003). The Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
Campaigns and the Contest for India: The Struggle for Control of the South Asian Military Economy. Cambridge University Press. p. 69.  ^ Battle of Wadgaon, Encyclopædia Britannica ^ C A Kincaid and D B Parasnis, A history of the Maratha
Maratha
people. Vol III p. 194. ^ Delhi, the Capital of India
India
By Anon, John Capper, p.28 ^ The Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
Campaigns and the Contest for India, Randolf G. S. Cooper, University of Cambridge, ISBN 978-0-521-03646-7, 2007 ^ Prakash 2002, p. 300. ^ Pramod K. Nayar (25 March 2008). English Writing and India, 1600–1920: Colonizing Aesthetics. Routledge. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-134-13150-1.  ^ Harish Trivedi; Richard Allen (2000). Literature and Nation. Psychology Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-415-21207-6.  ^ United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals 1930, p. 121. ^ Black 2006, p. 77. ^ a b Shivaji, the great Maratha, Volume 2, H. S. Sardesai, Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2002, ISBN 81-7755-286-4, ISBN 978-81-7755-286-7 ^ http://www.kkhsou.in/main/history/marathas.html ^ Maratha
Maratha
Rule in India
India
By Stephen Meredyth Edwardes, Herbert Leonard Offley Garrett p. 116. ^ U.B. Singh (1998). Administrative System in India: Vedic Age to 1947. APH Publishing. p. 93.  ^ Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. The History and Culture of the Indian People: The Maratha supremacy. G. Allen & Unwin, 1951 ^ The New Cambridge Modern History – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 12 July 2013. ^ History of Medieval India
India
– Saini A.K, Chand, Hukam – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 17 September 2012.  ^ "History Modern India". google.co.in.  ^ War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849 – Kaushik Roy – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2012.  ^ "The Cambridge History of India". google.co.in.  ^ History of the Marathas – R.S. Chaurasia.  ^ Bhave, Y.G. From the Death of Shivaji
Shivaji
to the Death of Aurangzeb: The Critical Years. Northern Book Center. p. 28. ISBN 81-7211-100-2.  ^ Sridharan, K. Sea: Our Saviour. New Age International Private Ltd. p. 43. ISBN 81-224-1245-9.  ^ Kantak, M.R. The First Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War, 1774–1783: A Military Study of Major Battles. Bombay Popular Prakashan. p. 10. ISBN 9788171546961.  ^ "Peshwa-era Katraj water plan needs to be revived". Daily News and Analysis.  ^ "History". Amdavad Municipal Corporation.  ^ Bose, MeliaBelli. Women, Gender and Art in Asia, c. 1500–1900. Ash Gate Books.  ^ Parker, Brannon. ORISSA in the CROSSFIRE-Kandhamal Burning. p. 14.  ^ Breathing in Bodhi. Disha Publications. p. 227.  ^ Raje Bhosle, Prince Pratap Sinh Serfoji. Contributions of Thanjavur Maratha
Maratha
Kings. Notion Press. ISBN 978-1-948230-95-7.  ^ Rath, Saraju. Aspects of Manuscript Culture in South India. p. 164. ISBN 978-90-04-22347-9.  ^ "Royal tribute to Thanjavur
Thanjavur
rulers". New Indian Express.  ^ Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. The History and Culture of the Indian People: The Maratha Supremacy, page 512. G. Allen & Unwin, 1951 ^ [1] Fall of Mughal Empire: Vol.2 ^ "Indian Military Thought". google.co.in.  ^ G S Sardesai's Marathi Riyasat, volume 2."The reference for this letter as given by Sardesai in Riyasat – Peshwe Daftar letters 2.103, 146; 21.206; 1.202, 207, 210, 213; 29, 42, 54, and 39.161. Satara Daftar – document number 2.301, Shejwalkar's Panipat, page no. 99. Moropanta's account – 1.1, 6, 7" ^ a b "Empires and Indigenes". google.co.in.  ^ "Full text of "Selections from the papers of Lord Metcalfe; late governor-general of India, governor of Jamaica, and governor-general of Canada"". archive.org.  ^ The Discovery Of India.  ^ "Wellington". google.co.in.  ^ Glimpses of Life and Manners in Persia by Lady Mary Leonora Woulfe Sheil, with additional notes by Sir Justin Sheil [2] ^ Great Personalities By Prof. R. P. Chaturvedi, p.189 ^ Kulkarni, Sumitra (1995). The Satara Raj, 1818–1848: A Study in History, Administration, and Culture. Mittal Publications. pp. 21–24. ISBN 978-81-7099-581-4.  ^ Journal of the Tanjore Maharaja Serfoji's Sarasvati Mahal Library Pg 18

Bibliography[edit]

Beck, Sanderson. India
India
& Southeast Asia to 1800 (2006) "Marathas and the English Company 1701–1818" online. Retrieved Oct. 1, 2004. Gordon, Stewart. Marathas, marauders, and state formation in eighteenth-century India
India
(Oxford University Press, 1994). Gordon, Stewart. "The Marathas," in New Cambridge History of India, vol II. ch 4, (Cambridge U Press, 1993). Kumar, Ravinder. Western India
India
in the nineteenth century (Routledge, 2013). Laine, James W. Shivaji: Hindu King in Islamic India
India
(New York, 2003). McEldowney, Philip F (1966), Pindari
Pindari
Society and the Establishment of British Paramountcy in India, Madison: University of Wisconsin, OCLC 53790277  Mehta, J. L (2005), Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707–1813, II, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, ISBN 978-1-932705-54-6  Moon, Penderel. The British Conquest and Dominion of India: Part One 1745-1857 (1989). Roy, Tirthankar. "Rethinking the origins of British India: state formation and military-fiscal undertakings in an eighteenth century world region." Modern Asian Studies 47.4 (2013): 1125+ online Majumdar, R. C. (1991). The history and culture of the Indian people: V. 8. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. Sardesai, Govind Sakharam. New history of the Marathas, vol. I: Shivaji
Shivaji
and his line, 1600–1707 (Phoenix publications, 1946). Sen, Sailendra Nath (1994), Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
Relations, 1785–96, Volume 2 of Anglo- Maratha
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Relations, Sailendra Nath Sen, Bombay: Popular Prakashan, ISBN 978-81-7154-789-0  Sen, S.N. History Modern India
India
(3rd ed. 2006) online Seshan, Radhika. "The Maratha
Maratha
State: Some Preliminary Considerations." Indian Historical Review 41.1 (2014): 35–46. online Wink, Andre. Land and Sovereignty in India: Agrarian Society and Politics under the Eighteenth Century Maratha
Maratha
Swarajya, (Cambridge UP, 1986). Bombay University
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History – Seminar Volume Samant, S. D. – Vedh Mahamanavacha Kasar, D.B. – Rigveda to Raigarh making of Shivaji
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(1968), Pune: Balwant Printers – English Translation of popular Marathi book. Pagdi, Setu Madhavrao – Hindavi Swaraj Aani Moghul (1984), Girgaon Book Depot, Marathi book Deshpande, S.R. – Marathyanchi Manaswini, Lalit Publications, Marathi book Bakshi, S.R; Ralhan, O.P. (2007), Madhya Pradesh
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v t e

Maratha
Maratha
Empire

Rulers

Shivaji Sambhaji Rajaram I Tarabai Shahu I Rajaram II Shahu II Pratap Singh

Peshwas

Moropant Trimbak Pingle Moreshvar Pingale Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bahiroji Pingale Parashuram Trimbak Kulkarni Balaji Vishwanath Baji Rao I Balaji Baji Rao Madhavrao Ballal Narayan Rao Raghunathrao Sawai Madhavrao Baji Rao II Amrut Rao Nana Sahib Bhat family

Women

Ahilyabai Holkar Anandibai Gopikabai Jankibai Jijabai Kashibai Mastani Muddupalani Parvatibai Putalabai Radhikabai Ramabai Saibai Sakvarbai Soyarabai Umabai Dabhade Tulsi Bai Holkar

Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy

Bhonsle
Bhonsle
of Nagpur Gaekwad
Gaekwad
of Baroda Scindia
Scindia
of Gwalior Holkar
Holkar
of Indore
Indore
(subsidiary or feudatory states)

Battles

Pratapgarh Kolhapur Pavan Khind Chakan Surat Purandar Sinhagad Kalyan Bhupalgarh Sangamner Bijapur Raigarh (1689) Jinji Satara Khelna Raigarh Torna Palkhed Mandsaur 1st Delhi Bhopal Vasai Gajendragad 1st Trichinopoly Katwa (1st) 2nd Trichinopoly Katwa (2nd) Invasions of Bengal Burdwan Udgir 2nd Delhi Attock Peshawar 3rd Panipat Alegaon Rakshabhuvan Panchgaon Saunshi Adoni Badami Savanur Bahadur Benda Lalsot Chaksana Patan Kharda Poona 3rd Delhi Assaye Laswari Farrukhabad Bharatpur Khadki Koregaon Mahidpur

Wars

Maratha-Mughal War of 27 years Maratha– Mysore
Mysore
War First Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War Second Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War Third Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War

Adversaries

Adilshahi Nizamshahi Berar Sultanate Bidar Sultanate Qutbshahi Mughal Empire Durrani Empire British Empire Portuguese Empire Nizam
Nizam
of Hyderabad Mysore

Forts

Fort Mangad Panhala Pratapgad Purandar Raigad Rajgad Shaniwar Wada Shivneri Sindhudurg Sinhagad Torna

Coins

Shivrai

v t e

Empires

Ancient

Akkadian Egyptian Assyrian Babylonian Carthaginian Chinese

Qin Han Jin Northern Wei Tang

Hellenistic

Macedonian Seleucid

Hittite Indian

Nanda Maurya Satavahana Shunga Gupta Harsha

Iranian

Elamite Median Achaemenid Parthian Sasanian

Kushan Mongol

Xianbei Xiongnu

Roman

Western Eastern

Teotihuacan

Post-classical

Arab

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Fatimid Córdoba

Aragonese Angevin Aztec Benin Bornu Bruneian Bulgarian

First Second

Byzantine

Nicaea Trebizond

Carolingian Chinese

Sui Tang Song Yuan

Ethiopian

Zagwe Solomonic

Georgian Hunnic Inca Indian

Chola Gurjara-Pratihara Pala Eastern Ganga dynasty Delhi Vijayanagara

Iranian

Samanid

Kanem Khmer Latin Majapahit Malaccan Mali Mongol

Yuan Golden Horde Chagatai Khanate Ilkhanate

Moroccan

Idrisid Almoravid Almohad Marinid

North Sea Oyo Roman Serbian Somali

Ajuran Ifatite Adalite Mogadishan Warsangali

Songhai Srivijaya Tibetan Turko-Persian

Ghaznavid Great Seljuk Khwarezmian Timurid

Vietnamese

Ly Tran Le

Wagadou

Modern

Ashanti Austrian Austro-Hungarian Brazilian Central African Chinese

Ming Qing China Manchukuo

Ethiopian French

First Second

German

First/Old Reich Second Reich Third Reich

Haitian

First Second

Indian

Maratha Sikh Mughal British Raj

Iranian

Safavid Afsharid

Japanese Johor Korean Mexican

First Second

Moroccan

Saadi Alaouite

Russian USSR Somali

Gobroon Majeerteen Hobyo Dervish

Swedish Tongan Turkish

Ottoman Karaman Ramazan

Vietnamese

Tay Son Nguyen Vietnam

Colonial

American Belgian British

English

Danish Dutch French German Italian Japanese Omani Norwegian Portuguese Spanish Swedish

Lists

Empires

largest

ancient great powers medieval great powers m

.