First Philippine Republic
Republic of Biak-na-Bato
Katipunan (Magdalo Faction)
General Benito Natividad
Colonel Joaquin Alejandrino
Philippine Revolutionary Army
Years of service
Manuel Tinio y Bundoc (June 17, 1877 – February 22, 1924) was the
youngest General of the Philippine Revolutionary Army, and was
elected Governor of the Province of Nueva Ecija, Republic of the
Philippines in 1907. He is one of the three Fathers of the Cry of
Nueva Ecija along with
Pantaleon Valmonte and Mariano Llanera.
On March 29, 2015, Licab, Nueva Ecija, dedicated the very first
monument of General Manuel Bundoc Tinio during its 120th anniversary
as a municipality.
2 Early years
3 1896 and the Revolution
6 The Siege of Ilocos
7 The Establishment of the Civil and Military Government in Ilocos
8 1899 and the Philippine–American War
9 The battles in the North
10 1900. Guerilla warfare
12 The American Period - From General to Governor and Director
13 Some More Notes on the Man, and his Death
13.1 General Tinio, Nueva Ecija
14 Descendants & Relatives
17 Further reading
The Tinio family, whose most illustrious son is Manuel Tinio, is
conceivably the most prominent and wealthiest family in the province
of Nueva Ecija. Too, the family was the largest landowner in
Central Luzon, if not the entire Philippines, prior to the declaration
of Martial Law.
The Tinios, like the Rizals, are of Chinese descent. An archival
document from San Fernando,
Pampanga dated 1745 describes a certain
Domingo Tinio as a Chino Cristiano or baptized Chinese.
Juan Tinio, the first ancestor on record had twin sons who were
Gapan in 1750. In the baptismal record he is described as
an indio natural, a native Filipino. From this it can be deduced that
either his grandfather or an earlier ancestor was a pure-blooded
Chinese. (Juan Tinio became the first middleman of the Tobacco
Monopoly when it was established in 1782 and held the position for two
Juan Tinio's great-grandson, Mariano Tinio Santiago, was the father of
Manuel Tinio. Mariano and his siblings, originally named Santiago,
changed their family name to Tinio, their mother's family name, in
accordance with Gov.-Gen. Narciso Claveria's second decree of 1850
requiring all Indios and Chinese mestizos to change their family names
if these were saints’ names. Although he was a native of San Isidro,
Nueva Ecija, Mariano eventually settled in Licab, then a barrio of
Aliaga beside Lake Canarem, and carved out rice fields from the
heavily forested area. Having served as Cabeza de Barangay of the
place, he came to be known as ‘Cabezang Marianong Pulang Buhok’
(Cabezang Mariano the Red-Haired). Although he eventually became a big
landowner, he lived very simply on his lands. Mariano was a man of
strong principles, and even led a petition to the Governor-General
denouncing the corruption and abuses of the Alcalde Mayor, the
governor of Nueva Ecija, and asking for his recall. Cabesang Mariano
married several times and, in the fashion of the time, engaged in
extramarital affairs, siring numerous progeny. His fourth and last
wife was Silveria Misadsad Bundoc of Entablado, Cabiao. He died on
Oct.11, 1889 in Licab. Silveria, a woman of very strong character,
lived on until the 2" decade of the 20th century.
Manuel Tinio was born to Silveria on June 17, 1877 in Licab, a barrio
of Aliaga that became an independent municipality in 1890. He was the
only son and had two sisters, the eldest, Maximiana, married Valentin
de Castro of Licab and Catalina, the youngest, married Clemente
Gatchalian Hernandez of Malolos, Bulacan. Manuel was his mother's
favorite, his father having died when Manuel was twelve.
Manuel Tinio learned his caton, the phonetic ABCs, under an
unknown tutor in Licab. Later, he went to the provincial capital where
he attended a school in Calaba, San Isidro headed by Don Rufino
Villaruz. He continued his studies in
Manila in the school run by Don
V. Crisologo. In 1893 he entered San Juan de Letran, where he pursued
his segunda ensenianza or high school studies until 1896.
Manuel Tinio was said to have been a mischievous student, but a born
leader. As was the custom of the time, the students tended to
gravitate into regional groups. Naturally, Manuel became the leader of
the Novo-Ecijanos. He and his friends pulled a prank, which cost him
his graduation. The teenaged
Manuel Tinio and his "barkada" had just
come from an arnis de mano match in the Jardin Botanico (behind the
Manila Metropolitan Theater) and were on their way back to
Intramuros when they saw a
Spaniard bicycling towards them. Dared by
his friends, Manuel pushed the cyclist and everyone ran away in glee
as soon as the man fell. The furious Spaniard, who turned out to be an
officer of the Guardia Civil, recognized Manuel. That night, several
civil guards came knocking at the boarding house where Manuel was
staying. Tinio and his fellow boarders, wondering at the commotion,
peeped through a hole on the floor and saw the soldiers. Realizing
that he was going to be arrested Manuel jumped out of a window for his
dear life and fled to Licab, his hometown. This was the first of many
such narrow escapes in his remarkable life.
1896 and the Revolution
Manuel Tinio, then 18 years old, joined the
Katipunan in April 1896.
By August he had organized a company composed of friends, relatives
and tenants. Personally leading his group of teenaged guerillas, he
conducted raids and depredations against Spanish detachments and
patrols in Nueva Ecija. Occasionally, he joined up with similar forces
under other youthful leaders.
An Early flag of the Katipunan.
On September 2, 1896,
Manuel Tinio and his men joined the combined
Mariano Llanera and Pantaleon Belmonte, capitanes
municipales or mayors of Cabiao and Gapan, respectively, in the attack
on San Isidro. Of 3,000 who volunteered, 500 determined men were
chosen for the attack. Led by a bamboo orchestra or musikong bumbong
of Cabiao, the force came in two separate columns from Cabiao and
Gapan City and converged in Sitio Pulu, 5 km. from San Isidro.
Despite the fact that they had only 100 rifles, they furiously fought
Spaniards holed up in the Casa Tribunal, the arsenal, other
government buildings and in the houses of Spanish residents. Capt.
Joaquin Machorro, commander of the Guardias Civiles, was killed on the
first day of battle. According to Julio Tinio, Manuel's cousin and a
participant in the battle, Manuel had a conference in the arsenal with
Antonio Luna and Eduardo Llanera, the general's son, immediately after
The Spanish authorities hastily organized a company of 200 civilian
Spaniards and mercenaries the following day and attacked the
overconfident insurgents, driving the besiegers away from the
government center. The next day more Spanish reinforcements arrived
from Peñaranda, forcing the poorly armed rebels to retreat, leaving
behind 60 dead. The
Spaniards went in hot pursuit of the insurgents,
forcing those from Cabiao to flee to Candaba, Pampanga, and those from
Gapan to hide in San Miguel de Mayumo in Bulacan. The insurgents from
San Isidro fled across the river to hide in aen. The relatives of
those who were recognized were driven away from their homes by the
Manuel Tinio and his troop stayed to protect the
mass of people from Calaba, San Isidro, who were all his kinfolk,
hastening across the river to Jaen, Nueva Ecija.
The Spaniards’ relentless pursuit of the rebels forced them to
disband and go into hiding until January 1897. Tinio was a special
target. At 5 feet 7 inches (170 cm) tall, he literally
stood out among the attackers, whose average height was below 5 feet
(150 cm). He fled to Licab. A platoon of cazadores (footsoldiers)
was sent to arrest him, forcing Hilario Tinio Yango, his first cousin
and the Capitan Municipal of the town, to lead them to him. Warned of
the approaching soldiers, Manuel again escaped and fled on foot back
to San Isidro, where, in the barrios of Calaba, Alua and Sto. Cristo,
he hid with relatives in their various farms beside the Rio
known as the Peñaranda River). Fear of arrest compelled him to be
forever on the move. He never slept in the same place. Later on, he
would attribute his ill health in his middle age to the privations he
endured during those months of living exposed to the elements.
The passionate rebels reorganized their forces the moment Spanish
pursuit died down. Tinio and his men marched with Gen. Llanera in his
sorties against the Spaniards. Llanera eventually made Tinio a
The aggressive exploits of the teen-aged
Manuel Tinio reached the ears
of General Emilio Aguinaldo, whose forces were being driven out of
Cavite and Laguna, Philippines. He evacuated to Mount Puray in
Montalban, Rizal and called for an assembly of patriots in June 1897.
In that assembly, Aguinaldo appointed Mamerto Natividad, Jr. as
commanding general of the revolutionary army and
Mariano Llanera as
vice-commander with the rank of Lt.-General.
Manuel Tinio was
commissioned a Colonel and served under Gen. Natividad.
The constant pressure from the army of Gov. Gen. Primo de Rivera drove
Aguinaldo to Central Luzon. In August, Gen. Aguinaldo decided to move
his force of 500 men to the caves of Biac-na-Bato in San Miguel,
Bulacan because the area was easier to defend. There, his forces
joined up with those of Gen. Llanera. With the help of Pedro Paterno,
Philippines lawyer, Aguinaldo began negotiating a truce
with the Spanish government in exchange for reforms, an indemnity, and
On August 27, 1897, Gen. Mamerto Natividad and Col. Manuel Tinio
conducted raids in Carmen, Zaragoza and Peñaranda, Nueva Ecija. Three
days later, on the 30th, they stormed and captured Santor (now
Bongabon) with the help of the townspeople. They stayed in that town
till September 3.
On September 4, with the principal objective of acquiring provisions
lacking in Biac-na-Bato, Gen. Natividad and Col.
Manuel Tinio united
their forces with those of Col. Casimiro Tinio, Gen. Pío del Pilar,
Jose Paua and Eduardo Llanera for a dawn attack on Aliaga.
(Casimiro Tinio, popularly known as ‘Capitan Berong’, was an elder
brother of Manuel through his father's first marriage.)
Thus began the Battle of Aliaga, considered one of the most glorious
battles of the rebellion. The rebel forces took the church and
convent, the Casa Tribunal and other government buildings. The
commander of the Spanish detachment died in the first moments of
fighting, while those who survived were locked up in the thick-walled
jail. The rebels then proceeded to entrench themselves and fortify
several houses. The following day, Sunday the 5th, the church and
convent as well as a group of houses were put to the torch due to
exigencies of defense.
Spanish Governor General Primo de Rivera fielded 8,000 Spanish troops
under the commands of Gen. Ricardo Monet and Gen. Nuñez in an effort
to recapture the town. A column of reinforcements under the latter's
command arrived in the afternoon of September 6. They were met with
such a tremendous hail of bullets that the general, two captains and
many soldiers were wounded, forcing the
Spaniards to retreat a
kilometer away from the town to await the arrival of Gen. Monet and
his men. Even with the reinforcements, the
Spaniards were overly
cautious in attacking the insurgents. When they did so the next day,
they found the town already abandoned by the rebels who had gone back
to Biac-na-Bato. Filipino casualties numbered 8 dead and 10 wounded.
Gen. Natividad and Col.
Manuel Tinio shifted to guerrilla warfare. The
following October with full force they attacked San Rafael,
get much-needed provisions for Biac-na-Bato. The battle lasted several
days and, after getting what they came for, they left a detachment in
Bo. Kaingin to hold back the Spanish reinforcements from Baliwag,
Bulacan. To divert Spanish forces from Nueva Ecija, Natividad and
Tayug, Pangasinan on Oct. 4, 1897, occupying the church
in the heart of the poblacion.
Meanwhile, peace negotiations continued and in October Aguinaldo
gathered together his generals to convene a constitutional assembly.
On Nov. 1, 1897 the Constitution was unanimously approved and on that
day the Biac-na-Bato Republic was established.
However, Gen. Natividad, who believed in the revolution, opposed the
peace negotiations and continued to fight indefatigably from
Biac-na-Bato. On Nov. 9, while leading a force of 200 men with Gen.
Pío del Pilar
Pío del Pilar and Col. Ignacio Paua, Natividad was killed in action
in Entablado, Cabiao. Col.
Manuel Tinio brought the corpse back to the
general's grieving wife in Biac-na-Bato. (Incidentally, Gen.
Natividad's widow, Trinidad, was the daughter of Casimiro
Tinio–"Capitan Berong".) With the death of the army's commanding
Manuel Tinio was commissioned
Brigadier General and
designated as commanding general of operations on Nov. 20, 1897. Gen.
Tinio, all of 20 years, became the youngest general of the Philippine
Revolutionary Army. (Gregorio del Pilar, already 22, was only a Lt.
Colonel at that time.)
On Dec. 20, 1897, the Pact of the Biac-na-Bato was ratified by the
Assembly of Representatives. In accordance with the terms of the peace
pact, Aguinaldo went to Sual, Pangasinan, where he and 26 members of
the revolutionary government boarded a steamer to go into voluntary
exile in Hongkong. The Novo-Ecijanos in the group were Manuel Tinio,
Mariano and Eduardo Llanera, Benito and Joaquin Natividad, all
signatories of the Constitution.
In Hongkong, the exiles agreed among themselves to live as a community
and spend only the interest of the initial P400,000 the Spanish
Government had paid in accordance with the Pact of the Biac-na-Bato.
The principal was to be used for the purchase of arms for the
continuation of the revolution at a future time. The Artacho faction,
however, wanted to divide the funds of the Revolution among
themselves. The Novo-Ecijanos did not vote with the opportunist
Artacho ‘faction’, and, being relatively well off, thanks to a
relative who provided them with funds (Trinidad Tinio vda. de
Natividad), "they got a house where they lived like a republic", as
Would history have been different if the Spanish authorities had not
reneged on the terms of the Pact and withheld the amount of P900,000
which was supposed to have been divided among non-combatants who had
suffered in the fighting? Thus shortchanged, considering themselves no
longer honor bound to lay down arms, the revolutionists rose again.
Once again fighting broke out all over Luzon. In Nueva Ecija, the
rebels captured the towns again one by one.
But American intervention was on the way. As early as February 1898 an
American naval squadron had steamed into
Manila Bay. On May 1, less
than a week after the declaration of the Spanish–American War, the
American naval squadron completely destroyed the Spanish fleet.
Admiral Dewey of the United States of America immediately dispatched
the revenue cutter "McCulloch" to
Hongkong to fetch Aguinaldo, who
returned to the
Philippines on May 19. On May 21 Aguinaldo issued a
proclamation asking the nation to rally behind him in a second attempt
to obtain independence. Revolutionary leaders promptly stepped up
their raids and ambuscades on Spanish garrisons in Central Luzon,
capturing more than 5,000 prisoners. By the end of May, the whole of
central and southern Luzon, except Manila, was practically in Filipino
hands. Aguinaldo promptly established a Dictatorial Government on May
24, with himself as Supremo (supreme commander) and proclaimed
Philippine Independence on June 12, 1898. Apolinario Mabini, however,
prevailed upon Aguinaldo to decree the establishment of a
Revolutionary Government on June 23.
The Siege of Ilocos
Manuel Tinio and the rest of the revolutionists in
Hongkong sailed for
Cavite on June 6 on board the 60-ton contraband boat "Kwan Hoi" to
join their Filipino leader. Upon his arrival in Cavite, Tinio was
instructed to organize an expeditionary force to wrest the Ilocano
provinces from Spanish hands. Thus would start the thrust into the
North and its conquest by Novo-Ecijano General Manuel Tinio. First, he
retrieved from Hagonoy,
Bulacan 300 Mauser and Remington rifles that
had been captured from the
Spaniards and stored in that town. He then
took the steamer to San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. Upon his arrival on June
13 he immediately set up 3 companies of 108 men each under the
commands of Captains Joaquin Alejandrino, Jose Tombo and 1st Lt.
Joaquin Natividad who was given overall command. All the officers were
Novo-Ecijanos, except for Celerino Mangahas who hailed from Paombong,
On July 7, 1898 Aguinaldo reorganized the provincial government of
Nueva Ecija and appointed Felino Cajucom as governor. The province was
divided into four military zones:
Zone 1 under Gen.
Mariano Llanera with Gen. Tinio as deputy covered
the towns of San Isidro, San Antonio, Jaén,
Gapan and Peñaranda;
Zone 2 under Pablo Padilla and Angelo San Pedro covered the towns of
Cabanatuan, San Leonardo, Sta. Rosa, Sto. Domingo and Talavera;
Zone 3 under Delfin Esquivel and Ambrosio Esteban covered the towns of
Aliaga, Licab, Zaragoza, San Jose, San Juan de Guimba and Cuyapo;
Zone 4 under Manuel Natividad and Francisco Nuñez covered the towns
of Rosales, Nampicuan, Umingan, Balungao and San Quintin.
On June 19, Gen. Tinio and his men proceeded to Pangasinan to assist
Gen. Makabulos in the siege of Dagupan which was the most important of
the three Spanish strongholds in the North at that time, the others
being Tarlac, Tarlac and San Fernando, La Union. Dagupan was held by
Spaniards under the command of Col. Federico J. Ceballos. In
Dagupan, Gen. Tinio met the force of Lt. Col. Casimiro Tinio, composed
of Captains Feliciano Ramoso and Pascual Tinio, Lt. Severo Ortega,
several other officers, and 300 Novo-Ecijano soldiers. Gen. Makabulos,
who had taken over the Central
Luzon Command the previous April, was
optimistic that he had the situation well in hand and allowed Gen.
Tinio and the combined Novo-Ecijano troops at Dagupan to proceed
northward to liberate Ilocos from the Spaniards. This Ilocos
Expeditionary Force would become the nucleus of the future Tinio
The Novo-Ecijano troops, now over 600 strong, reached San Fernando, on
July 22, the day that Dagupan surrendered to Gen. Makabulos. They
found the capital of La Union already besieged by revolutionists under
the command of Gen. Mauro Ortiz. The Spaniards, under the command of
Col. Jose Garcia Herrero, were entrenched in the convent, the Casa
Tribunal and the provincial jail and were waiting for succour. Gen.
Tinio wanted a ceasefire and sent for Col. Ceballos in Dagupan to
mediate a peaceful capitulation of the San Fernando garrison. But
despite news that the
Spaniards had already surrendered Central Luzon
to the Revolutionists and the pleadings of Col. Ceballos, the besieged
Spaniards refused to capitulate. On the morning of the eighth day,
July 31, Gen. Tinio ordered the assault of the convent from the
adjoining church. At a cost of 5 lives and 3 wounded, Capt.
Alejandrino's company occupied the kitchen and cut the water supply in
the aljibe or cistern under the azotea, the terrace beside the
kitchen. At 4 p.m. a 4"-cannon taken from the gunboat "Callao"
moored in the harbor was fired against the left side of the convent.
The deafening blast frightened the
Spaniards who immediately called
for a ceasefire and flew the white flag. Alejandrino received the
saber of Lt. Col. Herrero as a token of surrender. 400 men, 8
officers, 377 rifles, 3 cannons and P 12,000 in government silver were
turned over. Upon seeing his captors, the Spanish commander wept in
rage and humiliation, for many of the Filipino officers and men were
but mere youths. Gen. Tinio himself had just turned 21 the previous
From San Fernando the Tinio Brigade and its prisoners marched on to
Balaoan, where they met stubborn resistance from the enemy who were
again entrenched in the convent. The siege lasted for five days, and,
despite the support of the populace, resulted in the deaths of more
than 70 Filipinos, mostly townspeople. Camilo Osías, a witness to the
event, wrote in his memoirs that after the siege, the Balaoan
katipuneros were inducted en masse into the ranks of the Tinio
Brigade. Meanwhile, the company of Capt. Alejandrino, dispatched
earlier by Gen. Tinio to reconnoiter and clear the neighboring
commandancia or military district of Benguet, had met no opposition
for the small force of cazadores in La Trinidad had fled to Bontoc
upon learning of their approach. Alejandrino immediately turned back
and rejoined Gen. Tinio.
From Balaoan, the rebels marched on to Bangar, the northernmost town
of La Union, where they laid siege to the
Spaniards holed up, again,
in the convent. They won a victory on Aug. 7 after four days of
fighting at a cost of 2 casualties. 87
Spaniards surrendered in
The Tinio Brigade then crossed the mighty Amburayan River that divides
the province of La Union from Ilocos Sur. The colonial force occupying
the strategic heights on the opposite bank was the last obstacle to
Tinio's advance to Vigan. Tinio stormed their positions, causing the
enemy to withdraw to Tagudin,:250 the first town of Ilocos Sur.
Spaniards consolidated all the available forces they could
muster (1,500 men according to one source):250 and prepared to make
a stand in the convent and surrounding buildings. However, their
spirited defense the first three days turned into a rout, when the
native volunteers in the Spanish army deserted their units to fight
with the rebels. The Brigade suffered no casualties in that siege. The
Spaniards fled north, but were intercepted in Sta. Lucia, Ilocos Sur
by Ilocano and Abra revolutionists under Gen. Isabelo Abaya.
The Tinio Brigade, now over 2,000 strong, marched northward and
encountered the Ilocano patriots in Sabuanan, Sta. Lucia. The latter
escorted them to Candon, whose inhabitants jubilantly received the
There, Isabelo Abaya, a native of the place and the initiator of the
revolution in Ilocos, was given a regular rank of Captain of Infantry
in the Tinio Brigade.
On August 13, 1898, the same day that the
Intramuros to the Americans, Gen. Tinio entered Vigan, the capital of
Ilocos Sur and the citadel of Spanish power in the North.:251 He
found the capital already in rebel hands. Gov. Enrique Polo de Lara,
newly appointed Spanish governor of both Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur,
had fled to Laoag, the capital of Ilocos Norte, with all the resident
Spaniards of Vigan. There he spent five days at the beach of Diriqui,
loading the civilians and friars, including Bishop Campomanes, on
boats which would hazard the rough weather for the journey to Aparri.
He then ordered the troops under Col. Mariano Arques, district
commander of the Civil Guards and Jefe de Linea in Ilocos, to take the
coastal road to Aparri, Cagayan.
Upon his arrival in Vigan, Gen. Tinio had immediately launched a
two-pronged movement to capture the
Spaniards fleeing northward and
those escaping into the interior.:251 He dispatched his brother,
Casimiro, with a light cavalry column of 600 men to Ilocos Norte to
pursue the fleeing enemy. Without encountering any opposition along
the way, the Filipino column reached Laoag on August 17. They overtook
some of the fleeing
Spaniards at Bacarra, the next town, where, after
exchanging a few token shots, more than 300
Spaniards surrendered. The
Spaniards had heard of the humane treatment Gen. Tinio afforded
prisoners and did not put up much of a fight.
Two companies were then dispatched to Bangui, the northernmost town of
Ilocos Norte, and to Claveria, the first town in Cagayan. Capt.
Vicente Salazar's company pressed the northward pursuit with more
tenacity, overtaking the enemy on the road to the Patapat Pass leading
Cagayan province. Right there and then, on August 22, Col. Arques
and some 200 Spanish regulars, all tired and frustrated, surrendered
almost willingly. In Patapat itself, the crack Regiment No. 70,
composed of Ilocano and Visayan volunteers, stationed there to guard
the pass, deserted their officers and joined the revolutionaries. The
enemy was on the run, and even Aparri at the very end of
secured too by the detachment under the command of Col. Daniel Tirona.
Relentlessly, from Vigan, Capt. Alejandrino and 500 men, with Capt.
Isabelo Abaya as guide, went to Bangued, Abra to track and capture the
enemy who were retreating towards the rugged and mountainous interior
towns of Cervantes, Lepanto and Bontoc. The
Filipinos easily achieved
their goal with only 3 casualties, the whole Ilocos and the Cordillera
commandancias were now in Philippine hands.
Gen. Tinio is credited with capturing the most number of Spanish
prisoners during the revolution, over 1.000 of them. The prisoners
were brought to Vigan, their number later augmented by other prisoners
sent over from the
Cagayan Valley and Central
Luzon during the last
quarter of 1898. Gen. Tinio exercised both firmness and compassion in
dealing with the prisoners. Fray Ulpiano Herrero y Sampedro, a
Dominican who had been captured and sent over from Cavite, kept a
journal of his 18-month imprisonment together with over a hundred
other friars. He wrote that when they were imprisoned in Vigan, "Gen.
Tinio wanted to improve the living conditions of the friar prisoners
… sent us food, clothing, books, paper and writing implements."
Interestingly, there was another group of prisoners. The
revolucionarios’ anger against the friars extended even to their
native mistresses, and these women were imprisoned in the girls’
school beside the Bishop's Palace. Their properties were confiscated.
One of the incarcerated women, a native of Sinait, had a 15-year-old
daughter, Laureana Quijano, who pleaded with Gen. Tinio for her
mother's release and the restoration of their properties. The general,
attracted to her beauty, forthwith acceded to her request, and then
began to court her. Later, Laur, as she was called, also pleaded for
the release of another prisoner, her mother's first cousin, and
introduced the daughter, Amelia Imperial Dancel. Again, the general
gave in and released Amelia's mother. Subsequently, Gen. Tinio also
fell in love with Amelia.
The Establishment of the Civil and Military Government in Ilocos
Gen. Tinio set up his Command Headquarters in the Bishop's Palace in
Vigan. There he lived with 18 of his officers, all very young, mostly
16–20 years of age, the oldest being the 29-year-old Captain Pauil.
In accordance with Aguinaldo's Dictatorial Decree of June 18, 1898
which set the guidelines for setting up a civil government in those
towns liberated from the Spaniards, Gen. Tinio conducted elections for
the whole region. First to be elected were the officials of each town.
Under the revolutionary government, the mayor, instead of being called
the capitan municipal, was now addressed as the presidente municipal.
These mayors then elected the Provincial Governor and Board.
With the civil government in place, Gen. Tinio then reorganized the
Tinio Brigade. The successful military exploits of the Brigada Tinio
were heralded all over
Luzon and attracted hundreds of volunteers. The
Brigade swelled to over 3,400 men, with scores of officers and more
than 1,000 non-commissioned officers and soldiers coming from Nueva
Ecija. The rest consisted mostly of Ilocanos, Abreños, Igorots and
Itnegs, with a few Bulakeños, Bicolanos and Visayans. There were also
Spaniards in the group.
The Brigade garrisoned the entire western portion of Northern Luzon
which included the four genuine Ilocano provinces of Ilocos Norte,
Ilocos Sur, Abra and La Union, and also the comandancias of Amburayan,
Lepanto-Bontoc and Benguet. Gen. Tinio divided this territory into 3
zones, each under a military commander who commanded a regiment, as
Zone 1 under Lt. Col. Casimiro Tinio covered La Union, Benguet and
Zone 2 under Lt. Col. Blas Villamor covered Southern
Ilocos Sur from
Tagudin to Bantay, Abra and Lepanto-Bontoc;
Zone 3 under Lt. Col. Irineo de Guzman covered Northern Ilocos Sur
from Sto. Domingo to
Sinait and Ilocos Norte.
Captains Vicente Salazar, Jose Tombo and Juan Villamor were the deputy
The establishment of the civil and military government in the Ilocos
brought 15 months of peace in the region. The young general and his
officers became social denizens sought after and regally entertained
by the people. Being young, they caught the eyes of pretty señoritas
of the best families in the region. The dashing Manuel Tinio, rich,
handsome and a bachelor to boot, seized the moment with the many
belles of Ilocandia. He was unforgettably charming and popular. In the
1950s, women reminiscing about their youth, and the Tinios, would look
up and sigh, "how handsome they were." A grandmother from Ilocos Norte
living in Baguio City could still passionately say in the 1960s, "all
the ladies in the province were in love with the general." An old maid
in Vigan proudly recalled in her twilight years of the 1970s the
dashing general's visits every Friday afternoon when she was 14.
With the Ilocos in stable condition, Gen. Tinio then went to Malolos
to report to Gen. Aguinaldo and upon the request of Felipe Buencamino,
Minister of Finance, turned over P120,000 that had been contributed by
the citizens of Vigan. During his visit, everyone, particularly his
fellow generals, admired and congratulated Gen. Tinio for having the
largest and best-equipped army in the country!
In October 1898 Gen. Tinio received his appointment as Military
Governor of the Ilocos provinces and Commanding General of all
Filipino forces in Northern Luzon. His army was formally integrated as
an armed unit of the Republic. Thus he became one of only four
regional commanders in the Republican Army!
Upon his return to Vigan, Gen. Tinio marshalled his troops, all well
equipped and completely in uniform. He assembled them in the town's
main Plaza and made them swear to defend the new Republic with their
lives. The next month, on Nov. 11, 1898
Manuel Tinio was appointed
Brigadier General of Infantry.
1899 and the Philippine–American War
Group showing General
Manuel Tinio (seated, center), General Benito
Natividad (seated, 2nd from right), Lt. Col. Jose Alejandrino (seated,
2nd from left), and their aides-de-camp.
A shot fired at a Filipino in Sociego Street, Sta. Mesa District in
the suburbs of
Manila on February 4, 1899 triggered the
Philippine–American War. (Contrary to popular belief that prevailed
for over a century, the first shot of the Philippine–American War
was not fired on San Juan bridge but on Sociego Street in Santa Mesa
district, Manila. The Philippines' National Historical Institute (NHI)
recognized this fact through Board Resolution 7 Series of 2003. On
Feb. 4, 2004 the marker on the bridge was removed and transferred to a
site at the corner of Sociego and Silencio streets.) Soon after, when
war with the Americans seemed imminent, Col. Casimiro Tinio and most
of the Tagalog troops in the Tinio Brigade were sent back to Nueva
Ecija. When the conflict became critical in Central Luzon, all the
soldiers in the Brigade who had seen service in the Spanish army were
ordered to report to the Luna Division.
The inactivity of the Tinio Brigade during the period of peace in the
Ilocos region spawned problems. Boredom led to in-fighting among the
soldiers and the perpetration of some abuses. Gen. Tinio adhered to
his principles of discipline among his troops, even imprisoning Col.
Estanislao de los Reyes, his personal aide-de-camp, who had slapped a
fellow officer! In an effort to rectify the situation, Tinio asked
Gen. Aguinaldo for the assignment of his forces to the frontlines of
the new battle at hand, but Aguinaldo paid no heed to Tinio's request.
Ever keen in foresight and strategy, anticipating an invasion by the
American aggressors, Gen. Tinio ordered the construction of 636
trenches, well designed and strategically placed for cross fire, to
protect the principal roads and ports and to guard the entire
coastline from Rosario, La Union to Cape Bojeador in Ilocos Norte.
At the start of the Philippine–American War, Gen. Tinio's forces
were 1,904 strong, with 68 officers, 200 sandatahanes or bolomen, 284
armorers, 37 medics, 22 telegraphers, 80 cavalrymen, 105 artillerymen
and 2 Spanish engineers. (By April 1899, this would be reduced to
1,789 officers and men.)
On May 18, 1899, six months before his forces began battling the
American invaders, he married Laureana Quijano.
On June 5, 1899 members of the Kawit Battalion assassinated Gen.
Antonio Luna, the commanding general of the republican army. His death
Nueva Ecija created a lot of antipathy against the
Tagalogs, particularly in Ilocos Norte, where Luna hailed from. The
Luna assassination, however, did not diminish the love and admiration
of the Ilocanos for Gen. Tinio, who referred to the former as ‘my
Ilocanos’. Luna's death resulted in a cooling off in Tinio's
attitude towards Aguinaldo. Tinio, however, never failed to obey the
orders of his superior and never made a comment on the deaths of
Bonifacio or Luna. Whenever he was asked, he would shrug his shoulders
and say, "answering the question would mean a betrayal of my
Less than two weeks later, on the occasion of his 22nd birthday,
delegations from the entire region congregated in the capital to give
him an asalto or dawn serenade in the main plaza of Vigan. One of the
highlights of the day-long festivities, which included a royal feast
and a grand ball, was the dedication of a birthday hymn specially
written for him, set to music and sung by the populace.
Towards the end of June, Aguinaldo recalled Gen. Tinio by telegram and
ordered him to help in the reorganization of the forces in Nueva
Ecija. In his place, Brigadier Gen. Benito Natividad, recently
promoted (at age 24) and on leave because of wounds sustained in the
Battle of Calumpit, Bulacan, took over as temporary commander of the
Gen. Tinio, seeing the handwriting on the wall, began taking private
English lessons from David Arnold, an American captive who had come
over to the Filipino side. In anticipation of the coming of the
Americans, he began the construction of a formidable bank of defenses
in Tangadan Pass between Narvacan,
Ilocos Sur and Bangued, Abra.
Late in September, Gen. Tinio and his northern army were finally
called to the front line to guard the beaches of Pangasinan and La
Union. The Brigade was diminished in size when Gen. Tinio marched with
his general staff and several battalions to Bayambang, Pangasinan to
cover President Aguinaldo's retreat while the others were sent to
Zambales under Col. Alejandrino.
Gen. Benito Natividad stayed behind as post commander in Vigan with
some officers and 50 riflemen, 20 others in Bangued and a few others
scattered in neighboring towns. They were the only armed forces that
guarded the whole Ilocos region! At that time, there were 4,000
Spanish prisoners of war (including 1 general) and 26 Americans being
held in Vigan, Bangued and Laoag, where the military hospitals were
located. More than half of the prisoners had been sent from Central
Luzon at the height of the hostilities. Despite their great number,
the prisoners did not rise up against their guards, because, on
instructions of Gen. Tinio, they were well fed and nicely treated. As
early as June, American prisoners had begun arriving from the
battlefields of Central Luzon. Among them were Navy Lt. Gillmore and
the war correspondent Albert Sonnichsen.:382–383 Gen. Tinio's
humane treatment of prisoners was legendary. Sonnichsen wrote:
". . while in Vigan, Tinio learned that the captive friars were living
well on money sent from Manila, while the poor Cazadores were obliged
to subsist on their meager rations (as prisoners of war). Before they
could hide it, the young Tagalog had their money seized and, having
all the soldier prisoners assembled in the plaza, he divided the pesos
of the friars equally among them, the Cazadores cheering the Tagalog
Having abandoned his last capital in Tarlac, Tarlac, Pres. Aguinaldo
decided to retreat to the north and went to Bayambang, Pangasinan.
Unknown to him, the Americans had planned a pincer-like movement in
the overall battle plan to cut off his northward escape route and
On November 7, the Americans bombarded San Fabian, Pangasinan and the
33rd Infantry landed, including a battalion commanded by Col. Luther
R. Hare, an old cavalryman who had served 25 years before under Gen.
Custer.:138 But on Nov. 11, on their way to San Jacinto, the next
town, the invaders came across the entrenched forces of Gen. Tinio.
John Alexander Logan, Jr
John Alexander Logan, Jr and 8 American soldiers died in the
fierce 3.5-hour battle that ensued, but the Americans, armed with a
Gatling gun, claimed the lives of 134 Filipino soldiers, wounding 160
On November 13 a national council of war held in Bayambang resolved to
disband the Philippine Army and ordered the generals and their men to
return to their own provinces and organize the people for general
resistance by means of guerrilla warfare.:146 Gen. Aguinaldo
divided the country into zones, each under a general. Gen. Tinio was
designated regional commander of the Ilocos provinces. The following
evening, Gen. Aguinaldo, accompanied by his family, the cabinet, their
aides and the Kawit Battalion, left Bayambang by special train for
Calasiao, only 15 kilometers away from American Headquarters!
On November 14, early in the morning, the presidential party struggled
through the knee-deep mud of backwoods trails towards Sta. Barbara,
where they met with the Mixto Battalion under Lt. Jose Joven and the
Del Pilar Brigade. The column, now with 1,200 armed men, managed to
reach the forests of Manaoag and proceeded to Pozorrubio, where the
party was greeted by Gen. Tinio. The evening before, Maj. Samuel M.
Swiggert's pursuing squadron had caught up with part of the Tinio
Brigade in Manaoag, but on the moring of the 14th, failed to pursue
Aguinaldo at Pozorrubio.:147
Aguinaldo spent the night in Pozorrubio and was unaware of the
proximity of the enemy. He only came to know about it when Gen. Tinio
informed him that the Americans were in pursuit. The presidential
party hurriedly left for Rosario, La Union, and then for Bauang.
Fortunately, the encounters with the Tinio Brigade had delayed the
American pincer movements and, by the time these closed, Aguinaldo was
already far in the north.
On Nov. 18, 1899 Gen.
Samuel B. M. Young
Samuel B. M. Young with 80 men of the 3rd
Cavalry plus 300 native scouts, made a forced march north through
Pangasinan in pursuit of Aguinaldo.:151 Ahead of them was Gen.
Tinio, who caught up with Gen. Aguinaldo in Bauang, La Union on the
19th. The following day Gen. Tinio, upon Aguinaldo's orders,
accompanied Col. Simeon Villa to San Fernando, La Union, where most of
Tinio's troops were helping the townspeople with the rice harvest.
Young's troops made a surprise raid on the town at 3 in the morning,
and, recognizing Tinio and Villa, pursued them. Luckily the two were
able to flee into the mountains on foot and to make their way to San
Juan, the next town. Gen. Tinio reassembled his men in San Juan and,
in an orderly manner, marched with their wounded to Narvacan, only a
day or two ahead of the pursuing Gen. Young. Tinio then set up his
command headquarters in San Quintin, Abra and sent the wounded further
ahead to the military hospital in Bangued.
On Nov. 26, 1899, Vigan became the hottest spot as the American
battleship ‘Oregon’ and the former Spanish gunboats ‘Callao’
and ‘Samar’ anchored off it and started shelling Caoayan, Ilocos
Sur.:131 Vigan was immediately evacuated on orders of post
commander Gen. Benito Natividad. The prisoners, both Spanish and
American, together with his meager troops moved on to Abra and Bangued
as early as Sept.:120 When the Americans landed the following day,
led by Commander McCracken and Lt. Col. James Parker, there were no
Filipino soldiers in Vigan.:358 A few days later, 225 American
troops, mostly Texas volunteers forming a battalion of the 33rd
Infantry under Major Peyton C. March,:153 arrived from San Fabian,
took up residence in the Archbishop's Palace and stored their
ammunition and supplies in the adjoining girls’ school.
On Nov. 27, the day the Americans occupied Vigan, Gen. Tinio sent
orders for all active soldiers of the Brigade to concentrate along the
shores of the Abra River towns of San Quintin, Piddigan and Bangued,
beyond the Tangadan Pass. Gen. Young, who was chasing them
relentlessly; had reached Candon on the 28th and, from seized
documents, discovered that he was no longer trailing the enemy, but
was right in their midst! He also learned that Aguinaldo was at
Angaki, 25 km. away to the southeast, while Tinio was up north
some 40 km. away.:153 Young realized immediately that Gen.
Tinio's purpose in taking his forces to the north was, as he phrased
it, "to lead us away from following Aguinaldo." Unsure whether he
should pursue Aguinaldo or go after Tinio, the decision was made for
him when a battalion of the 34th Volunteer Infantry arrived under Lt.
Col. Robert Howze. They had been sent by Gen. Arthur MacArthur to
reinforce Gen. Young's northern column.:154 Forthwith, March's
battalion was sent in pursuit of Aguinaldo through Tirad Pass, while
the bigger part of Young's army, with Howze's battalion, marched
towards Tangadan Pass in an attempt to destroy the Tinio Battalion,
the last remaining army of the Republic.:156
The battles in the North
From San Quentin, General Tinio ordered 400 riflemen and bolomen, led
by Capt. Alejandrino, went down the Mestizo River in bancas and spread
out on both sides of the plaza of Vigan.:163 Just before 4 AM
on 4 Dec., some of the attackers in the dark streets were challenged
by an American patrol who then gave the alarm to the 250 Americans in
the city.:163 Although Filipino snipers were already in position in
the buildings around the plaza, in the ensuing 4-hour battle at close
range they were no match for the legendary Texas marksmanship and the
inexhaustible supply of American ammunition. The rebels were routed,
leaving over 40 dead and 32 captured, while 8 Americans were
killed.:165 The survivors fled to Tangadan.
By 3 Dec. 1899, Gen. Young and Lt. Col. Howze were at Tangadan Pass
with his 260 men.:165 The pass was defended by 1,060 men under Lt.
Col. Blas Villamor, Tinio's chielf of staff, in trench works
constructed over the last year with the assistance of Spanish
engineers.:162 The Americans successfully scaled the steep,
200-foot cliffs flanking the entrenchments to gain a vantage
position.:168–169 The final assault came in the evening of Dec.
4, added by the arrival of Col. Luther Hare's 270 men from the 33rd
Infantry.:168–169 Outflanked and outnumbered, Lt. Col. Villamor
decided to save his men from carnage, and retreated, abandoning rifles
and ammunition, and after losing 35 killed and 80 wounded to the
American loss of 2 killed and 13 wounded.:170 Thus ended the Battle
of Tangadan Pass.
Tinio, however, earned the admiration of Col. Howze who wrote
glowingly on the Vauban-type Tangadan defenses:
"The trenches captured are the best field trenches that have ever come
under my observation. They terrace the mountainside, cover the valley
below in all directions, and thoroughly control the road for a
distance of 3 miles. They are permanent in nature, with perfect
approaches, bomb-proofs, living sheds, etc., with shapes and
revetments sodded and supported by timbers. The complete terrace of
trenches number 10 in all, well connected for support, defense and
Gen. Young reported on the bravery of General Tinio and his men, that
at the Battle of Tangadan,
"Some of their officers exposed themselves very gallantly on the
parapets during heavy firing."
The day after the Battle of Tangadan, December 5, the pursuing
Americans invaded Tinio's headquarters in San Quintin, five kilometers
away from the pass.:171 They continued upstream on the Abra River
to Pidigan and Bangued, liberating 1,500 starving Spaniards, on 6
Dec.:171, 173 The American prisoners and the Spanish general had
been sent ahead to Ilocos Norte by Gen. Tinio for strategic reasons,
with orders for them to be shot rather than be rescued by the
Americans.:172 But the capture of Bangued was a major setback for
the Filipinos, because the Brigade arsenal was located there. Three
tons of sheet brass, two tons of lead, as well as supplies of powder,
saltpeter and sulphur were found by the Americans. General Benito
Natvidad joined General Tinio at Tayum.:193
The onslaught had started! Having captured Bangued, Gen. Young
re-armed at Vigan and within a week made unopposed landings in Ilocos
Norte at Pasuquin, Laoag and Bangui. He sent cavalry north from Vigan,
destroying trenches and defense works around Magsingal, Sinait,
Cabugao and Badoc.
Meanwhile, the rescue of the American prisoners from Bangued became
the task of Col. Hare's 220 men of the 33rd Infantry and Col. Howze's
130 men of the 34th Infantry.:172
In Abra, Gen. Tub had been roaming the farms disguised as a rich
planter on a white horse. In this way he made regular daily visits to
the various American outposts to chat with the enemy soldiers. He even
went so far as to invite them to his house in Bangued for dinner.
After gathering all the information that he could, Tinio went back to
the hills each day to instruct his men on what to do that night.
Unfortunately, one day his photograph was circulated among the
Americans and the daring general had no choice but to take to the
hills with Col. Hare and a picked group trailing him!
Howze caught up with the Brigade's baggage train in Danglas on 8
Dec.:182 and 750 more Spanish prisoners on 10 Dec. at
Dingras:188 This last group included General Leopoldo Garcia Pena,
former commander of
Cavite province.:188 Hare's column joing Howze
at Maananteng, where they sent the freed Spanish and Chinese prisoners
on to Laoag, and the remaining force of 151 men continued the pursuit
into the Cordilleras on 13 Dec.:189–192
When Gen. Tinio realized that the Americans were exerting all efforts
to surround him, he had the American prisoners conducted to Cabugaoan
in Apayao country as a diversion, spreading false rumors that he was
with the group. (He had, in fact, on Dec. 12, though surrounded by the
Americans in Solsona, Ilocos Norte, near the boundary of Apayao,
managed to elude them dressed as a peasant woman.):189
After days of marching in the wild Cordillera Mountains, the Americans
finally caught up with the abandoned prisoners on Dec.18 at the
headwaters of the Apayao-
Abulug River, having been abandoned by their
Filipino guards in
Isneg territory.:207–208 On crudely
constructed rafts, the Americans eventually reached the coast in
Abulug, Cagayan, on 2 Jan. 1900, where the footsore and weary soldiers
found the USS Princeton and USS Venus waiting to take them back to
Vigan and Manila.:217
Gen. Tinio spent the next couple of months in the mountains of
Solsona, where he began fortifying the peak of Mt. Bimmauya, east of
Lapog. It was also in the remote headwaters of the Bical River above
Lapog that an arsenal had been set up to replace that captured at
Bangued. This operated for a year. Rifles were repaired, cartridges
refilled, gunpowder and homemade hand guns (paltik) manufactured with
real feats of mechanical ingenuity. Twenty to thirty silversmiths and
laborers could fashion 30-50 cartridges a day by hand!
The defenses constructed by Gen. Tinio were similar to those that he
had put up in Tangadan the year before, but, having learned his
lesson, he situated the defenses on a peak that Lt. J. C. Castner
described as follows:
"one of the principal peaks (is) on the coast range of northwestern
Luzon. Its altitude is between 2,500 and 3,000 feet above the Rio
Cabugao that washes its western shore. By reason of standing more to
the westward than its immediate neighbors and being bare of timber, it
affords a view of the entire coastal plain from Vigan on the South to
Laoag on the north. The lower part of Monte Bimmauya is wooded, but
the upper three-fourths is bare of trees and bush, and, in certain
places, even the grass has been burned off by the insurgents.
Consequently, there is no cover for attacking troops ascending the
western spur of the mountain. The slopes of the upper portion make
angles of from 45-60 degrees with the horizon. The only trail in
existence or even possible on this western spur... is so narrow that
it is what is known among geographers as a ‘knife-edge’, hence the
only formation admissible was a column of files, two men not being
able to march abreast. The ascent is so steep and the footing so
insecure that one has to watch continually where he plants his feet to
avoid precipitation down the precipice-like slopes on either side."
1900. Guerilla warfare
New Year's Day 1900 signaled the outburst of guerilla warfare
throughout the Ilocos region. On that day, Gen. Tinio engaged in a
skirmish with American forces at Malabita, San Fernando, La Union. The
disconcerted Gen. Young ordered daily patrols by all his units "to
settle this insurgent business with the least possible delay." The
following day, he requested another battalion of veterans with which
he promised "to drive these outlaws out or kill them and settle the
savages before letting up." The day after that he repeated the
"My belief is that by keeping up a constant hunt after these
murderers, thieves and robbers, the country can be cleared of them
within two months." Needless to say, he did not receive any
reinforcements, because he already had 3,500 men, more than thrice the
number of Tinio's troops!
On January 13 the Americans intercepted an order from Gen. Tinio to
Filipinos who surrender to the enemy.
The following day, January 14. the only artillery duel of the
Fil-American War was fought in Bimmuaya between the Republicans and
the combined forces of Maj. Steever and Lt. Col. Howze. The barrage
lasted from noon until sundown. Despite holding the ‘strongest
position in Luzon’, as Steever believed the Bimmuaya stronghold to
be, the Filipinos, with their paltry stock of rifles and ammunition,
succumbed in less than 24 hours to the mighty American forces.
Steever's two Maxim guns dominated the show. Although the Americans
halted their fire at sunset, the
Filipinos kept up desultory fire
until midnight. The next day the Americans discovered that it was just
to cover the withdrawal of Gen. Tinio and his men!
After the Battle of Bimmuaya, Gen. Tinio's guerrilla forces
continuously fought and harassed the American garrisons in the
different towns of Ilocos for almost 1½ years. His command was
probably the first to initiate guerrilla activities in
accordance with the Aguinaldo's official proclamation at Bayambang on
Nov. 12, 1899. Once again, he reorganized the Tinio Brigade, now
greatly reduced by the casualties sustained in San Jacinto, Manaoag
and other places. Discarding its inter-provincial designation of
units, he reformed his forces as a guerrilla organization with
overlapping territories and troops,
Ilocos Sur being shared by other
Ilocano provinces. The military commands came to be known as:
· Ilocos Norte-Vigan Line covering the province of Ilocos Norte south
Ilocos Sur down to Vigan, · Abra-Candon Line under
Lt.-Col. Juan Villamor which covered the Province of Abra and Ilocos
Sur south of Vigan down to Candon · La Union-Sta. Cruz Line covering
the province of La Union north to southern
Ilocos Sur as far as Sta.
The battalion commanders came to be known as Jefes de Linea, while the
company commanders were now called Jefes de Guerrilla. Companies of
riflemen became numbered units of guerrillas, each ranging from 50-100
soldiers, depending on the number of fighters a unit could arm and
equip. These troops were then divided further into destacamentos or
detachments of 20 men, more or less, under a subaltern officer. These
bands were virtually independent of each other in their operations.
But they could function occasionally as a unit on rare instances of
mass assaults, as in the raids on Laoag on April, Bangued in June and
Candon in February 1901.
Col. Bias Villamor, now 2nd in command as a result of his good showing
in the Pangasinan campaigns, gave the full count of the Tinio Brigade
in January 1900 at 1,062 men, 64 of them officers. The high proportion
of officers to men was due to the nature of guerrilla warfare with its
small separate units and flying columns of 20-30 men that strike at
their chosen times and places. The majority of the officers were
Novo-Ecijanos and veterans of earlier campaigns, some even from the
Revolution of 1896!
The use of guerrilla tactics by the
Filipinos resulted in more
American losses than they had previous to Nov. 14, 1899. The
never-ending guerrilla raids forced Gen. Young to start garrisoning
the towns, setting up 15 of them in January, 4 in March and a total of
36 by April. Detachments varied in size from 50 in San Quintin, 200 in
Sinait to 1,000 in Cabugao and Candon. These garrison troops were
under fire in one place or another for the next 18 months. Cabugao
alone was attacked every Sunday for 7 consecutive weeks! Ambuscades of
American patrols became almost a daily occurrence and resulted in so
many casualties for the invaders, that by March 1900, no patrols were
sent out unless they were 40-50 strong! Gen. Arthur MacArthur, in an
official report, stated that:
"The extensive distribution of troops has strained the soldiers of the
army to the full limit of endurance. Each little command has had to
provide its own service of security and information by never ceasing
patrols, explorations, escorts, outposts and regular guards. . . In
all things requiring endurance, fortitude and patient diligence, the
guerilla period has been pre-eminent."
The "secret weapon" of these attacks was the Ilocano people. The whole
population was an espionage network and developed a warning system to
apprise the revolutionists of approaching invaders. Even priests would
tap church bells as a warning of approaching American patrols. Pvt.
James Lyons, a prisoner in Tinio's camp, reported that "runners came
in every few minutes" with information. It seemed that the whole
Ilocos was now engaged in war, with trade and agriculture virtually at
Gen. Tinio's raids were so sporadic and simultaneous that many,
including the Americans, believed that Tinio had the power of
bilocation, appearing in several places at the same time! His personal
movements indicated an energetic contact with his forces - organizing,
inspecting, consulting, encouraging or commanding in action, and
constantly eluding his would-be captors. He was everywhere.
On 31 January, Gen. Tinio and his men had a skirmish on the
Candon-Salcedo road with American troops. Fortunately they did not
suffer any casualties.
The next day, February 1, Tinio, visited Sto. Domingo, unescorted and
dressed as a farmer.
On February 9, he ambushed a troop of 7 cavalry in Sabang, Bacnotan,
but withdrew when American reinforcements arrived.
On 16 February, from Bacnotan, he ordered Capt. Galicano Calvo to
apprehend certain American spies.
On February 19, he ambushed an enemy patrol in Kaguman and captured
On February 26, he ambushed an American convoy between San Juan and
Bacnotan, together with their supplies of food, medicine, shoes,
On March 5 the next month, he surprised and routed an American camp in
San Francisco, Balaoan, capturing all the equipment. He then went
north to Magsingal, but left the next day on an inspection trip.
On the 8th, a surprise search for him in Sto. Domingo and San
Ildefonso was frustrated by warnings of church bells.
On the 10th, he issued a warning to the Mayor of Candon, prompting the
American command there to request for a picture of Gen. Tinio.
On the 14th, while holding a meeting in Bacnotan, he was surprised by
an American patrol. Fortunately, a troop of Filipino cavalry arrived,
and, with the support of two guns in the house, the
able to repulse the attackers and enable Tinio to escape.
Two days after, on the 16th, Tinio met with Mayor Almeida in Bacsayan,
On March 29, Gen. Tinio and his escort had a skirmish with an American
patrol and routed them. An escaping American was drowned in the river
between San Esteban and Sta. Maria.
In April, Tinio reported to Aguinaldo in Lubuagan, Kalinga and in May
conferred with Aglipay in Badoc and fought a battle in Quiom, Batac,
Ilocos Norte. He then moved on to Piddig, Ilocos Norte and, in June he
set up a camp at a remote peak called Paguined on the Badoc River east
of Sinait. The last was near his arsenal in Barbar.
All this incessant movement did not detract from his love life.
Although he was already married, he continued his various liaisons,
even going to the extent of bringing Amelia Dancel into the mountains
of Ilocos Norte with him in July. American military reports even
mention Amelia as his wife! In disguise, he once visited a maiden in
enemy-occupied Vigan. The Americans, hearing that he was in town,
began to make a house-to-house search, but were unable to find him,
even when they searched his ladyfriend's house. The woman had hidden
him under the voluminous layers of her Maria Clara skirt! That was
probably the narrowest escape he ever made! The incident became the
talk of the town and was always cited whenever the name of Gen. Tinio
came up. (The quick-thinking "heroine" lived until the 1970s.)
By November 1900, the number of American forces in the Ilocos had
increased to 5,700 men—plus 300 mercenaries. The number of garrisons
also rose to 59, spread thinly over 250 kilometers from Aringay, La
Union to Cape Bojeador, Ilocos Norte. Earlier, mercenaries had been
brought in from Macabebe,
Pampanga and were stationed in Vigan, Sta.
Maria, and San Esteban. These mercenaries started recruiting fellow
Filipinos and by April numbered over 200, half of them Ilocanos and a
quarter of them Tagalogs. Attached to regular occupation troops, these
mercenaries caused significant damage to the nationalists by leading
the enemy to hidden food supplies and inducing many defections.
Because of this, Gen. Tinio issued a proclamation on March 20, 1900 as
First and last article. The following shall be tried by summary court
martial and sentenced to death:
All local presidents and other civil authorities, both of towns and of
the barrios, rancherias (settlements of Christianized tribesmen) and
sitios or hamlets, of their respective jurisdictions, who do not give
immediate notice of any plan, direction, movement or number of the
enemy as soon as they learn of it.
Those who, regardless of age or sex, reveal the location of the camp,
stopping places, movements or direction of the revolutionaries to the
Those who voluntarily offer to serve the enemy as guides, unless it be
for the purpose of misleading them from the right road, and
Those who, whether of their own free will or not, capture
revolutionary soldiers who are alone, or persuade them to surrender to
The insidious guerrilla war saw such rules and warnings proclaimed
from both parties. The American commands in Ilocos Norte were ordered
to warn barrio officials that those who did not report
‘insurgents’ immediately (meaning, within an hour for every
5 km. from the nearest American troops) would be considered
insurgents themselves, and their barrios ‘absolutely destroyed’.
Theft of telegraph wires or ambuscades of American patrols resulted in
the nearest villages being burned and the inhabitants killed. When
200 m. of telegraph wire was destroyed in Piddigan, Abra, the
Bangued command reported the next day that, "There is not a single
building standing out of Piddigan."
Gen. Tinio, on the other hand, ordered all the towns to aid the
revolutionaries. Pasuquin, a town in Ilocos Norte, refused to
cooperate with Filipino forces, so Tinio threatened to burn the town
"at his leisure" and did so on Nov. 3, 1900.
On Dec. 21, Gen. Tinio issued a proclamation against crimes by
military forces. On Christmas Day, Tinio, with Maj. Reyes and ten
officers celebrated the holiday in Lemerig near Asilang, Lapog. On
Holy Innocents’ Day, Dec. 28, the Americans made a surprise raid on
Lemerig. Fortunately, the general and his officers managed to escape.
The first month of 1901 began inauspiciously with the capture of Gen.
Tinio's arsenal at Barbar on January 29, 1901.
The following month, on February 19, 1901, Brigadier Gen. James
Franklin Bell came into the picture. Gen. Young turned over the
command of the First District, Department of Northern
Luzon to him. It
is this General Bell who would later gain notoriety for his
‘re-concentration’ methods in the southern Tagalog provinces right
after his stint in the North.
Determined to continue the same policy of repression, Gen. Bell, with
an additional 1,000 men, ordered his forces to pursue, kill and wipe
out the insurrectos. Food supplies were destroyed to prevent them from
reaching the guerrillas. Inasmuch as the barrios were supplying rice
from the recent harvests to the guerrillas, whole populations were
evacuated to town centers within 10 days of notification.
Noncompliance resulted in the burning of the whole barrio. Even some
interior towns were completely evacuated, while others, like Magsingal
and Lapog were surrounded by stockades to prevent the revolutionaries
from infesting them.
On February 26, Gen. Tinio attacked the Americans fortified in the
convent of Sta. Maria. It was his last attack against American forces.
The whole Ilocos was being laid waste and was in danger of starvation
due to Gen. Bell's iron fisted policies. The lack of supplies
eventually forced hundreds of patriots to lay down their arms and
return to their homes. By March the Brigade only had a few hundred
On March 25, 1901, the top brass of the Tinio Brigade met in a council
of war at Sagap, Bangued. In this meeting, Generals Tinio and
Natividad, the two Villamors and Lt. Colonels Alejandrino, Gutierrez
and Salazar resolved that "the final action of the Tinio Brigade
should depend upon the decision of the Honorable President."
Unknown to them, Aguinaldo had been captured in Palanan, Isabela on
March 23, 1901. When word of Aguinaldo's surrender reached Gen. Tinio
on April 3, he only had two command-rank subordinates remaining, his
former classmates Joaquin Alejandrino and Vicente Salazar.
On April 19, 1901 Aguinaldo proclaimed an end to hostilities and urged
his generals to surrender and lay down their arms. In compliance with
Gen. Aguinaldo's proclamation, Gen. Tinio sent Col. Salazar to Sinait
under a flag of truce to discuss terms of surrender. The following
day, Salazar was sent back with the peace terms. On April 29, 1901,
Gen. Manuel Tinio, whom the American military historian, William T.
Sexton, called "the soul of the insurrection in the Ilocos provinces
of Northern Luzon" and "a general of a different stamp from the
majority of the insurgent leaders", surrendered. The following day,
April 30, he signed the Oath of Allegiance. When Tinio handed his
revolver to Gen. Bell as a token of surrender, the latter immediately
returned it to him - a token of great respect. Gen. Tinio was only 23
The Americans suspended all hostilities on May 1 and printed Tinio's
appeal for peace on the Regimental press on the 5th. On May 9 he
surrendered his arms together with Gen. Benito Natividad, thirty-six
of his officers and 350 riflemen.
While the Americans boasted that they eliminated 5 insurrecto generals
within a month, it took them 11/2 years and 7,000 men to
Manuel Tinio y Bundoc, the Tagalog boy-general of the
The significance attached to Gen. Tinio's surrender by the Americans
was felt throughout the country. Gen. MacArthur said that the little
war in the Ilocos was the "most troublesome and perplexing military
problem in all Luzon." On May 5, as Military Governor of the
Philippines, MacArthur issued General Order No. 89 releasing 1,000
Filipino prisoners of war "to specially signalize the recent surrender
Manuel Tinio and other prominent military leaders in the
provinces of Abra and Ilocos Norte." La Fraternidad, a Manila
newspaper, happily reported, "The 1st of May is now for 2 reasons an
important date in contemporary Philippine history - 1898, the
destruction of the Spanish squadron in Cavite; 1901, the surrender of
Generals Tinio and Natividad and the complete pacification of Northern
Manuel Tinio, surprisingly, never suffered any injury during his
entire military career even as he was wont to stand up and face a
barrage of artillery fire! He attributed this to an amulet,
anting-anting, that he always wore and which he kept in a safe after
the cessation of hostilities.
The American Period - From General to Governor and Director
Upon his release,
Manuel Tinio went back to
Nueva Ecija to
rehabilitate his neglected farms in present-day Licab, Sto. Domingo
and Talavera. He lived in a camarin or barn together with all the
farming paraphernalia and livestock. A typical hacendero, he was very
paternalistic and caring, extending his protection, not only on his
family, but also to his friends and supporters. His men even compared
him to a ‘hen’.
As a family man, he was very protective of his daughters. Being
family-oriented, he took in all the children of his deceased sisters
and half sisters (from his father's previous marriages) when their
widowers eventually remarried or played around. He treated all his
nephews and nieces as if they were his children, giving them the same
education and privileges. This resulted in the extremely close family
ties of the Tinio Family. He was very loving and fatherly and would
entertain his children with stories of his campaigns. Perhaps because
he never finished high school, he believed in a good education and, in
1920, sent his two eldest sons to the United States to study in
Manuel Tinio treated everyone equally, rich and poor alike, so
everyone looked up to him and respected him. In fact, he paid more
attention to the poor than to the rich, because, according to him, the
poor had nothing but their pride and were, for that reason, more
sensitive. When rich relatives came to visit, his children had but to
kiss their hand in greeting, but when a poor relation came, they had
to greet their kin in the same manner, but on bended knees - the
highest form of respect in those days!.
All his tenants idolized Manuel Tinio, who was not an absentee
landlord, but lived with them in the farm with hardly any amenities.
However, he always kept a good table and had flocks of sheep and
dovecotes in every property he owned, so that he could have his
favorite caldereta and pastel de pichon anytime he wanted. He also
enjoyed his brandy, finishing off daily a bottle of Tres Cepes by
Domecq. Wherever he lived, he received a constant stream of visitors,
relatives and friends. Many veterans of the Tinio Brigade, often
coming from the Ilocos, invariably came to reminisce and ask for his
assistance. Later, as Governor, he would help them settle in Nueva
Although he was but a civilian, the prominence he earned as a
revolutionary general and his immense network of social and familial
alliances eventually became the nucleus of a political machine that he
controlled until his death. An ardent nationalist, he fought against
the federalists who wanted the
Philippines to become an American
state. He did not run for any position, but any candidate he endorsed
was sure to win the position. Dr. Benedicto Adorable, one of the
richest and most prominent men in Gapan, was so fanatically loyal that
he often said, "I would vote for a dog if Gen. Tinio asked me to." Of
course, he was fanatically loyal because Gen. Tinio had saved him from
a Spanish firing squad in 1896!
When Gov. Gen. Henry C. Ide lifted the ban on independence parties in
1906, the political parties with similar ideology merged into the
present Nacionalista Party.
Manuel Tinio always supported Sergio
Osmeña, the leader of the party, throughout his political career.
Even during the split between Osmeña and Quezon in 1922, Tinio
remained loyal to the former. As the founder and leader of the
Nacionalista Party in Nueva Ecija, Tinio stressed the significance of
a unified party, emphasizing in every local party convention that the
winner will be supported wholly by each party member. Any party member
who won an election could serve only one term in office to give the
other party members a chance. Should the incumbent seek re-election,
Tinio advised his colleagues to support the choice of the convention.
As a party leader, he did not want warring factions within the party,
and exerted every effort to make rival groups come to terms. Thus,
during his lifetime, the
Nacionalista Party in
Nueva Ecija was
On July 15, 1907 Gov. Gen. James F. Smith appointed
Manuel Tinio as
Governor of the Province of Nueva Ecija, to serve the remainder of the
3-year term of Gov. Isauro Gabaldon, who had resigned to run as a
candidate for the 1st National Assembly. Incidentally, one of the
first major bills Assemblyman Gabaldon proposed was the establishment
of a school in every town in the archipelago. The Gabaldon-type
schoolhouses and Gabaldon town in
Nueva Ecija are named after him.
Gabaldon's wife, Bernarda, was the eldest daughter of Casimiro Tinio.
Manuel Tinio's first term as governor was marked by the return of
peace and order to the province. William Cameron Forbes, Commissioner
of Commerce and Police under both Gov.-Generals Wright and Smith,
wrote of Tinio:
"…we picked up the new Governor of
Nueva Ecija at San Isidro, the
capital, General Tinio. He used to be a celebrated insurecto General
and Governor Smith has just made him Governor.. . We have more robbery
and murders here than almost anywhere, one leading band being
continually on the move. General Tinio informed me that he had most of
the band in jail already, his guns captured, and the robberies
stopped, and the principal outstanding ladron (the only one that I
know by name in the whole of Luzon) driven from his borders and over
to Pangasinan. I talked busily on road building and maintenance to him
for a couple of hours while we sped up to Cabanatuan and went up to
call on the local officials..
An anecdote on Gov. Tinio's bravery has him negotiating with a dreaded
tulisan or bandit who held a family hostage for days, threatening to
kill them if the constables, policemen, tried to rush him. Unarmed,
Tinio went into the house, talked to the bandit and went out after 30
minutes with the bandit peacefully in tow.
Gov. Tinio also brought about agricultural expansion. His Governor's
report for the fiscal year 1907–1908 stated that the area of
cultivated land increased by 15%. The following year, this was
augmented by an additional 40%. These lands, which were settled by
over 5,000 homesteaders, mostly Ilocanos, were in the towns of
Bongabon (then including Rizal), Talavera, Sto. Domingo, Guimba (which
still included Muñoz) and San Jose. The influx of settlers from the
north explains why many people speak Ilocano in those towns today.
It was also during his term as Governor that his wife, Laureana, died.
The Provincial Board then passed a resolution naming the town Laur,
after her. Soon after, he married Maura Quijano, the younger sister of
Laureana, who had accompanied her from Ilocos after Gen. Tinio's
surrender to the Americans.
Gen. Tinio ran for reelection under the
Nacionalista Party in 1908 and
won. But there were other things in store for him. His executive
ability and decisiveness had not gone unnoticed by the Americans,
especially by Forbes who had become Acting Gov. Gen. on May 8, 1909.
Months before Forbes assumed the office,
Manila was being troubled by a series of strikes generally fomented
by the shamelessly corrupt labor leader Dominador Gomez, who was
taking a cut out of sums levied as blackmail against major American
firms. Gomez had been arrested for threats, and some of the other
unions collapsed when Gov.-Gen. Smith had questioned the legality of
the unions’ use of their funds."
To help settle labor problems, Forbes set up the Bureau of Labor and
Manuel Tinio to head it. Forthwith, Tinio resigned as Governor
Nueva Ecija and became the first Director of Labor on July 1, 1909,
thereby becoming the first Filipino Bureau Director! He quickly solved
the strikes. Three weeks later, Forbes welcomed Director Tinio to his
staff meeting and wrote in his diary:
"He's a good man, and Col. Bandholtz says he's got Gomez scared to
death... Gomez had tried Tinio to employ him, but Tinio refused: "Why
pay you to do the work the Government is paying me to do?"
"In a short time the condition of labor and industry in the region
Manila was vastly improved. In general, it may be said that, as
a result of Gen. Tinio's management of the bureau, strikes ceased,
laborers went their way contented, employees readily corrected abuses
brought to their attention, and the (union) leaders fell back into
their proper role of caring for and representing the laborers."
Manuel Tinio eventually became a close friend of the aristocratic
Forbes, whom he invited to hunting parties in Pantabangan. The latter
liked Tinio's company, even offering to give him a hectare of land
Session Road in Baguio, (newly developed by Forbes) so that
Tinio could build a house there and keep him company whenever he went
up to the cool mountain resort. Tinio did not accept the offer.
Gov.-Gen. Forbes also wrote in his journal:
"Tinio later became a great friend of mine. I made him Director of
Labor and I rated him as one of the best
Filipinos in the Islands. In
fact, from the point of view of staunchness of character, and good
judgement, and other good qualities, I liked Tinio best of all and
wanted to make him Commissioner [member of the Philippine
Francis Burton Harrison
Francis Burton Harrison succeeded Gov. Forbes. His term was
characterized by increased Filipinization of the insular bureaucracy,
and he appointed Tinio as the first Filipino Director of Lands on
October 17, 1913. It was while he was Director of the Bureau of Lands
that cadastral surveys for each municipality began to be made, and the
area now covered by the towns of Rizal, Llanera, Gen. Natividad, Laur,
Lupao and Muñoz were subdivided into homesteads. In the largest wave
of migration ever experienced by the province, thousands of landless
Tagalogs and Ilocanos came and settled in Nueva Ecija. But Tinio
suffered intrigues sown by the American Assistant Director, who wanted
to be appointed to the position. The intrigues came to the point that
Tinio was even accused of manipulating the sale of the 6,000 hectare
Sabani Estate that was subsequently rescinded. In disgust and for
delicadeza, he resigned on September 13, 1914 and returned to Nueva
Ecija to manage his landholdings. A subsequent investigation cleared
him of all charges, but, disillusioned with the government system, he
refused to go back to government service, preferring to live the quiet
life of a landowner instead. The Sabani Estate, in present-day
Nueva Ecija and Dingalan, Aurora, never found another buyer
and still belongs to the government and is administered by the
National Development Corporation.
It was during his term as Director of Lands that his wife, Maura,
died. He then married Basilia Pilares Huerta, a Bulakeña from
After his resignation from the Bureau of Lands,
Manuel Tinio went back
to Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija, and built his house on Burgos St. It was
the largest house in town. He entertained and kept open house, which
meant that anyone present at lunchtime was automatically invited to
dine. Everyday was like an Election Day - with people coming to ask
for assistance, financial or otherwise. A very generous man, he was
not averse to using his personal financial resources to help those in
Manuel Tinio dedicated the remainder of his life to politics. The hold
Manuel Tinio had on the province was awesome. Even if he did not
have any position, he maintained absolute control over the local
government with the unchallenged power to make or unmake provincial
leaders. In order to maintain and gain his political power, Manuel
Tinio made it a practice to visit every voter during an election year,
reserving for last those who were known to be against his party. A few
days before the election, Tinio would visit them. He would sit where
everyone who passed by the house could see him. After chatting with
his host for an hour or two, without even discussing politics, the
whole barrio would conclude that the fellow had been won over by
Tinio! His credibility with his partymates shattered, the poor fellow
had no choice but to move over eventually to the Nationalista Party!
Lewis Gleeck wrote of
Manuel Tinio as "the supreme example of
caciquism in the Philippines" and cited the case of one of Tinio's
most prominent political leaders who had shot and killed a man in
front of many witnesses. The Americans, wanting to show that there was
equality under American law, tried to make a big case out of it.
However, they could not find a single lawyer in the whole province
willing to act for the prosecution. After sending an American lawyer
from Manila, the case had to be dismissed, because no witness came up
to testify! J. Ralston Hayden, a high American official, said:
"Tinio controlled the entire government: the Courts of First Instance,
the Justices of the Peace, the chiefs of police and police forces, the
mayors and the councilors. These, together with a tremendous money
power, were in his hands. No one dared to stand up against him."
Manuel Tinio was also a very good friend of
Manuel Quezon and Sergio
Osmeña, the Speaker of the National Assembly and the most powerful
Filipino in the political scene at that time. It was not surprising,
Manuel Tinio was included in the Independence Mission
that went to Washington D. C. in 1921.
Some More Notes on the Man, and his Death
Manuel Tinio, together with his fellow
Freemasons (most of the
revolucionarios were members of that Brotherhood), spearheaded the
establishment of the first Masonic Lodge in
Nueva Ecija at Cabanatuan
City, which is now named after him.
He was also a pioneering businessman aside from being an hacendero.
Having first-hand knowledge of the severe labor shortage that came
about due to the widespread conversion of jungles into vast rice farms
from 1903 to 1920, he and his fellow hacenderos established the
Samahang Magsasaka in 1910. The Samahan imported and operated the
first rice thresher in the country. This was a gargantuan machine run
by a wood-fired steam engine and was many times bigger than the huge
trilladoras popular during the 50s and 60s. Eventually, the company
went on to provide electricity to Cabanatuan City, and continues to do
He also founded in 1911, one of the first soft drink companies in the
country. The Marilao Mineral Water Co. had a bottling plant located
beside a spring in Marilao,
Bulacan who later became Coca-Cola.
The widespread conversion of forests into ricelands during the first
two decades of the 20th century produced abundant surpluses of grain.
By the 2nd decade,
Nueva Ecija had superseded Pangasinan as the rice
granary of Luzon, and Cabanatuan was on its way to becoming the
gathering and distribution center of rice for Central Luzon. Numerous
rice mills mushroomed all over the capital.
Manuel Tinio established
one of the first and biggest ricemills in Cabanatuan. In those days,
owning a ricemill was like owning a bank. The palay or unhusked rice
deposited in the mill could be traded several times over until the
owner finally retrieved his stock, the mill owner already having made
a profit on every transaction.
Nueva Ecija was the main source of livestock and meat for Manila
throughout the 19th century until WW II.
It came as no surprise, therefore, when Gen. Tinio established a
cattle ranch in the foothills of Pantabangan.
When he died, he left over 2,200 heads of cattle to his children.
On December 28, 1923,
Manuel Tinio was confined in a
for cirrhosis of the liver. So greatly regarded was he by everyone
that Manuel Quezon, upon hearing that Gen. Tinio was gravely ill,
Emilio Aguinaldo immediately rushed to the hospital, clad only
in his pajamas. He died at the age of 46 at 10:00 PM on February
22, 1924 at 214 Real St., Intramuros, Manila, leaving a widow and 12
Due to his services to the nation, the insular government engaged a
special train to carry his coffin to Cabanatuan. The funeral train
stopped at every station along the way, so that the officials of each
town could conduct necrological services for him. Gen. Manuel Tinio
was finally buried in Cabanatuan on March 2, 1924.[nb 1] Gen.
Aguinaldo and other surviving revolutionary generals, Quezon, Osmeña
and other government dignitaries were there to pay their respects.
General Tinio, Nueva Ecija
Town hall, General Tinio, Nueva Ecija.
Congressman Celestino Juan sponsored a congressional act changing the
name of Papaya to General Tinio to honor General Manuel Tinio, a noble
and prominent revolutionary leader against the
Spaniards who hailed
from the Nueva Ecija. The act was signed into law on June 20, 1957 as
Republic Act No. 1665. The new name of the town was inaugurated
days later, on August 19, 1957.
Descendants & Relatives
by Laureana Quijano
Judge Mariano Quijano Tinio (born May 27, 1900 in Sinait, Ilocos
Maj. Manuel "Manolo" Quijano Tinio (April 4, 1902 in Lapog
(present-day San Juan),
Ilocos Sur - 1977) - World War II Veteran,
Bataan Death March. Manolo took over the management of Tinio
Hacienda in 1924 after the death of Governor Manuel Tinio. The
Tinio Hacienda was later divided among the 12 children of Governor
by Maura Quijano
Mariano Rafael Quijano Tinio (August 15, 1909 in San Miguel,
August 27, 1928 in Sampaloc, Manila)
Silveria Bertila Quijano Tinio (born November 5, 1910 in San Miguel,
Pio Laureano Quijano Tinio (born May 5, 1912 in San Miguel,
by Basilia Huerta
Teodoro Huerta Tinio (died September 19, 1927)
Silveria Huerta Tinio
Martin Huerta Tinio (November 11, 1919 in Ermita,
Manila - April 7,
Vivencio Huerta Tinio
Dolores "Lolita" Huerta Tinio-Nable
by an unknown mother
Catalina C. Tinio
Governor Oscar Tinio
Isabelo Tinio Crisostomo, was president of the Philippine College of
Commerce and is a prominent Filipino author, biographer, and
historian. His biographies include those of former Philippine
Ferdinand Marcos (Marcos, the Revolutionary), Corazon
Aquino (Aquino, Profile of a President) and
Fidel Ramos (Fidel Valdez
Ramos: Builder, Reformer, Peacemaker), and of former First Lady Imelda
Marcos (Heart of the Revolution). Additionally, his Modern Advertising
Filipinos and Advertising: Background, Theory, and Practice are
well-respected university textbooks.
Jose Mariano Tinio Nable
Martin "Sonny" Imperial Tinio, a historian.
Norma G. Tinio.
Beatriz Lucero Lhuillier, an athlete, television personality and
commercial model also known as Bea Lucero. Represented the Philippines
in gymnastics and taekwondo.
Rolando Santos Tinio, nephew, was a Filipino male poet, dramatist,
director, actor, critic, essayist, and educator named as a National
Artist of the Philippines.
John Paul Tinio
^ General Tinio was originally scheduled to be buried on February 27,
1924 according to his death certificate.
^ a b c Manuel Tinio's Death Certificate
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on
2009-07-18. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
^ a b c Kerkvliet, B.J. (2002). The Huk Rebellion: A Study of Peasant
Revolt in the Philippines. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 7.
ISBN 9780742518681. Retrieved 2014-11-19.
^ De Jesus, E.C. (1980). The Tobacco Monopoly in the Philippines:
Bureaucratic Enterprise and Social Change, 1766-1880. Ateneo de Manila
University Press. p. 36. ISBN 9789715501682. Retrieved
^ a b c d e f g Sonnichsen, A., 1901, Ten Months a Captve Among
Filipinos, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons Cite error: Invalid
<ref> tag; name "Sonnichsen" defined multiple times with
different content (see the help page).
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae
Westfall, M., 2012, The Devil's Causeway, Guilford: Lyons Press,
^ "lodges/nuevaecija". glphils.org. Retrieved 2014-11-19.
^ "An Act Changing the Name of the Municipality of Papaya in the
Nueva Ecija to General Tinio". LawPH.com. Retrieved
^ California, San Francisco Passenger Lists, 1893-1953, 124 - Aug 20 -
Sep 15, 1919
^ Washington, Seattle Passenger Lists, 1890-1957, 052 - 29 Aug 1920 -
21 Sep 1920
^ Mariano Rafael Tiño's Birth Certificate
^ Rafael Tinio's Death Certificate
^ a b c "G.R. No. 42213, September 30, 1935". Retrieved
^ Silveria Bertila Tinio's Birth Certificate
^ Pio Laureano Tinio's Birth Certificate
^ Martin H. Tinio's Birth Certificate
^ ETinio. "Martin Huerta Tinio (1919Nov11 - 2009April07)". Retrieved
filipino-americans.com. Retrieved 2014-11-19. External link in
Orlino A. Ochosa, The Tinio Brigade: Anti-American Resistance in the
Ilocos Provinces 1899–1901. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day
William Henry Scott. Ilocano Responses to American Aggression
1900–1901. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers, 1986.
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, "True Version of the Philippine
Revolution", Authorama Public Domain Books, retrieved 2007-11-16
chapter= ignored (help)
Dyal, Donald H. Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War.
Westport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated,
1996. p 55.
Political Chronology of South-East Asia and Oceania. London, UK:
Europa Publications, 2001. p 158.
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