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The mandarin orange ( Citrus
Citrus
reticulata; Chinese: 橘子 or 桔子; pinyin: júzi; Yue Chinese: 桔, jyutping: gat1), also known as the mandarin or mandarine, is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges, usually eaten plain or in fruit salads. Specifically reddish-orange mandarin cultivars can be marketed as tangerines, but this is not a botanical classification. Mandarins are smaller and oblate, rather than spherical like the common oranges (which are a mandarin hybrid). The taste is considered less sour, as well as sweeter and stronger.[1] A ripe mandarin is firm to slightly soft, heavy for its size, and pebbly-skinned. The peel is very thin, with very little bitter white mesocarp,[2] so they are usually easier to peel and to split into segments. Hybrids generally have these traits to a lesser degree. The mandarin orange tree is more drought-tolerant than the fruit. The mandarin is tender and is damaged easily by cold. It can be grown in tropical and subtropical areas. According to molecular studies,[3] the mandarin, the citron, the pomelo, and to a lesser extent the papedas and kumquat, were the ancestors of most other commercial citrus varieties, through breeding or natural hybridization; mandarins are therefore important as the only sweet fruit among the parental species.

Contents

1 Biological description 2 Etymology 3 Uses

3.1 Fresh mandarins 3.2 Peel 3.3 Canning 3.4 Traditional medicine

4 Production 5 Nutrition 6 Cultural significance 7 Genetics 8 Varieties

8.1 Pure mandarins 8.2 Non-pure mandarins 8.3 Mandarin crosses 8.4 Non-mandarins

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Biological description[edit]

Mandarin oranges in a mesh bag

Citrus
Citrus
reticulata is a moderate-sized tree[4] usually not exceeding 4 m (13 ft) in height; however, a 30-year-old tree can reach 5 metres (16 ft) (such a tree can yield some 5–7 thousand fruits).[5] The tree generally has thorns.[6] The leaves are shiny and green,[6] rather small.[4] The petioles are short, almost wingless[4] or slightly winged. The flowers are borne singly or in small groups in the leaf-axils.[6] The fruits are oblate. They turn orange when ripe.[6] Citrus
Citrus
fruits are usually self-fertile (needing only a bee to move pollen within the same flower) or parthenocarpic (not needing pollination and therefore seedless, such as the satsuma). Blossoms from the Dancy cultivar are one exception. They are self-sterile, and therefore must have a pollinator variety to supply pollen, and a high bee population to make a good crop.[citation needed] Etymology[edit] The name "mandarin orange" is a calque of Swedish mandarin apelsin (apelsin from German Apfelsine=Apfel+Sino means chinese apple), first attested in the 18th century. The form "mandarine" derives from the French name for this fruit. The reason for the epithet "mandarin" is not clear; it may relate to the yellow colour of some robes worn by mandarin dignitaries.[7][8] Uses[edit]

Production of mandarin oranges* in 2016

Country (millions of tonnes)

 China

17.2

 Spain

2.9

 Turkey

1.3

 Morocco

1.1

 Egypt

1.0

 Brazil

1.0

World

32.8

*includes tangerines, clementines, satsumas Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[9]

Fresh mandarins[edit] See also: List of fruit dishes Mandarins are generally peeled and eaten fresh. The fresh fruit is also used in salads, desserts and main dishes. Fresh tangerine juice and frozen juice concentrate are commonly available in the United States. The number of seeds in each segment (carpel) varies greatly. Peel[edit] The peel is used fresh, whole or zested, or dried as chenpi. It can be used as a spice for cooking, baking, drinks, or candy. Canning[edit] Canned mandarin segments are peeled to remove the white pith prior to canning; otherwise, they turn bitter. Segments are peeled using a chemical process. First, the segments are scalded in hot water to loosen the skin; then they are bathed in a lye solution, which digests the albedo and membranes. Finally, the segments undergo several rinses in plain water. They are often used in salads, desserts, and baking. Traditional medicine[edit] In traditional Chinese medicine, the dried peel of the fruit is used in the regulation of ch'i, and also used to treat abdominal distension, to enhance digestion, and to reduce phlegm.[10] Mandarins have also been used in ayurveda (traditional medicine of India).[11][verification needed][unreliable medical source?] Production[edit] In 2016, world production of mandarin oranges (combined with tangerines, clementines, and satsumas in reporting to FAOSTAT) was 32.8 million tonnes, led by China
China
with 52% of the global total (table).[9] Producing more than one million tonnes each in 2016 were Spain, Turkey, Morocco, and Egypt.[9] Nutrition[edit]

Mandarin oranges, raw

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 223 kJ (53 kcal)

Carbohydrates

13.34 g

Sugars 10.58 g

Dietary fiber 1.8 g

Fat

0.31 g

Protein

0.81 g

Vitamins

Vitamin
Vitamin
A equiv. beta-Carotene

(4%) 34 μg

(1%) 155 μg

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(5%) 0.058 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(3%) 0.036 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(3%) 0.376 mg

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5)

(4%) 0.216 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(6%) 0.078 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(4%) 16 μg

Choline

(2%) 10.2 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
C

(32%) 26.7 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
E

(1%) 0.2 mg

Minerals

Calcium

(4%) 37 mg

Iron

(1%) 0.15 mg

Magnesium

(3%) 12 mg

Manganese

(2%) 0.039 mg

Phosphorus

(3%) 20 mg

Potassium

(4%) 166 mg

Sodium

(0%) 2 mg

Zinc

(1%) 0.07 mg

Other constituents

Water 85.2 g

Link to USDA Database entry

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

A mandarin orange contains 85% water, 13% carbohydrates, and negligible amounts of fat and protein (table). Among micronutrients, only vitamin C is in significant content (32% of the Daily Value) in a 100 gram reference serving, with all other nutrients in low amounts. Cultural significance[edit]

Mandarin fruitlets

During Chinese New Year, mandarin oranges/tangerine/satsumas are considered traditional symbols of abundance and good fortune.[citation needed] During the two-week celebration, they are frequently displayed as decoration and presented as gifts to friends, relatives, and business associates. Mandarin oranges, particularly from Japan, are a Christmas
Christmas
tradition in Canada, the United States
United States
and Russia. In the United States, they are commonly purchased in 5- or 10-pound boxes, individually wrapped in soft green paper, and given in Christmas
Christmas
stockings. This custom goes back to the 1880s, when Japanese immigrants in the United States
United States
began receiving Japanese mandarin oranges from their families back home as gifts for the New Year. The tradition quickly spread among the non-Japanese population, and eastwards across the country: each November harvest, "The oranges were quickly unloaded and then shipped east by rail. 'Orange Trains' – trains with boxcars painted orange – alerted everyone along the way that the irresistible oranges from Japan
Japan
were back again for the holidays. For many, the arrival of Japanese mandarin oranges signaled the real beginning of the holiday season."[12]

Mandarin oranges covered with snow

This Japanese tradition merged with European traditions related to the Christmas
Christmas
stocking. Saint Nicholas
Saint Nicholas
is said to have put gold coins into the stockings of three poor girls so that they would be able to afford to get married.[13] Sometimes the story is told with gold balls instead of bags of gold, and oranges became a symbolic stand-in for these gold balls, and are put in Christmas
Christmas
stockings in Canada[13][14] along with chocolate coins wrapped in gold foil. Satsumas were also grown in the United States
United States
from the early 1900s, but Japan
Japan
remained a major supplier.[15] U.S. imports of these Japanese oranges was suspended due to hostilities with Japan
Japan
during World War II.[12] While they were one of the first Japanese goods allowed for export after the end of the war, residual hostility led to the rebranding of these oranges as "mandarin" oranges.[12] The delivery of the first batch of mandarin oranges from Japan
Japan
in the port of Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada), is greeted with a festival that combines Santa Claus and Japanese dancers[14]—young girls dressed in traditional kimonos.[16] In Russia, mandarin oranges (tangerines)[clarification needed] have traditionally been supplied from Morocco
Morocco
(though there exists a theory that it was only used to mask the supplies of Israeli tangerines during the period of particularly bad relations between Israel
Israel
and Soviet Union[citation needed]) and are associated with that country, even though nowadays they are also supplied from other countries, e.g. Spain, Israel
Israel
and Egypt.[citation needed] Another major supplier was a domestic region of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
in the Caucasus, and even after the Dissolution of the Soviet Union
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
it continued to supply its characteristically yellow-greenish and particularly aromatic fruits to the central Russian regions. The eastern parts of the country, in turn, were generally supplied from China
China
or Vietnam, and continue so nowadays, with the characteristic 10 and 20-pound plastic and cardboard boxes being the ubiquitous seasonal sight. Anyway, regardless of the supplier or variety, mandarin oranges were and are an iconic symbol of winter and the holiday season in Russia, in an interesting parallel with the same status it holds in Japan. Historically, the Christmas
Christmas
fruit imported to North America was mostly Dancys, but now it is more often a hybrid.[17] Genetics[edit] Further information: Citrus
Citrus
taxonomy Mandarins are one of the core ancestral citrus taxa, and are thought to have evolved in Vietnam, south China, and Japan.[18] The Tanaka classification system divided mandarins and similar fruit into numerous species, giving distinct names to cultivars such as willowleaf mandarins (C. deliciosa), satsumas (C. unshiu), tangerines (C. tangerina). Under the Swingle system, all these are considered to be varieties of a single species, Citrus
Citrus
reticulata.[19] Hodgson represented them as several subgroups: common (C. reticulata), Satsuma,King (C. nobilis), Mediterranean (willowleaf), small-fruited (C. indica, C. tachibana and C. reshni), and mandarin hybrids.[20] Genetic analysis is consistent with mandarins representing a single species, with much of the variation within mandarins being due to hybridization.[21] There are only a small number of genetically-pure cultivars, including the Nanfengmiju, the Sun Chu Sha mandarin and the Tachibana, the latter of which is sufficiently divergent to be classified as a distinct subspecies.[21] The majority represent hybrids with pomelo (C. maxima). A large group of mandarin cultivars appear to have originated with a small number of initial mandarin-pomelo hybrids that were then backcrossed to produce mandarins with limited pomelo contribution.[21] Of these, an 'acidic' group including Sunki and Cleopatra mandarins, previously thought to be pure, contain a small region of introgressed pomelo DNA that results in them being too sour to be edible, but they are still widely used as rootstock and grown for juice.[19][21] Another group of mandarins, including some tangerines, Satsuma and King mandarins, show a greater pomelo contribution and derive from the limited-pomelo hybrids being crossed with sweet orange or pomelo, again followed by backcrossing in some cases.[21] The hybrid mandarins are thus on a continuum with clementines, sweet and sour oranges, and grapefruit.[18] Mandarins and their hybrids are sold under a variety of names. Varieties[edit] See also: Citrus
Citrus
taxonomy

Dried mandarin peel used as a seasoning

Chocolate-coated citrus peel

Canned and peeled mandarin orange segments

Unripe fruit

Pure mandarins[edit]

Nanfengmiju ( Citrus
Citrus
reticulata Blanco)[22] A rare non-hybrid citrus.[18] One of the most widely cultivated varieties in China.[23] Sun Chu Sha[18][21] Tachibana[21]

Non-pure mandarins[edit] ( Species
Species
names are those from the Tanaka system. Recent genomic analysis would place them all in Citrus
Citrus
reticulata.[21])

Kinnow, a 'King' ( Citrus
Citrus
nobilis) × 'Willow Leaf' ( Citrus
Citrus
× deliciosa) cross, developed by Dr H.B. Frost

Cleopatra mandarin,[18] acidic mandarin containing very small amount of pomelo introgression[21] Sunki,[18] acidic mandarin containing very small amount of pomelo introgression[21] Tangerines
Tangerines
( Citrus
Citrus
tangerina)[24] is a grouping used for several distinct mandarin hybrids. Those sold in the US as tangerines have usually been Dancy, Sunburst or Murcott (Honey) cultivars. Some tangerine-grapefruit hybrids are legally sold as tangerines in the USA.[25][26] Mediterranean/Willowleaf/Thorny ( Citrus
Citrus
× deliciosa), a mandarin–pomelo hybrid[27] Huanglingmiao ( Citrus
Citrus
reticulata), a mandarin–pomelo hybrid[21][28] Kishumikan
Kishumikan
( Citrus
Citrus
reticulata), or simply Kishu, close clonal relative of Huanglingmiao, the two sharing a common origin before diverging as they were propagated[21]

Kunenbo ( Citrus
Citrus
nobilis) a heterogeneous group that includes at least four distinct mandarin-pomelo hybrids.[29]

King (in full, 'King of Siam', Citrus
Citrus
nobilis) a Kunenbo mandarin with high levels of pomelo admixture, sometimes classed as a tangor.[21][29]

Kinnow
Kinnow
(see image), a King-Willowleaf hybrid.

Satsuma ( Citrus
Citrus
unshiu), a mandarin-pomelo hybrid with more pomelo than seen in most mandarins, derived from a Huanglingmiao/Kishu backcross of a (non-King) Kunenbo that was a Huanglingmiao/Kishu-pomelo mix.[21][29] It is a seedless variety, of which there are over 200 cultivars, including Wenzhou migana, Owari, and mikan; the source of most canned mandarins, and popular as a fresh fruit due to its ease of consumption

Owari, a well-known Satsuma cultivar that ripens during the late autumn

Komikan, a variety of Kishumikan[29] The Ponkan
Ponkan
( Citrus
Citrus
reticulata), a mandarin–pomelo hybrid[18][27]

The Dancy tangerine ( Citrus
Citrus
tangerina) is a hybrid, the cross of a Ponkan
Ponkan
with another unidentified hybrid mandarin.[21] Until the 1970s, most tangerines grown and eaten in the USA were Dancys, and it was known as " Christmas
Christmas
tangerine"[17] and zipper-skin tangerine[30]

Iyokan
Iyokan
( Citrus
Citrus
iyo), a cross between the Dancy tangerine and another Japanese mandarin variety, the kaikoukan.[29]

Bang Mot tangerine, a mandarin variety popular in Thailand. Shekwasha
Shekwasha
( Citrus
Citrus
depressa), a very sour mandarin grown for its acidic juice, has admixture from both pomelo and citron[31]

Mandarin crosses[edit]

Tangelos, a generic term for modern mandarin (tangerine)-pomelo and mandarin-grapefruit crosses

The Mandelo or 'cocktail grapefruit', a cross between a Dancy/King mixed mandarin and a pomelo.[21] The term is also sometimes used generically, like tangelo, for recent mandarin-pomelo hybrids.

The sour orange ( Citrus
Citrus
x aurantium) derives from a direct cross between a pure mandarin and a pomelo[28]

Lemon
Lemon
( Citrus
Citrus
x limon), a sour orange-citron hybrid.[31]

Lime ( Citrus
Citrus
x latifolia), a lemon- Key lime
Key lime
cross[31] Bergamot orange
Bergamot orange
( Citrus
Citrus
x bergamia), a lemon-sour orange backcross[31]

Limetta
Limetta
( Citrus
Citrus
limetta), a distinct sour orange-citron hybrid[31]

The common sweet orange ( Citrus
Citrus
x sinensis), derives from a cross between non-pure mandarin and pomelo parents[28]

Tangors, or Temple oranges, are crosses between the mandarin orange and the common sweet orange;[28] their thick rind is easy to peel and its bright orange pulp is sour-sweet and full-flavored. Some such hybrids are commonly called mandarins or tangerines.

Clementine
Clementine
( Citrus
Citrus
× clementina), a spontaneous hybrid between a Willowleaf mandarin orange and a sweet orange.[27][32] sometimes known as a "Thanksgiving Orange" or " Christmas
Christmas
orange", as its peak season is winter; an important commercial mandarin orange form, having displaced mikans in many markets

Clemenules or Nules, a variety of Clementine
Clementine
named for the Valencian town where it was first bred in 1953; it is the most popular variety of Clementine
Clementine
grown in Spain.[33] Fairchild is a hybrid of Clementine
Clementine
and Orlando, a tangelo

Murcott, a mandarin–sweet orange hybrid.[27][34]

Tango is a proprietary seedless mid-late season irradiated selection of Murcott developed by the University of California Citrus
Citrus
Breeding Program.[35]

Grapefruit
Grapefruit
( Citrus
Citrus
x paradisi), the result of backcrossing the sweet orange with pomelo Meyer lemon
Meyer lemon
( Citrus
Citrus
x meyer), a cross between a mandarin × pomelo hybrid and a citron.[31] Palestinian sweet lime
Palestinian sweet lime
( Citrus
Citrus
x limettioides), a distinct (mandarin × pomelo) × citron hybrid[31]

Rangpur lime ( Citrus
Citrus
x limonia), a pure mandarin-citron cross[31] Rough lemon
Rough lemon
( Citrus
Citrus
x jambhiri), a pure mandarin-citron cross, distinct from rangpur[31] Jabara ( Citrus
Citrus
jabara), a Kunenbo mandarin-yuzu cross.[29]

Non-mandarins[edit]

Mangshanyegans, long thought to be mandarins, are in fact a separate species.[28]

See also[edit]

Food portal

Japanese citrus List of citrus fruits Mandarin orange
Mandarin orange
(fruit) Tangerine Citrus
Citrus
unshiu Ju Song
Ju Song
– "In Praise of the Orange-Tree"

Orange (fruit)

References[edit]

^ Pittman & Davis (1999-02-22). "Pittman & Davis – Premium Citrus
Citrus
Fruit Gifts – Why Are Tangerines
Tangerines
So Tangy?". Pittmandavis.com. Retrieved 2012-11-17.  ^ "Market Watch: The wild and elusive Dancy". David Karp, LA Times. http://www.latimes.com/food/la-fo-marketwatch-20110128-story.html ^ "International Citrus
Citrus
Genomics Consortium". University of California.  ^ a b c "Fruit Tree Seeds : Citrus
Citrus
reticulata". Retrieved 2018-03-18.  ^ Sergey Ivchenko (1965). Загадки цинхоны. Moscow: Molodaya Gvardiya. pp. 127–128.  ^ a b c d " Citrus
Citrus
reticulata - General Information".  ^ "Chinese loanwords in the OED". The Free Library. Retrieved October 5, 2016.  ^ "mandarin Origin and meaning of mandarin by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 12 February 2018.  ^ a b c " Mandarin orange
Mandarin orange
production in 2016, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2018.  ^ Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. 1985. Los Angeles: Institute of Chinese Medicine. ^ Chopra, R. N.; Nayar, S. L.; Chopra, I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. 1986. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. ^ a b c "Information on This Week's Product: Mandarin Oranges" (PDF). BC Agriculture in the Classroom Foundation. Retrieved 24 January 2013.  ^ a b "Personalized Christmas
Christmas
Stockings". centrinet.com.  ^ a b Marion, Paul (December 19, 2010). "Oranges at Christmas". richardhowe.com: Lowell Politics and Lowell History. Retrieved 15 January 2013.  ^ http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ch116 ^ " Christmas
Christmas
Stockings". Christmas
Christmas
Traditions in France and in Canada. Ministère de la culture et de la communication de France. Retrieved 15 January 2013.  ^ a b Dancy Tangerine
Tangerine
Citrus
Citrus
Tangerina v. Dancy, Ark of Taste Catalogue http://www.slowfoodusa.org/ark-item/dancy-tangerine ^ a b c d e f g Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick (2014). "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrus
Citrus
species: analysis of chromosome 2". BMC Genetics. 15: 152.  ^ a b "New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny". Tree Genetics. 7: 49–61. doi:10.1007/s11295-010-0314-x.  ^ Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir (2018). "Mandarin fruit quality: a review". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 98: 18–26. doi:10.1002/jsfa.8495.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Wu, Guohong Albert; Terol, Javier; Ibanez, Victoria; López-García, Antonio; Pérez-Román, Estela; Borredá, Carles; Domingo, Concha; Tadeo, Francisco R; Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Alonso, Roberto; Curk, Franck; Du, Dongliang; Ollitrault, Patrick; Roose, Mikeal L. Roose; Dopazo, Joaquin; Gmitter Jr, Frederick G.; Rokhsar, Daniel; Talon, Manuel (2018). "Genomics of the origin and evolution of Citrus". Nature. 554: 311–316. doi:10.1038/nature25447.  and Supplement ^ "Subacute toxicity assessment of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel (Nanfengmiju, Citrus
Citrus
reticulata Blanco) in rats". Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 62: 16–22. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2011.12.003.  ^ "The Seedless Kishu, a small but mighty mandarin". latimes.  ^ "Synonymy of C. tangerina at The Plant
Plant
List".  ^ Larry K. Jackson and Stephen H. Futch. "Robinson Tangerine". ufl.edu.  ^ Commernet, 2011. "20-13.0061. Sunburst Tangerines; Classification and Standards, 20-13. Market Classification, Maturity Standards And Processing Or Packing Restrictions For Hybrids, D20. Departmental, 20. Department of Citrus, Florida Administrative Code". State of Florida. Retrieved 14 May 2015.  ^ a b c d Velasco, R; Licciardello, C. "A genealogy of the citrus family". Nature Biotechnology. 32: 640–642. doi:10.1038/nbt.2954. PMID 25004231.  ^ a b c d e G Albert Wu; et al. "Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pomelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication". Nature. 32: 656–662. doi:10.1038/nbt.2906. PMC 4113729 . PMID 24908277.  ^ a b c d e f Shimizu, Tokurou; Kitajima, Akira; Nonaka, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Goto, Shingo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu. "Hybrid Origins of Citrus
Citrus
Varieties Inferred from DNA Marker Analysis of Nuclear and Organelle Genomes". PLoS One. 11: e0166969. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166969.  ^ Larry K. Jackson and Stephen H. Futch. "HS169/CH074: Dancy Tangerine". ufl.edu.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Curk, Franck; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick (2016). "Phylogenetic origin of limes and lemons revealed by cytoplasmic and nuclear markers". Annals of Botany. 11: 565–583. doi:10.1093/aob/mcw005.  ^ Edible: An Illustrated Guide to the World's Food Plants. National Geographic. 2008. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-4262-0372-5.  ^ Toni Siebert (30 July 2009). "Nules". Citrus
Citrus
Variety Database. University Of California. Retrieved 9 June 2011.  ^ Stephen H. Futch and Larry K. Jackson. "HS174/CH078: Murcott (Honey Tangerine)". ufl.edu.  ^ http://plantbiology.ucr.edu/faculty/Tango%20Information%20Sheet-4-12-2009.pdf

Notes

Citrus
Citrus
reticulata at Plants for a Future

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Citrus
Citrus
reticulata.

Data related to Citrus
Citrus
reticulata at Wikispecies Mandarin Orange Nutrition Facts UC Riverside Mandarin Variety Descriptions Mandarin Orange – from Morton, J. (1987) Fruits of Warm Climates

v t e

Citrus

True species

Australian and Papuan wild limes Byeonggyul Citron Clymenia Indian wild orange Ichang papeda Kumquat Mandarin Mangshanyegan Micrantha Pomelo

Major hybrids

Grapefruit Lemon Lime Orange

True and hybrid cultivars

Alemow Amanatsu Bergamot orange Bizzaria Bitter orange Blood lime Blood orange Buddha's hand Cam sành Cara cara navel Cherry orange Citrange Citrumelo Clementine Daidai Dekopon Fairchild tangerine Florentine citron Hassaku orange Hebesu Hyuganatsu Imperial lemon Iyokan Jabara Jaffa orange Kabbad Kabosu Kaffir lime Kakadu lime Kalpi Key lime Khasi papeda Kinnow Kishumikan Kiyomi Komikan Laraha Lumia Mandelo Mandora Melanesian papeda Melogold Meyer lemon Murcott Myrtle-leaved orange tree Ōgonkan Orangelo/Chironja Oroblanco Palestinian sweet lime Persian lime Pixie mandarin Ponderosa lemon Ponkan Rangpur Reikou Rhobs el Arsa Rough lemon Sanboken Satsuma mandarin Setoka Shangjuan Shonan Gold Sudachi Sweet lemon Sweet limetta Tangelo Tangerine Tangor Ugli fruit Valencia orange Variegated pink lemon Winged lime Xã Đoài orange Yuukou mandarin Yuzu

Citrons

Balady citron Corsican citron Diamante citron Fingered citron Greek citron Moroccan citron Yemenite citron

Mandarin oranges

Cleopatra mandarin Shīkwāsā Nanfengmiju

Papedas

Citrus
Citrus
halimii or Mountain "citron" Ichang papeda

Pomelos

Banpeiyu Dangyuja

Australian and Papuan citrus (Microcitrus, Eromocitrus, Clymenia and Oxanthera subgenera)

Australian outback lime Australian round lime Brown River finger lime Desert lime Mount white lime (Microcitrus) New Guinea wild lime Russell River lime Clymenia Oxanthera

Kumquat
Kumquat
hybrids (×Citrofortunella)

Calamondin Citrangequat Limequat Orangequat Procimequat Sunquat Yuzuquat

Related genus

Poncirus/Trifoliate orange

Drinks

Chūhai Curaçao Grapefruit
Grapefruit
juice Lemonade Limeade Orange juice Yuja-hwachae Yuja tea

Products

Calcium citrate Citric acid Lemonene Limonene Neroli Orange flower water Orange oil Orangeat Succade Zest

Diseases

Black spot CTV/Tristeza Exocortis Greening Mal secco Phytophthora

citricola

Related topics

The Citrus
Citrus
Industry Citrus
Citrus
production Citrus
Citrus
rootstock Citrus
Citrus
taxonomy Cold-hardy citrus Hesperidium Japanese citrus List of citrus fruits Mother Orange Tree Orangery University of California Citrus
Citrus
Experiment Station University of California, Riverside Citrus
Citrus
Variety Collection

Book Category Production Commons

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q125337 APDB: 90376 EoL: 582204 EPPO: CIDRE FoC: 200012434 GBIF: 3190172 GRIN: 10778 iNaturalist: 123355 IPNI: 772038-1 ITIS: 28888 NCBI: 85571 Plant
Plant
List: kew-2724336 PLANTS: CIRE3 Tropic

.