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The tenth mandala of the Rigveda
Rigveda
has 191 hymns. Together with Mandala 1, it forms the latest part of the Rigveda, containing much mythological material, including the Purusha sukta
Purusha sukta
(10.90) and the dialogue of Sarama
Sarama
with the Panis (10.108), and notably containing several dialogue hymns. The subjects of the hymns cover a wider spectrum than in the other books, dedicated not only to deities or natural phenomena, including deities that are not prominent enough to receive their own hymns in the other books ( Nirrti 10.59, Asamati 10.60, Ratri
Ratri
10.127, Aranyani 10.146, Indrani 10.159), but also to objects like dice (10.34), herbs (10.97), press-stones (for Soma, 10.94, 175) and abstract concepts like liberality (towards the rishi, 10.117), creation (10.129 (the Nasadiya Sukta), 130, 190), knowledge (10.71), speech, spirit (10.58), faith (10.151), a charm against evil dreams (10.164). 10.15, dedicated to the forefathers, contains a reference to the emerging rite of cremation in verse 14, where ancestors "both cremated (agnidagdhá-) and uncremated (ánagnidagdha-)" are invoked. 10.47 to 50 are to Indra
Indra
Vaikuntha, " Indra
Indra
son of Vikuntha". Vikuntha was an Asuri whom Indra
Indra
had allowed to become his second mother. The rishi of 10.47 is called Saptagu, while that of 10.48-50 is likewise called Indra
Indra
Vaikuntha. 10.85 is a marriage hymn, evoking the marriage of Suryā, daughter of Surya
Surya
(the Sun), another form of Ushas, the prototypical bride. RV 10.121 (the Hiranyagarbha sukta) is another hymn dealing with creation, containing elements of monotheism. It has a recurring pada "what God shall we adore with our oblation?", in verse 1 named Hiranyagarbha "the golden egg",[1][2][3] later a name of Brahma, in verse 10 addressed as Prajapati. 10.129 (the Nasadiya sukta) and 130 are creation hymns, probably the best known Rigvedic hymns in the west, especially 10.129.7:

He, the first origin of this creation, whether he formed it all or did not form it, / Whose eye controls this world in highest heaven, he verily knows it, or perhaps he knows not. (Griffith)

These hymns exhibit a level of philosophical speculation very atypical of the Rigveda, which for the most part is occupied with ritualistic invocation. 10.145 is attributed to Indrani. It is a spell for a jealous wife to get rid of more favoured rival. Atypical of the Rigveda, similar spells are found in the Atharvaveda. 10.154 is a funeral hymn, asking for that the departed may join those who attained heaven through tapas. Padas 1 cd is reminiscent of the Norse concept of Valhalla:

To those for whom the meath flows forth, even to those let him depart. (Griffith)

10.155 is against the "one-eyed limping hag" Arayi. 10.166, attributed to Anila, is a spell for the destruction of rivals, similar to 10.145, but this time to be uttered by men who want to be rid of male rivals. 10.173 and 174 are benedictions of a newly elected king. The rishis of the 10th Mandala
Mandala
are divided into Shudrasuktas and Mahasuktas, that is, sages who have composed "small" vs. "great" hymns.

Contents

1 List of hymns 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

List of hymns[edit]

Sukta Name Deity Rishi Metre Incipit

10 13

Havirdhanas

yujé vām bráhma pūrviyáṃ námobhir

10 75 Nadistuti sukta Rivers

prá sú va āpo mahimânam uttamáṃ

10 81 Vishwakarma
Vishwakarma
suktha Vishvakarman Adi Rishi
Rishi
Vishwakarma

yá imâ víśvā bhúvanāni júhvad

10 83 Manyu sukta Manyu

yás te manyo ávidhad vajra sāyaka

10 90 Purusha sukta Purusha

sahásraśīrṣā púruṣaḥ

10 95

Urvashi and Pururavas

hayé jâye mánasā tíṣṭha ghore

10 107

Daksina

āvír abhūn máhi mâghonam eṣāṃ

10 108

Sarama
Sarama
and the Panis

kím ichántī sarámā prédám ānaḍ

10 121 Hiranyagarbha sukta Hiranyagarbha/Prajapati

hiraṇyagarbháḥ sám avartatâgre

10 123

Veda

ayáṃ venáś codayat pŕśnigarbhā

10 129 Nasadiya sukta Creation

nâsad āsīn nó sád āsīt tadânīṃ

10 136

Keśin

keśî agníṃ keśî viṣáṃ

10 145

Sapatnibadhanam Indrani

imâṃ khanāmi óṣadhiṃ

10 178

Tarkshya

tiyám ū ṣú vājínaṃ devájūtaṃ

10 183

the sacrificer and his wife Prajavan

ápaśyaṃ tvā mánasā cékitānaṃ

See also[edit]

Rigvedic dialogue hymns

References[edit]

^ The golden egg: Epics of Ancient India. ^ The golden egg as Brahma, the source of creation. ^ The Cosmic Egg in historical cosmology.

External links[edit]

Works related to The Rig Veda/ Mandala
Mandala
10 at Wikisource

v t e

Rigveda

Mandalas

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Deities

Devas

Agni Indra Soma Ushas

Visvedevas Maruts Ashvins Tvastar Rbhus Pushan Rudra Asuras

Mitra Varuna Aryaman Apam Napat

Demons

Vritra Dasas Danu Danavas

Rivers

Sapta Sindhu Nadistuti Sarasvati Sindhu Sarayu Rasā

Rishis

Saptarishi

Gritsamada Vishvamitra Vamadeva Atri Angiras Bharadvaja Vasishta

.