HOME
The Info List - Mamluk Dynasty (Delhi)


--- Advertisement ---



in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynasty

This box:

view talk edit

The Mamluk
Mamluk
Dynasty (sometimes referred as Slave Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty) (Persian: سلطنت مملوک‎), (Urdu: غلام خاندان‎) was directed into Northern India
India
by Qutb ud-Din Aibak, a Turkic Mamluk
Mamluk
slave general from Central Asia. The Mamluk Dynasty ruled from 1206 to 1290; it was the first of five unrelated dynasties to rule as the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
till 1526.[5][6][7] Aibak's tenure as a Ghurid dynasty administrator lasted from 1192 to 1206, a period during which he led invasions into the Gangetic heartland of India
India
and established control over some of the new areas.[citation needed]

Contents

1 History 2 Sultans 3 Architecture 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

History The Mamluk, literally meaning owned, was a soldier of slave origin who had converted to Islam. The phenomenon started in the 9th century and gradually the Mamluks became a powerful military caste in various Muslim societies. Mamluks held political and military power most notably in Egypt, but also in the Levant, Iraq, and India. In 1206, Muhammad of Ghor, Sultan
Sultan
of the Ghurid Empire
Ghurid Empire
was assassinated.[8] Since he had no children, his empire split into minor sultanates led by his former mamluk generals. Taj-ud-Din Yildoz became the ruler of Ghazni. Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji
got Bengal. Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha
Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha
became the sultan of Multan. Qutb ud-Din Aibak became the sultan of Delhi, and that was the beginning of the Slave dynasty. Aibak rose to power when a Ghorid superior was assassinated.[9] However, his reign as the Sultan
Sultan
of Delhi
Delhi
was short lived as he died in 1210 and his son Aram Shah rose to the throne, only to be assassinated by Iltutmish
Iltutmish
in 1211. The Sultanate
Sultanate
under Iltutmish
Iltutmish
established cordial diplomatic contact with the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
between 1228–29 and had managed to keep India
India
unaffected by the invasions of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and his successors.[6] Following the death of Iltutmish
Iltutmish
in 1236 a series of weak rulers remained in power and a number of the noblemen gained autonomy over the provinces of the Sultanate. Power shifted hands from Rukn ud din Firuz
Rukn ud din Firuz
to Razia Sultana
Razia Sultana
until Ghiyas ud din Balban
Ghiyas ud din Balban
rose to the throne and successfully repelled both external threats to the Sultanate
Sultanate
from the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
invasions and internal threats from the rebellious sultanate nobles.[6][9] The Khalji dynasty
Khalji dynasty
came into being when Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji
Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji
overthrew the last of the Slave dynasty rulers, Muiz ud din Qaiqabad, the grandson of Balban, and assumed the throne at Delhi.[10] Sultans

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The Qutb Minar, an example of the Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty's works.

The first Sultan
Sultan
of the Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty was Qutb ud-Din Aibak (قطب الدین ایبک‬), who had the titular name of Sultan (سلطان‬) and reigned from 1206 to 1210. He temporarily quelled the rebellions of Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha
Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha
of Multan
Multan
and Tajuddin Yildoz of Ghazni. Making Lahore
Lahore
his capital, he consolidated his control over North India
India
through an administrative hold over Delhi. He also initiated the construction of Delhi's earliest Muslim monuments, the Quwwat-ul- Islam
Islam
mosque and the Qutb Minar. In 1210, he died due to injuries received from an accident while playing a game of polo in Lahore; his horse fell and he was impaled on the pommel of his saddle. He was buried near the Anarkali Bazaar
Anarkali Bazaar
in Lahore. The second Sultan
Sultan
was Aram Shah (آرام شاہ‬), who had the titular name of Sultan
Sultan
and reigned from 1210 to 1211. An elite group of forty nobles named Chihalgani ("the Forty") conspired against Aram Shah and invited Shams-ud-din Iltutmish, then Governor of Badaun, to replace Aram. Iltutmish
Iltutmish
defeated Aram in the plain of Jud near Delhi in 1211. It is not quite certain what became of Aram. The third Sultan
Sultan
was Shams-ud-din Iltutmish
Iltutmish
(شمس الدین التتمش‬), who had the titular name of Nasir Amir-ul-Mu'minin (ناصرامیر المؤمنین ‬) and reigned from 1211 to 1236. He shifted the capital from Lahore
Lahore
to Delhi
Delhi
and trebled the exchequer. He defeated Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha
Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha
of Multan
Multan
and Tajuddin Yildoz
Tajuddin Yildoz
of Ghazni, who had declared themselves contenders of Delhi. Mongols invaded India
India
in pursuit of Jalal-ud-din Mangabarni
Jalal-ud-din Mangabarni
who was defeated at the Battle of Indus
Battle of Indus
by Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in 1221. After Genghis Khan's death, Iltutmish
Iltutmish
consolidated his hold on northern India
India
by retaking many of the lost territories. In 1230, he built the Hauz-i-Shamsi reservoir in Mehrauli, and in 1231 he built Sultan
Sultan
Ghari, which was the first Islamic mausoleum in Delhi. The fourth Sultan
Sultan
was Rukn-ud-din Feroze (رکن الدین فیروز‬), who had the titular name of Sultan
Sultan
and reigned from April 1236 to November 1236. He ruled for only seven months and his mother, Shah Turkan, for all practical purposes was running the government. He abandoned himself to the pursuit of personal pleasure and debauchery, to the considerable outrage of the citizenry. On November 9, 1236, both Rukn-ud-din Feroze and his mother Shah Turkan were assassinated by the Chihalgani. The fifth Sultana was Razia al-Din (رضیہ الدین ‬), who had the titular name of Jalâlat-ud-dîn Raziyâ Sultana (جلالۃ الدین رضیہ سلطانہ ‬) and reigned from 1236 to 1240. As the first female Muslim ruler in Inda, she initial managed to impress the nobles and administratively handled the Sultanate
Sultanate
well. However, she began associating with the African Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut, provoking racial antagonism amongst the nobles and clergy, who were primarily Central Asian Turkic and already resented the rule of a female monarch. She was defeated by the powerful nobleman Malik Altunia whom she agreed to marry. Her half-brother Muiz-ud-din Bahram, however, usurped the throne with the help of the Chihalgani and defeated the combined forces of the Sultana and her husband. The couple fled and reached Kaithal, where their remaining forces abandoned them. They both fell into the hands of Jats and were robbed and killed on October 14, 1240. The sixth Sultan
Sultan
was Muiz-ud-din Bahram (معز الدین بہرام‬), who had the titular name of Sultan
Sultan
and reigned from 1240 to May 15, 1242. During his reign, the Chihalgani became disorderly and constantly bickered among each other. It was during this period of unrest that the Mongols
Mongols
invaded the Punjab and sacked Lahore. Muiz-ud-din Bahram was too weak to take any action against them, and the Chihalgani besiged him in the White Fort of Delhi
Delhi
and put him to death in 1242. The seventh Sultan
Sultan
was Ala-ud-din Masud (علاءالدین مسعود‬), who had the titular name of Sultan
Sultan
and reigned from 1242 to 1246. He was effectively a puppet for the Chihalgani and did not actually have much power or influence in the government. Instead, he became infamous for his fondness of entertainment and wine. By 1246, the chiefs had become upset with Ala-ud-din Masud's increasing hunger for more power and replaced him with his cousin Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, who was another grandson of Iltutmish. The eighth Sultan
Sultan
was Nasir-ud-din Mahmud (نصیر الدین محمود ‬), who had the titular name of Nasir-ud-din Feroze Shah (نصیر الدین فیروز شاہ‬) and reigned from 1246 to 1266. As a ruler, Mahmud was known to be very religious, spending most of his time in prayer and was renowned for aiding the poor and the distressed. It was his Deputy Sultan, Ghiyath-ud-din Balban, who primarily dealt with state affairs. The ninth Sultan
Sultan
was Ghiyath-ud-din Balban (غیاث الدین بلبن‬), who had the titular name of Sultan
Sultan
and reigned from 1266 to 1287. Balban ruled with an iron fist and broke up the Chihalgani group of noblemen. He tried to establish peace and order in India
India
and built many outposts with garrisons of soldiers in areas where there had been disorder. Balban wanted to make sure everyone was loyal to the crown, so he established an efficient espionage system. The tenth and final Sultan
Sultan
was Muiz-ud-din Muhammad Qaiqabad (معز الدین قیق آباد‬), who had the titular name of Sultan
Sultan
and reigned from 1287 to 1290. Being still young at the time, he ignored all state affairs. After four years, he suffered a paralytic stroke and was later murdered in 1290 by a Khalji chief. His three-year-old son Kayumars nominally succeeded him, but the Slave dynasty had ended with the rise of the Khaljis. Architecture The architectural legacy of the dynasty includes the Qutb Minar
Qutb Minar
by Qutb ud-Din Aibak in Mehrauli, the Mausoleum of Prince Nasiru'd-Din Mahmud, eldest son of Iltumish, known as Sultan
Sultan
Ghari near Vasant Kunj, the first Islamic Mausoleum (tomb) built in 1231, and Balban's tomb, in the Mehrauli
Mehrauli
Archaeological Park. See also

Tughlaq Dynasty Persianate
Persianate
states

Notes

^ "Arabic and Persian Epigraphical Studies - Archaeological Survey of India". Asi.nic.in. Retrieved 2010-11-14.  ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364.  ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280.  ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162.  ^ Walsh, pp. 68-70 ^ a b c Anzalone, p. 100 ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 72–80. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.  ^ George F. Nafziger, Mark W. Walton, Islam
Islam
at War: A History, (Praeger Publishers, 2003), 56. ^ a b Walsh, p. 70 ^ Anzalone, p. 101

References

Anzalone, Christopher (2008). " Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate". In Ackermann, M. E. etc. Encyclopedia of World History. 2. Facts on File. pp. 100–101. ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4.  Walsh, J. E. (2006). A Brief History of India. Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-5658-7.  Dynastic Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 368.

Further reading

Srivastava, A. L. (1967). The History of India, 1000-1707 A.D.,. Shiva Lal Agarwala. 

External links

Encyclopædia Britannica (Online Edition) – Delhi
Delhi
sultanate

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultan

.