in The Levant
Mamluk Dynasty (sometimes referred as Slave Dynasty or Ghulam
Dynasty) (Persian: سلطنت مملوک), (Urdu: غلام
خاندان) was directed into Northern
India by Qutb ud-Din
Aibak, a Turkic
Mamluk slave general from Central Asia. The Mamluk
Dynasty ruled from 1206 to 1290; it was the first of five unrelated
dynasties to rule as the
Sultanate till 1526. Aibak's
tenure as a Ghurid dynasty administrator lasted from 1192 to 1206, a
period during which he led invasions into the Gangetic heartland of
India and established control over some of the new areas.[citation
4 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
The Mamluk, literally meaning owned, was a soldier of slave origin who
had converted to Islam. The phenomenon started in the 9th century and
gradually the Mamluks became a powerful military caste in various
Muslim societies. Mamluks held political and military power most
notably in Egypt, but also in the Levant, Iraq, and India.
In 1206, Muhammad of Ghor,
Sultan of the
Ghurid Empire was
assassinated. Since he had no children, his empire split into minor
sultanates led by his former mamluk generals. Taj-ud-Din Yildoz became
the ruler of Ghazni.
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji got Bengal.
Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha became the sultan of Multan. Qutb ud-Din Aibak
became the sultan of Delhi, and that was the beginning of the Slave
Aibak rose to power when a Ghorid superior was assassinated.
However, his reign as the
Delhi was short lived as he died
in 1210 and his son
Aram Shah rose to the throne, only to be
Iltutmish in 1211.
Iltutmish established cordial diplomatic contact
Abbasid Caliphate between 1228–29 and had managed to keep
India unaffected by the invasions of
Genghis Khan and his
successors. Following the death of
Iltutmish in 1236 a series of
weak rulers remained in power and a number of the noblemen gained
autonomy over the provinces of the Sultanate. Power shifted hands from
Rukn ud din Firuz
Rukn ud din Firuz to
Razia Sultana until
Ghiyas ud din Balban
Ghiyas ud din Balban rose to
the throne and successfully repelled both external threats to the
Sultanate from the
Chagatai Khanate invasions and internal threats
from the rebellious sultanate nobles. The
Khalji dynasty came
into being when
Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji
Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji overthrew the last of the
Slave dynasty rulers, Muiz ud din Qaiqabad, the grandson of Balban,
and assumed the throne at Delhi.
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The Qutb Minar, an example of the
Mamluk dynasty's works.
Sultan of the
Mamluk dynasty was Qutb ud-Din Aibak (قطب
الدین ایبک), who had the titular name of Sultan
(سلطان) and reigned from 1206 to 1210. He temporarily quelled
the rebellions of
Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha of
Multan and Tajuddin Yildoz
of Ghazni. Making
Lahore his capital, he consolidated his control over
India through an administrative hold over Delhi. He also
initiated the construction of Delhi's earliest Muslim monuments, the
Islam mosque and the Qutb Minar. In 1210, he died due to
injuries received from an accident while playing a game of polo in
Lahore; his horse fell and he was impaled on the pommel of his saddle.
He was buried near the
Anarkali Bazaar in Lahore.
Aram Shah (آرام شاہ), who had the
titular name of
Sultan and reigned from 1210 to 1211. An elite group
of forty nobles named Chihalgani ("the Forty") conspired against Aram
Shah and invited Shams-ud-din Iltutmish, then Governor of Badaun, to
Iltutmish defeated Aram in the plain of Jud near Delhi
in 1211. It is not quite certain what became of Aram.
Sultan was Shams-ud-din
Iltutmish (شمس الدین
التتمش), who had the titular name of Nasir Amir-ul-Mu'minin
(ناصرامیر المؤمنین ) and reigned from 1211 to 1236.
He shifted the capital from
Delhi and trebled the exchequer.
Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha of
Tajuddin Yildoz of
Ghazni, who had declared themselves contenders of Delhi. Mongols
India in pursuit of
Jalal-ud-din Mangabarni who was defeated
Battle of Indus
Battle of Indus by
Genghis Khan in 1221. After Genghis Khan's
Iltutmish consolidated his hold on northern
India by retaking
many of the lost territories. In 1230, he built the Hauz-i-Shamsi
reservoir in Mehrauli, and in 1231 he built
Sultan Ghari, which was
the first Islamic mausoleum in Delhi.
Sultan was Rukn-ud-din Feroze (رکن الدین
فیروز), who had the titular name of
Sultan and reigned from
April 1236 to November 1236. He ruled for only seven months and his
mother, Shah Turkan, for all practical purposes was running the
government. He abandoned himself to the pursuit of personal pleasure
and debauchery, to the considerable outrage of the citizenry. On
November 9, 1236, both Rukn-ud-din Feroze and his mother Shah Turkan
were assassinated by the Chihalgani.
The fifth Sultana was Razia al-Din (رضیہ الدین ), who had
the titular name of Jalâlat-ud-dîn Raziyâ Sultana (جلالۃ
الدین رضیہ سلطانہ ) and reigned from 1236 to 1240.
As the first female Muslim ruler in Inda, she initial managed to
impress the nobles and administratively handled the
However, she began associating with the African Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut,
provoking racial antagonism amongst the nobles and clergy, who were
primarily Central Asian Turkic and already resented the rule of a
female monarch. She was defeated by the powerful nobleman Malik
Altunia whom she agreed to marry. Her half-brother Muiz-ud-din Bahram,
however, usurped the throne with the help of the Chihalgani and
defeated the combined forces of the Sultana and her husband. The
couple fled and reached Kaithal, where their remaining forces
abandoned them. They both fell into the hands of Jats and were robbed
and killed on October 14, 1240.
Sultan was Muiz-ud-din Bahram (معز الدین
بہرام), who had the titular name of
Sultan and reigned from
1240 to May 15, 1242. During his reign, the Chihalgani became
disorderly and constantly bickered among each other. It was during
this period of unrest that the
Mongols invaded the Punjab and sacked
Lahore. Muiz-ud-din Bahram was too weak to take any action against
them, and the Chihalgani besiged him in the White Fort of
put him to death in 1242.
Sultan was Ala-ud-din Masud (علاءالدین
مسعود), who had the titular name of
Sultan and reigned from
1242 to 1246. He was effectively a puppet for the Chihalgani and did
not actually have much power or influence in the government. Instead,
he became infamous for his fondness of entertainment and wine. By
1246, the chiefs had become upset with Ala-ud-din Masud's increasing
hunger for more power and replaced him with his cousin Nasir-ud-din
Mahmud, who was another grandson of Iltutmish.
Sultan was Nasir-ud-din Mahmud (نصیر الدین
محمود ), who had the titular name of Nasir-ud-din Feroze Shah
(نصیر الدین فیروز شاہ) and reigned from 1246 to
1266. As a ruler, Mahmud was known to be very religious, spending most
of his time in prayer and was renowned for aiding the poor and the
distressed. It was his Deputy Sultan, Ghiyath-ud-din Balban, who
primarily dealt with state affairs.
Sultan was Ghiyath-ud-din Balban (غیاث الدین
بلبن), who had the titular name of
Sultan and reigned from 1266
to 1287. Balban ruled with an iron fist and broke up the Chihalgani
group of noblemen. He tried to establish peace and order in
built many outposts with garrisons of soldiers in areas where there
had been disorder. Balban wanted to make sure everyone was loyal to
the crown, so he established an efficient espionage system.
The tenth and final
Sultan was Muiz-ud-din Muhammad Qaiqabad (معز
الدین قیق آباد), who had the titular name of
reigned from 1287 to 1290. Being still young at the time, he ignored
all state affairs. After four years, he suffered a paralytic stroke
and was later murdered in 1290 by a Khalji chief. His three-year-old
son Kayumars nominally succeeded him, but the Slave dynasty had ended
with the rise of the Khaljis.
The architectural legacy of the dynasty includes the
Qutb Minar by
Qutb ud-Din Aibak in Mehrauli, the Mausoleum of Prince Nasiru'd-Din
Mahmud, eldest son of Iltumish, known as
Sultan Ghari near Vasant
Kunj, the first Islamic Mausoleum (tomb) built in 1231, and Balban's
tomb, in the
Mehrauli Archaeological Park.
^ "Arabic and Persian Epigraphical Studies - Archaeological Survey of
India". Asi.nic.in. Retrieved 2010-11-14.
^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia.
^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic
World. p. 280.
^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the
Renaissance to the Present. p. 162.
^ Walsh, pp. 68-70
^ a b c Anzalone, p. 100
^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus
Books. pp. 72–80. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
^ George F. Nafziger, Mark W. Walton,
Islam at War: A History,
(Praeger Publishers, 2003), 56.
^ a b Walsh, p. 70
^ Anzalone, p. 101
Anzalone, Christopher (2008). "
Delhi Sultanate". In Ackermann, M. E.
etc. Encyclopedia of World History. 2. Facts on File.
pp. 100–101. ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4.
Walsh, J. E. (2006). A Brief History of India. Facts on File.
Dynastic Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 368.
Srivastava, A. L. (1967). The History of India, 1000-1707 A.D.,. Shiva
Encyclopædia Britannica (Online Edition) –
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