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MAID MARIAN (or Marion) is the love interest of the legendary outlaw Robin Hood
Robin Hood
in English folklore
English folklore
. Maid Marian
Maid Marian
was in origin a "shepherdess" figure associated with May Day . Her role as the love interest of Robin Hood
Robin Hood
dates to at least the 16th century.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Literature * 3 Television * 4 Movies * 5 References * 6 External links

HISTORY

Maid Marian
Maid Marian
is never mentioned in any of the earliest extant ballads of Robin Hood. She appears to have originally been a character in May Games festivities (held during May and early June, most commonly around Whitsun ) and is sometimes associated with the Queen or Lady of May or May Day . Jim Lees in The Quest for Robin Hood
Robin Hood
(p. 81) suggests that Maid Marian
Maid Marian
was originally a personification of the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
. Both a "Robin" and a "Marian" character were associated with May Day by the 15th century, but these figures were apparently part of separate traditions; the Marian of the May Games is likely derived from the French tradition of a shepherdess named Marion and her shepherd lover Robin, recorded in Adam de la Halle 's Le Jeu de Robin et Marion , circa 1283. It isn't clear if there was an association of the early "outlaw" character of Robin Hood
Robin Hood
and the early "May Day" character Robin, but they did become identified, and associated with the "Marian" character, by the 16th century. Alexander Barclay, writing in c. 1500, refers to "some merry fytte of Maid Marian or else of Robin Hood". Marian remained associated with May Day celebrations even after the association of Robin Hood
Robin Hood
with May Day had again faded. The early Robin Hood
Robin Hood
is also given a "shepherdess" love interest, in Robin Hood\'s Birth, Breeding, Valor, and Marriage ( Child Ballad 149), his sweetheart is "Clorinda the Queen of the Shepherdesses". Clorinda survives in some later stories as an alias of Marian.

The "gentrified" Robin Hood
Robin Hood
character, portrayed as a historical outlawed nobleman, emerges in the late 16th century. From this time, Maid Marian
Maid Marian
is also cast in terms of a noblewoman, even though her role was never entirely virginal and she retained aspects of her "shepherdess" or "May Day" characteristics; in 1592, Thomas Nashe described the Marian of the later May Games as being played by a male actor named Martin, and there are hints in the play of Robin Hood
Robin Hood
and the Friar that the female character in these plays had become a lewd parody. Robin was originally called Ryder.

In the play, The Downfall of Robert, Earl of Huntingdon by Robert Munday, which was written in 1598, Marian appears as Robin's lawfully-wedded wife, who changes her name from Matilda when she joins him in the greenwood. She also has a cousin called Elizabeth de Staynton who is described as being the Prioress of Kirklees Priory near Brighouse in West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
. The 19th century antiquarian, Joseph Hunter , identified a Robert Hood, from Wakefield
Wakefield
, Yorkshire , in the archives preserved in the Exchequer, whose personal story matched very closely the story of Robin in Robert Munday's play, and this Robert Hood also married a woman named Matilda, who changed her name to Marian when she joined him in exile in Barnsdale Forest (following the Battle of Boroughbridge ) in 1322, and who also had a cousin named Elizabeth de Staynton who was Prioress of Kirklees Priory. If these parallels are not coincidental, then the Marian of Robin Hood
Robin Hood
fame, whose origins may be distinct from the Marian of the May games or of Munday's play, may derive all her roots from her association with the historical Robert Hood of Wakefield
Wakefield

In an Elizabethan play, Anthony Munday identified Maid Marian
Maid Marian
with the historical Matilda, daughter of Robert Fitzwalter , who had to flee England because of an attempt to assassinate King John (legendarily attributed to King John's attempts to seduce Matilda). In later versions of Robin Hood, Maid Marian
Maid Marian
is commonly named as "Marian Fitzwalter."

In Robin Hood
Robin Hood
and Maid Marian
Maid Marian
( Child Ballad 150, perhaps dating to the 17th century), Maid Marian
Maid Marian
is "a bonny fine maid of a noble degree" said to excel both Helen and Jane Shore in beauty. Separated from her lover, she dresses as a page "and ranged the wood to find Robin Hood," who was himself disguised, so that the two begin to fight when they meet. As is often the case in these ballads, Robin Hood loses the fight to comical effect, and Marian only recognizes him when he asks for quarter. This ballad is in the "Earl of Huntington " tradition, a supposed "historical identity" of Robin Hood
Robin Hood
forwarded in the late 16th century.

20th-century pop culture adaptations of the Robin Hood
Robin Hood
legend have almost invariably featured a Maid Marian, and have mostly made her a highborn woman with a rebellious or "tomboy " character. In 1938's The Adventures of Robin Hood
Robin Hood
, she is a courageous and loyal woman (played by Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
), and a ward of the court, an orphaned noblewoman under the protection of King Richard . Although always ladylike, her initial antagonism to Robin springs not from aristocratic disdain but out of an aversion to robbery. In The Story of Robin Hood
Robin Hood
and His Merrie Men (1952), she, despite being a lady-in-waiting to Eleanor of Aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine
during the Crusades
Crusades
, is in reality a mischievous tomboy capable of fleeing boldly to the countryside disguised as a boy. In the Kevin Costner epic Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves , she is a maternal cousin to the sovereign, while in the BBC
BBC
TV Show adaption of 2006, she is the daughter of the former Sheriff and was betrothed to Robin prior to his leaving for the Holy Land .

Maid Marian's role as a prototypical strong female character has also made her a popular focus in feminist fiction . Theresa Tomlinson 's Forestwife novels (1993–2000) are told from Marian's point of view, portray Marian as a high-born Norman girl escaping entrapment in an arranged marriage. With the aid of her nurse, she runs away to Sherwood Forest, where she becomes acquainted with Robin Hood
Robin Hood
and his men.

LITERATURE

There have been several books based on the fictional character:

* Maid Marian
Maid Marian
— 1822 novel by Thomas Love Peacock * Maid Marian
Maid Marian
— 2004 novel by Elsa Watson * Lady of the Forest ; novel by Jennifer Roberson * Lady of Sherwood ; novel by Jennifer Roberson * The Forestwife (and its sequels, although she's only the main character in the first); young adult novel by Theresa Tomlinson . * The Outlaws of Sherwood , novel by Robin McKinley (depicts Marian as a crack-shot archer) * Maid Marian
Maid Marian
appears in a chapter of T.H. White's The Sword in the Stone , the first book in The Once and Future King . Wart (the young King Arthur) and his step brother Kay meet her and Robin when they go into the forest for an adventure and set out with the outlaws to rescue people Morgan le Fey kidnapped. When they meet her, it is quickly made apparent that Marian is strong and capable in battle and the narrator mentions that she could walk or even wiggle on her stomach like a snake faster than the boys could follow. * The "Robin "> Bernadette O\'Farrell as Maid Marian
Maid Marian

* Maid Marian
Maid Marian
was played by Josée Richard in the 1953 BBC mini-series Robin Hood
Robin Hood
. (She was married to Robert Robinson) * Maid Marian
Maid Marian
was played first by Bernadette O\'Farrell , and then by Patricia Driscoll in the 1955 series The Adventures of Robin Hood and was as adept with the bow as Robin. As Lady Marian Fitzwalter, a Norman-Irish noblewoman, she rode a horse sidesaddle and when dressed in Lincoln Green with Robin in Sherwood Forest
Sherwood Forest
she rode astride. The Sheriff was always ready to defend her, but his replacement the Deputy Sheriff suspected she was one of Robin's band. * Maid Marian
Maid Marian
was featured in the 1966 animated series Rocket Robin Hood , a science fiction version of the Robin Hood
Robin Hood
story. * In the HTV show Robin of Sherwood (1984–86), Marian was played by Judi Trott . After meeting and falling in love with Robin (of Locksley, played by Michael Praed), lived with him and the other outlaws in Sherwood Forest. When Robin died, she was pardoned by King John . When she attended a party at the Earl of Huntington\'s residence , she was wooed by his son Robert of Huntingdon (played by Jason Connery). He became Robin's successor as Herne's Son and leader of the outlaws. Robert (Robin) and Marion nearly marry until she mistakenly believes him to have been killed. She then decides to become a nun for the foreseeable future, believing that is the right, and only thing worth doing. * Maid Marian
Maid Marian
was the lead character in Tony Robinson
Tony Robinson
's 1989 BBC children's comedy Maid Marian and her Merry Men . In the show, Marian (played by Kate Lonergan ) was portrayed as the real leader of the Merry Men , whilst Robin was a vain coward who was mistakenly believed to be the leader by King John and the Sheriff of Nottingham . * In the 1990 Japanese anime series Robin Hood
Robin Hood
no Daibōken , Maid Marian (as Marian Lancaster) was voiced by Naoko Matsui in Japanese and Katherine Shannon in English. Sometimes referred to as Mary Anne. * In the 1991 TV movie Robin Hood
Robin Hood
she is played by Uma Thurman . * In the 1997 TV show The New Adventures of Robin Hood
Robin Hood
, she was played by Anna Galvin , and then by Barbara Griffin . She lives with Robin, Little John and Friar Tuck
Friar Tuck
in Sherwood Forest. * In the 2000 film Blackadder: Back "> Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
as Robin Hood giving Enid Bennett as Maid Marian
Maid Marian
a dagger Olivia de Havilland as Maid Marian
Maid Marian

* In the 1922 silent film version of Robin Hood
Robin Hood
, Marian was played by Enid Bennett . * In the celebrated 1938 movie The Adventures of Robin Hood
Robin Hood
, Maid Marian, as already noted, was portrayed by Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
. * In the 1952 movie The Story of Robin Hood
Robin Hood
and His Merrie Men , Maid Marian
Maid Marian
is played by Joan Rice . * In the 1960 movie Sword of Sherwood Forest , Maid Marian
Maid Marian
is played by Sarah Branch . * In the 1964 movie Robin and the 7 Hoods , transplanting the Robin Hood legend to a 1930s Chicago
Chicago
gangster setting, Marian is played by Barbara Rush
Barbara Rush
, and is made into an utterly opportunistic character very different from the one of the original legend. * In the 1967 movie A Challenge for Robin Hood
Robin Hood
, Lady Marian is played by Gay Hamilton . * In the 1973 Disney animated version of Robin Hood
Robin Hood
, Maid Marian
Maid Marian
is an anthropomorphic vixen (female fox ) voiced by Monica Evans , with Nancy Adams doing her singing voice. * In the 1976 movie Robin and Marian , Lady Marian is played by Audrey Hepburn . * In the 1991 movie Robin Hood
Robin Hood
, Maid Marian
Maid Marian
is played by Uma Thurman . * In the 1991 movie Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves , Maid Marian
Maid Marian
is played by Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio . In this version, her surname is given as Dubois, a reference to the French name of Robin Hood, Robin des Bois. * In the 1993 movie Robin Hood: Men in Tights , Maid Marian
Maid Marian
is played by Amy Yasbeck . * In the 2001 Disney movie Princess of Thieves , Robin Hood
Robin Hood
and Maid Marian are the parents of a daughter, the eponymous 'princess' played by Keira Knightley
Keira Knightley
. * In the 2010 Ridley Scott
Ridley Scott
movie Robin Hood
Robin Hood
, Lady Marion Loxley, played by Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
, is a feisty, capable noblewoman who archer Robin Longstride, a.k.a. Robin Hood
Robin Hood
( Russell Crowe
Russell Crowe
) falls in love with whilst impersonating her deceased husband, Sir Robert Loxley. * In the 2011 German 3D movie Robin Hood
Robin Hood
– Ghosts of Sherwood , Maid Marian
Maid Marian
is played by Grey DeLisle . * Maid Marian
Maid Marian
will be featured in the upcoming movie Robin Hood: Origins portrayed by Eve Hewson .

REFERENCES

* Knight, Stephen (2003) Robin Hood: A Mythic Biography. University of Cornell Press.

* ^ J. C. Holt (1982). Robin Hood. Thames & Hudson. p. 37. ISBN 0-500-27541-6 . * ^ Knight. Robin Hood. pp. 11-12. * ^ Ronald Hutton. The Stations of the Sun, pp. 270-271. * ^ Richards. Swordsmen of the Screen, p. 190 * ^ Ronald Hutton. The Stations of the Sun. p. 274. ISBN 0-19-288045-4 * ^ J. C. Holt. Robin Hood, p. 165. * ^ Allen W. Wright. "A Beginner\'s Guide to Robin Hood". * ^ http://d.lib.rochester.edu/teams/text/downfall-of-robert-earle-of-huntington * ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2yQ38lu-M3w * ^ http://midgleywebpages.com/wakerobin.htmlyeoman * ^ http://midgleywebpages.com/priory.html * ^ Fact or Fiction: Robin Hood, UK Channel 4, 2002 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2yQ38lu-M3w * ^ Nigel Cawthorne, "A Brief History of Robin Hood", 2010, Chapter 10 . * ^ the "Matilda" theory of Maid Marian
Maid Marian
is further discussed in Thomson, Richard (1829). An Historical Essay on the Magna Charta of King John: To which are Added the Great Charter in Latin and English. London: J. Major and R. Jennings. pp. 505–507. * ^ Allen W. Wright, The Search for the Real Robin Hood * ^ Marian Fitzwalter, only child of the Earl of Huntingdon, is the Maid Marian
Maid Marian
in McSpadden, J. Walker (2006). Robin Hood. Project Gutenberg. * ^ "Maid Marion". internationalhero.co.uk. * ^ Francis James Child, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, 1888. * ^ Jeffrey Richards, Swordsmen of the Screen: From Douglas Fairbanks to Michael York, p 200, Routledge & Kegan Paul, Lond, Henly and Boston, 1988 * ^ Jeffrey Richards, Swordsmen of the Screen: From Douglas Fairbanks to Michael York, p 201, Routledge & Kegan Paul, Lond, Henly and Boston, 1988 * ^ Dark Tower V: Wolves of the Calla, Stephen King, 2003. (p.326-327) ISBN 1-880418-56-8 * ^ IMDb full cast * ^ Jaafar, Ali (September 30, 2015). "‘Robin Hood: Origins’ Shortlist: Eve Hewson, Gaite Jansen, Lucy Fry & Gugu Mbatha-Raw In Mix For Female Lead". Deadline. * ^ Fleming Jr, Mike (October 15, 2015). " Eve Hewson Landing Maid Marian In ‘Robin Hood: Origins’ Opposite Taron Egerton". Deadline.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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