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A lynx (/lɪŋks/;[2] plural lynx or lynxes[3]) is any of the four species within the Lynx
Lynx
genus of medium-sized wild cats, which includes the bobcat. The name "lynx" originated in Middle English
Middle English
via Latin from the Greek word λύγξ,[2] derived from the Indo-European root leuk- ("light, brightness")[4] in reference to the luminescence of its reflective eyes.[4] The genus Lynx
Lynx
includes neither the caracal nor the jungle cat, sometimes called the desert lynx and the jungle lynx respectively.

Contents

1 Appearance 2 Species

2.1 Eurasian lynx 2.2 Canada
Canada
lynx 2.3 Iberian lynx

2.3.1 Conservation efforts

2.4 Bobcat

3 Behavior and diet 4 Distribution and habitat

4.1 Europe
Europe
and Asia 4.2 North America

5 National animal 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Appearance Lynx
Lynx
have a short tail, characteristic tufts of black hair on the tips of their ears, large, padded paws for walking on snow and long whiskers on the face. Under their neck, they have a ruff which has black bars resembling a bow tie although this is often not visible. Body colour varies from medium brown to goldish to beige-white, and is occasionally marked with dark brown spots, especially on the limbs. All species of lynx have white fur on their chests, bellies and on the insides of their legs, fur which is an extension of the chest and belly fur. The lynx's colouring, fur length and paw size vary according to the climate in their range. In the Southwestern United States, they are short-haired, dark in colour and their paws are smaller and less padded. As climates get colder and more northerly, lynx have progressively thicker fur, lighter colour, and their paws are larger and more padded to adapt to the snow. Their paws may be larger than a human hand or foot. The smallest species are the bobcat and the Canada
Canada
lynx, while the largest is the Eurasian lynx, with considerable variations within species.

Physical characteristics of Lynx
Lynx
species

Species

Weight Length Height (standing at shoulders)

Eurasian lynx males 18 to 30 kilograms (40 to 66 lb) 81 to 129 centimetres (32 to 51 in) 70 centimetres (28 in)[5]

females 18 kilograms (40 lb)

Canada lynx

8 to 11 kilograms (18 to 24 lb) 80 to 105 centimetres (31 to 41 in) 48 to 56 centimetres (19 to 22 in)[6]

Iberian lynx males 12.9 kilograms (28 lb) 85 to 110 centimetres (33 to 43 in) 60 to 70 centimetres (24 to 28 in)[7][8][9]

females 9.4 kilograms (21 lb)

Bobcat males 7.3 to 14 kilograms (16 to 31 lb)[10] 71 to 100 centimetres (28 to 39 in)[10] 51 to 61 centimetres (20 to 24 in)[11]

females 9.1 kilograms (20 lb)

Species The four living species of the Lynx
Lynx
genus are believed to have evolved from the "Issoire lynx", which lived in Europe
Europe
and Africa during the late Pliocene
Pliocene
to early Pleistocene. The Pliocene
Pliocene
felid Felis rexroadensis from North America has been proposed as an even earlier ancestor; however, this was larger than any living species, and is not currently classified as a true lynx.[12] Eurasian lynx

Eurasian lynx

Main article: Eurasian lynx Of the four lynx species, the Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
lynx) is the largest in size. It is native to European, Central Asian, and Siberian forests. While its conservation status has been classified as "least concern", populations of Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
have been reduced or extirpated from Europe, where it is now being reintroduced. The Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
is the third largest predator in Europe
Europe
after the brown bear and the grey wolf. It is a strict carnivore, consuming about one or two kilograms of meat every day. The Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
is one of the widest-ranging.[13] During the summer, the Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
has a relatively short, reddish or brown coat which is replaced by a much thicker silver-grey to greyish-brown coat during winter. The lynx hunts by stalking and jumping its prey, helped by the rugged, forested country in which it resides. A favorite prey for the lynx in its woodland habitat is roe deer. It will feed however on whatever animal appears easiest, as it is an opportunistic predator much like its cousins.[12] Canada
Canada
lynx

Canada
Canada
lynx

Main article: Canada
Canada
lynx The Canada lynx
Canada lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
canadensis), or Canadian lynx, is a North American felid that ranges in forest and tundra regions[14] across Canada
Canada
and into Alaska, as well as some parts of the northern United States. Historically, the Canadian lynx ranged from Alaska
Alaska
across Canada
Canada
and into many of the northern U.S. states. In the eastern states, it resided in the transition zone in which boreal coniferous forests yielded to deciduous forests.[15] By 2010, after an 11-year effort, it had been successfully reintroduced into Colorado, where it had become extirpated in the 1970s.[16][17][18] In 2000, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service designated the Canada lynx
Canada lynx
a threatened species in the lower 48 states.[19] The Canada lynx
Canada lynx
is a good climber and swimmer; it constructs rough shelters under fallen trees or rock ledges. It has a thick coat and broad paws, and is twice as effective as the bobcat at supporting its weight on the snow. The Canada lynx
Canada lynx
feeds almost exclusively on snowshoe hares; its population is highly dependent on the population of this prey animal. It will also hunt medium-sized mammals and birds if hare numbers fall.[14] Iberian lynx

Iberian lynx

Main article: Iberian lynx The Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
pardinus) is a endangered species native to the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
in Southern Europe. It was the most endangered cat species in the world,[20] but conservation efforts have changed its status from critical to endangered. According to the Portuguese conservation group SOS Lynx, if this species dies out, it will be the first feline extinction since the Smilodon
Smilodon
10,000 years ago.[21] The species used to be classified as a subspecies of the Eurasian lynx, but is now considered a separate species. Both species occurred together in central Europe
Europe
in the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch, being separated by habitat choice.[7] The Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
is believed to have evolved from Lynx
Lynx
issiodorensis.[22] Conservation efforts In 2004, a Spanish government survey showed just two isolated breeding populations of Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
in southern Spain, totaling about 100 lynx (including only 25 breeding females).[23] An agreement signed in 2003 by the Spanish Environment Ministry
Spanish Environment Ministry
and the Andalusian Environment Council seeks to breed the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
in captivity.[23] Three Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
cubs were born as part of the Spanish program in 2005, at the Centro El Acebuche facility in Doñana National Park.[23] As a result of the Spanish government program and efforts by others (such as the WWF and the EU's Life projects), the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
"has recovered from the brink of extinction";[24] from 2000 to 2015, the population of Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
more than tripled.[25] The IUCN
IUCN
reassessed the species from "critically endangered" to "endangered" in 2015.[24] A 2014 census of the species showed 327 animals in Andalucia
Andalucia
in the "reintroduction areas" of Sierra Morena
Sierra Morena
and Montes de Toledo (Castilla-La Mancha, Spain), the Matachel Valley (Extremadura, Spain), and the Guadiana Valley
Guadiana Valley
(Portugal).[24] Bobcat

Bobcat

Main article: Bobcat The bobcat ( Lynx
Lynx
rufus) is a North American wild cat. With 12 recognized subspecies, the bobcat is common throughout southern Canada, the continental United States, and northern Mexico.[26] The bobcat is an adaptable predator that inhabits deciduous, coniferous, or mixed woodlands, but unlike other Lynx, does not depend exclusively on the deep forest, and ranges from swamps and desert lands to mountainous and agricultural areas, its spotted coat serving as camouflage.[27] The population of the bobcat depends primarily on the population of its prey.[28] Nonetheless, the bobcat is often killed by larger predators such as coyotes.[29] The bobcat resembles other species of the Lynx
Lynx
genus, but is on average the smallest of the four. Its coat is variable, though generally tan to grayish brown, with black streaks on the body and dark bars on the forelegs and tail. The ears are black-tipped and pointed, with short, black tufts. There is generally an off-white color on the lips, chin, and underparts. Bobcats in the desert regions of the southwest have the lightest-colored coats, while those in the northern, forested regions have the darkest.[11] Behavior and diet The lynx is usually solitary, although a small group of lynx may travel and hunt together occasionally. Mating takes place in the late winter and once a year the female gives birth to between one and four kittens. The gestation time of the lynx is about 70 days. The young stay with the mother for one more winter, a total of around nine months, before moving out to live on their own as young adults. The lynx creates its den in crevices or under ledges. It feeds on a wide range of animals from white-tailed deer, reindeer, roe deer, small red deer, and chamois, to smaller, more usual prey: snowshoe hares, fish, foxes, sheep, squirrels, mice, turkeys and other birds, and goats. It also eats ptarmigans, voles, and grouse. Distribution and habitat

A lynx stalking prey

The lynx inhabits high altitude forests with dense cover of shrubs, reeds, and tall grass. Although this cat hunts on the ground, it can climb trees and can swim swiftly, catching fish. Europe
Europe
and Asia The Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
ranges from central and northern Europe
Europe
across Asia up to Northern Pakistan
Pakistan
and India. In Iran, they live in Mount Damavand area.[30] Since the beginning of the 20th century, the Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
was considered extinct in the wild in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia. A resettlement project, begun in 1973, has successfully reintroduced lynx to the Slovenian Alps and the Croatian regions of Gorski Kotar and Velebit, including Croatia's Plitvice Lakes National Park and Risnjak National Park. In both countries, the lynx is listed as an endangered species and protected by law. The lynx was distributed throughout Japan
Japan
during Jōmon period, but no archeological evidence thereafter suggesting extinction at that time.[31] Several lynx resettlement projects begun in the 1970s have been successful in various regions of Switzerland. Since the 1990s, there have been numerous efforts to resettle the Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
in Germany, and since 2000, a small population can now be found in the Harz mountains near Bad Lauterberg. The lynx is found in the Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest
in northeastern Poland, in Estonia
Estonia
and in the northern and western parts of China, particularly the Tibetan Plateau. In Romania, the numbers exceed 2,000, the largest population in Europe
Europe
outside of Russia, although most experts consider the official population numbers to be overestimated.[32] The lynx is more common in northern Europe, especially in Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Finland, and the northern parts of Russia. The Swedish population is estimated to be 1200–1500 individuals, spread all over the country, but more common in middle Sweden
Sweden
and in the mountain range. The lynx population in Finland
Finland
was 1900–2100 individuals in 2008, and the numbers have been increasing every year since 1992. The lynx population in Finland
Finland
is estimated currently to be larger than ever before.[33] Lynx
Lynx
in Britain were wiped out in the 17th century, but there have been calls to reintroduce them to curb the numbers of deer.[34] The critically endangered Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
lives in southern Spain
Spain
and formerly in eastern Portugal. There is an Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
reproduction center outside Silves in the Algarve
Algarve
in southern Portugal. North America The two Lynx
Lynx
species in North America, Canada lynx
Canada lynx
and bobcats, are both found in the temperate zone. While the bobcat is common throughout southern Canada, the continental United States and northern Mexico, the Canada lynx
Canada lynx
is present mainly in boreal forests of Canada and Alaska.[26] National animal The lynx is considered a national animal in the Republic of Macedonia[35][36] and is displayed on the reverse of the 5 denar coin.[37] It is also the national animal of Romania.[38] See also

Lynx
Lynx
(constellation) Lynx
Lynx
(mythology) Wildcat, a small predator native to Europe, the western part of Asia, and Africa

References

^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species
Species
of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 541–542. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ a b "Definition of lynx from Oxford Dictionary". Oxford Dictionary. Retrieved October 5, 2010.  ^ "lynx — Definition from Longman English Dictionary Online". Longman Dictionary. Retrieved October 5, 2010.  ^ a b "Lynx". Retrieved October 5, 2010.  ^ Jackson, Peter (24 April 1997). "Eurasian lynx". lynx.uio.no. Archived from the original on 27 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-28.  ^ " Canada
Canada
Lynx
Lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
canadensis)". Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 2009-07-09. Retrieved 2011-05-29. [permanent dead link] ^ a b " Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
pardinus)". Cat
Cat
Specialist Group Species Accounts. IUCN
IUCN
– The World Conservation Union. 1996. Archived from the original (Page navigation contains an imagemap) on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2011-05-29.  ^ " Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
Lynx
Lynx
pardinus". Species
Species
Data Sheets. United Nations Environment Programme – World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 2004. Archived from the original on 2008-05-10.  ^ Johnson, Christopher (2011). " Lynx pardinus
Lynx pardinus
– Spanish lynx". Animal
Animal
Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 2011-05-29.  ^ a b Sparano, Vin T. (September 1998). Complete Outdoors Encyclopedia. St. Martin's Press. p. 228. ISBN 0-312-19190-1.  ^ a b Cahalane, Victor H (2005-03-01). Meeting the Mammals. Kessinger Publishing. p. 64. ISBN 1-4179-9522-X.  ^ a b Sunquist, Mel; Sunquist, Fiona (2002). Wild cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 153. ISBN 0-226-77999-8.  ^ BBC Nature: Eurasian Lynx. BBC. 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-03.  ^ a b " Canada
Canada
lynx, American lynx". Science & Nature: Animals – Wildfacts. BBC. 2008-07-25. Retrieved 2011-05-29.  ^ " Canada
Canada
Lynx". Science & Nature: Animals – Wildfacts. National Wildlife Federation. Retrieved 2013-03-01.  ^ • Banda, P. Solomon (September 18, 2010). " Lynx
Lynx
reintroduction ruled a success in Colorado". The Denver Post. Associated Press. Retrieved September 18, 2010.  • "Colorado: Lynx
Lynx
No Longer Missing". New York Times. Associated Press. 2010-09-17. p. A13. Retrieved 2011-05-29.  ^ "DOW Declares Colorado
Colorado
Lynx
Lynx
Reintroduction Program a Success" (Press release). Colorado
Colorado
Division of Wildlife. September 17, 2010. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2010.  ^ "Success of the Lynx
Lynx
Reintroduction Program". Colorado
Colorado
Division of Wildlife. Sep 7, 2010. Archived from the original on August 27, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2010.  ^ "§ 17.40 Special
Special
rules—mammals" (PDF). 65 Federal Register 16051 16086. National Archives and Records Administration. 2000-03-24. p. 35. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2011-05-30.  ^ Ward, Dan (2008-12-12). "LynxBrief" (PDF). IberiaNature. Retrieved 2011-05-30.  ^ Gonçalves, Eduardo (2002-04-21). "Captured cubs hold future of Europe's tiger". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-11-14.  ^ Kurtén, Björn (1968). Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Mammals of Europe.  ^ a b c First captive-bred birth of Iberian lynx, World Wide Fund for Nature (March 30, 2005). ^ a b c Species
Species
Profiles: Mammals: Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
World Wide Fund for Nature (accessed March 21, 2015). ^ Two Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
cubs born in Spanish reintroduction program, Reuters (Apr 29, 2015). ^ a b Zielinski, William J.; Kucera, Thomas E. (1998). American Marten, Fisher, Lynx, and Wolverine: Survey Methods for Their Detection. USA: Diane Publishing. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-7881-3628-3.  ^ Hamilton, William J.; Whitaker, John O. (1998). Mammals of the Eastern United States. Cornell University Press. pp. 493–496. ISBN 0-8014-3475-0.  ^ "Deletion of Bobcat
Bobcat
( Lynx
Lynx
rufus) from Appendix II" (PDF). Thirteenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Proposal 5. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
Species
of Wild Fauna and Flora. October 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-02. Retrieved 2007-05-31.  ^ Fedriani, J. M., T. K. Fuller, R. M. Sauvajot and E. C. York. 2000. Competition and intraguild predation among three sympatric carnivores. Oecologia, 125:258–270. ^ " Iran
Iran
Environmental and Wild life Watch" http://www.iew.ir/1392/10/21/20008 ^ Hasegawa Y., Kaneko H., Tachibana M., Tanaka G. (2011). "日本における後期更新世~前期完新世産のオオヤマネコLynxについて" [A study of the extinct Japanese Lynx
Lynx
from the Late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
to the Early Holocene] (PDF). Bulletin of Gunma Museum of Natural History (in Japanese with English summary). 15: 43–80. ISSN 1342-4092. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ "Status and conservation of the Eurasian Lynx
Lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
lynx) in Europe in 2001" (PDF [17.09 Mb]). Coordinated research projects for the conservation and management of carnivores in Switzerland
Switzerland
(KORA). Retrieved 2014-01-08.  ^ "Ilves" (in Finnish). Finland: Riista- ja kalatalouden tutkimuslaitos. 2010-10-14. Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2011-05-30.  ^ Moore, Matthew (2009-02-13). " Lynx
Lynx
'should be reintroduced to Britain to cull deer'". London: Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-11-14.  ^ Testorides, Konstantin (2006-11-04). "Macedonia Wildcats Fight for Survival". Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 2011-05-30.  ^ Mironski, Jasmina (2009-02-25). "On the trail of the Balkan Lynx". Eathimerini. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 2013-07-30. Retrieved 2011-05-30. The lynx is one of the most endangered wild species and is considered as a national symbol of the country  ^ "National Bank of Macedonia – Coins in circulation". Nbrm.mk. 2008-11-15. Retrieved 18 January 2018.  ^ "Animalul national – Rasul – Sapte simboluri nationale ale Romaniei mai putin cunoscute". 9AM. 

External links

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Lynx

Media related to Lynx
Lynx
at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q677014 ADW: Lynx EoL: 18767 EPPO: 1LYNXG Fauna Europaea: 305365 Fossilworks: 41058 GBIF: 2435239 ITIS: 180581 MSW: 14

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