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Lviv

Львів
Ukrainian transcription(s)
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Латинський кафедральний собор (Львів) 16.jpg
Львівський національний академічний театр опери та балету імені Соломії Крушельницької 13.jpg
LvivOldTown1.jpg
Кропивницького пл., 1, церква св. Ольги і Єлизавети, 9109-HDR-Edit.jpg
Лвов Галиција.jpgUkrainian: Львів [lʲʋiu̯] (About this soundlisten); Old East Slavic: Львігород; Polish: Lwów [lvuf] (About this soundlisten); Yiddish: לעמבערג‎‎, romanizedLemberg; Russian: Львов, romanizedLvov [lʲvof]; German: Lemberg; Latin: Leopolis; Hungarian: Ilyvó; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of 724,314 (2020 est.)[1]. Lviv is one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine.

Named in honour of Leo, the eldest son of Daniel, King of Ruthenia, it was the capital of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia[2] from 1272 to 1349, when it was conquered by King Casimir III the Great of Poland. From 1434, it was the regional capital of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland. In 1772, after the First Partition of Poland, the city became the capital of the Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. In 1918, for a short time, it was the capital of the West Ukrainian People's Republic. Between the wars, the city was the centre of the Lwów Voivodeship in the Second Polish Republic.

After the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, Lviv became part of the Soviet Union, and in 1944–46 there was a population exchange between Poland and Soviet Ukraine. In 1991, it became part of the independent nation of Ukraine.

Administratively, Lviv serves as the administrative centre of Lviv Oblast and has the status of city of oblast significance.

Lviv was the centre of the historical regions of Red Ruthenia and Galicia. The historical heart of the city, with its old buildings and cobblestone streets, survived Soviet and German occupations during World War II largely unscathed. The city has many industries and institutions of higher education such as Lviv University and Lviv Polytechnic. Lviv is also the home of many cultural institutions, including a philharmonic orchestra and the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet. The historic city centre is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Names

Besides its Ukrainian name, and its ancient Ukrainian name of Lwihorod[3]/Lvihorod[4] the city is also known by several other names in different languages: Polish: Lwów; German: Lemberg, Yiddish: לעמבערג‎, Lemberg, or לעמבעריק, Lèmberik; Russian: Львов, Lvov; Hungarian: Ilyvó; Serbo-Croatian: Lavov; Romanian: Liov; Latin: Leopolis (meaning "lion city", from Ancient Greek, Λέων Πόλις Leon Polis); Crimean Tatar: İlbav; Middle Armenian: Իլով, Ilov; Armeno-Kipchak Իլօվ, Ilôv; see also other names.

Geography

Lviv satellite view (Sentinel-2,
14 August 2017)

Lviv is located on the edge of the Roztochia Upland, approximately 70 kilometres (43 miles) from the Polish border and 160 kilometres (99 miles) from the eastern Carpathian Mountains. The average altitude of Lviv is 296 metres (971 feet) above sea level. Its highest point is the Vysokyi Zamok (High Castle), 409 meters (1342 feet) above sea level. This castle has a commanding view of the historic city centre with its distinctive green-domed churches and intricate architecture.

The old walled city was at the foothills of the High Castle on the banks of the River Poltva. In the 13th century, the river was used to transport goods. In the early 20th century, the Poltva was covered over in areas where it flows through the city; the river flows directly beneath the central street of Lviv, Freedom Avenue (Prospect Svobody) and the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet.

Climate

Lviv's climate is humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with cold winters and mild summers.[5] The average temperatures are 0 °C (32 °F) in January and 23 °C (73 °F) in July.[6] The average annual rainfall is 745 mm (29 in) with the maximum being in summer.[6] Mean sunshine duration per year at Lviv is about 1,804 hours.[7]

Climate data for Lviv (1981–2010, extremes 1936–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.8
(56.8)
17.7
(63.9)
22.4
(72.3)
28.9
(84.0)
32.2
(90.0)
33.4
(92.1)
36.3
(97.3)
35.6
(96.1)
34.5
(94.1)
25.6
(78.1)
21.6
(70.9)
16.5
(61.7)
36.3
(97.3)
Average high °C (°F) −0.1
(31.8)
1.3
(34.3)
6.3
(43.3)
13.6
(56.5)
19.4
(66.9)
22.0
(71.6)
23.9
(75.0)
23.5
(74.3)
18.3
(64.9)
12.9
(55.2)
6.0
(42.8)
0.9
(33.6)
12.3
(54.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.1
(26.4)
−2.2
(28.0)
2.0
(35.6)
8.3
(46.9)
13.7
(56.7)
16.4
(61.5)
18.3
(64.9)
17.6
(63.7)
13.0
(55.4)
8.1
(46.6)
2.6
(36.7)
−1.8
(28.8)
7.7
(45.9)
Average low °C (°F) −6.1
(21.0)
−5.5
(22.1)
−1.7
(28.9)
3.6
(38.5)
8.4
(47.1)
11.3
(52.3)
13.2
(55.8)
12.5
(54.5)
8.4
(47.1)
4.1
(39.4)
−0.3
(31.5)
−4.6
(23.7)
3.6
(38.5)
Record low °C (°F) −28.5
(−19.3)
−29.5
(−21.1)
−25.0
(−13.0)
−12.1
(10.2)
−5.0
(23.0)
0.5
(32.9)
4.5
(40.1)
2.6
(36.7)
−3.0
(26.6)
−13.2
(8.2)
−17.6
(0.3)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−29.5
(−21.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40
(1.6)
44
(1.7)
45
(1.8)
53
(2.1)
89
(3.5)
89
(3.5)
96
(3.8)
76
(3.0)
67
(2.6)
51
(2.0)
48
(1.9)
48
(1.9)
746
(29.4)
Average rainy days 9 9 11 14 16 17 16 14 14 14 13 11 158
Average snowy days 17 17 11 3 0.1 0 0 0 Leo, the eldest son of Daniel, King of Ruthenia, it was the capital of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia[2] from 1272 to 1349, when it was conquered by King Casimir III the Great of Poland. From 1434, it was the regional capital of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland. In 1772, after the First Partition of Poland, the city became the capital of the Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. In 1918, for a short time, it was the capital of the West Ukrainian People's Republic. Between the wars, the city was the centre of the Lwów Voivodeship in the Second Polish Republic.

After the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, Lviv became part of the Soviet Union, and in 1944–46 there was a population exchange between Poland and Soviet Ukraine. In 1991, it became part of the independent nation of Ukraine.

Administratively, Lviv serves as the administrative centre of Lviv Oblast and has the status of city of oblast significance.

Lviv was the centre of the historical regions of Red Ruthenia and Galicia. The historical heart of the city, with its old buildings and cobblestone streets, survived Soviet and German occupations during World War II largely unscathed. The city has many industries and institutions of higher education such as Lviv University and Lviv Polytechnic. Lviv is also the home of many cultural institutions, including a philharmonic orchestra and the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet. The historic city centre is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Besides its Ukrainian name, and its ancient Ukrainian name of Lwihorod[3]/Lvihorod[4] the city is also known by several other names in different languages: Polish: Lwów; German: Lemberg, Yiddish: לעמבערג‎, Lemberg, or לעמבעריק, Lèmberik; Russian: Львов, Lvov; Hungarian: Ilyvó; Serbo-Croatian: Lavov; Romanian: Liov; Latin: Leopolis (meaning "lion city", from Ancient Greek, Λέων Πόλις Leon Polis); Crimean Tatar: İlbav; Middle Armenian: Իլով, Ilov; Armeno-Kipchak Իլօվ, Ilôv; see also other names.

Geography

Lviv satellite view (Sentinel-2,
14 August 2017)

Lviv is located on the edge of the Roztochia Upland, approximately 70 kilometres (43 miles) from the Polish border and 160 kilometres (99 miles) from the eastern Carpathian Mountains. The average altitude of Lviv is 296 metres (971 feet) above sea level. Its highest point is the Vysokyi Zamok (High Castle), 409 meters (1342 feet) above sea level. This castle has a commanding view of the historic city centre with its distinctive green-domed churches and intricate architecture.

The old walled city was at the foothills of the High Castle on the banks of the River Poltva. In the 13th century, the river was used to transport goods. In the early 20th century, the Poltva was covered over in areas where it flows through the city; the river flows directly beneath the central street of Lviv, Freedom Avenue (Prospect Svobody) and the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet.

Climate

Lviv's climate is humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with cold winters and mild summers.[5] The average temperatures are 0 °C (32 °F) in January and 23 °C (73 °F) in July.[6] The average annual rainfall is 745 mm (29 in) with the maximum being in summer.[6] Mean sunshine duration per year at Lviv is about 1,804 hours.[7]

Climate data for Lviv (1981–2010, extremes 1936–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.8
(56.8)
17.7
(63.9)
22.4
(72.3)
28.9
(84.0)
32.2
(90.0)
33.4
(92.1)
36.3
(97.3)
35.6
(96.1)
34.5
(94.1)
25.6
(78.1)
21.6
(70.9)
16.5
(61.7)
36.3
(97.3)
Average high °C (°F) −0.1
(31.8)
1.3
(34.3)
6.3
(43.3)
13.6
(56.5)
19.4
(66.9)
22.0
(71.6)
23.9
(75.0)
23.5
(74.3)
18.3
(64.9)
12.9
(55.2)
6.0
(42.8)
0.9
(33.6)
12.3
(54.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.1
(26.4)
−2.2
(28.0)
2.0
(35.6)
8.3
(46.9)
13.7
(56.7)
16.4
(61.5)
18.3
(64.9)
17.6
(63.7)
13.0
(55.4)
8.1
(46.6)
2.6
(36.7)
−1.8
(28.8)
7.7
(45.9)
Average low °C (°F) −6.1
(21.0)
−5.5
(22.1)
−1.7
(28.9)
3.6
(38.5)
8.4
(47.1)
11.3
(52.3)
13.2
(55.8)
12.5
(54.5)
8.4
(47.1)
4.1
(39.4)
−0.3
(31.5)
−4.6
(23.7)
3.6
(38.5)
Record low °C (°

Lviv is located on the edge of the Roztochia Upland, approximately 70 kilometres (43 miles) from the Polish border and 160 kilometres (99 miles) from the eastern Carpathian Mountains. The average altitude of Lviv is 296 metres (971 feet) above sea level. Its highest point is the Vysokyi Zamok (High Castle), 409 meters (1342 feet) above sea level. This castle has a commanding view of the historic city centre with its distinctive green-domed churches and intricate architecture.

The old walled city was at the foothills of the High Castle on the banks of the River Poltva. In the 13th century, the river was used to transport goods. In the early 20th century, the Poltva was covered over in areas where it flows through the city; the river flows directly beneath the central street of Lviv, Freedom Avenue (Prospect Svobody) and the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet.

Climate

Lviv's climate is humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with cold winters and mild summers.[5] The average temperatures are 0 °C (32 °F) in January and 23 °C (73 °F) in July.walled city was at the foothills of the High Castle on the banks of the River Poltva. In the 13th century, the river was used to transport goods. In the early 20th century, the Poltva was covered over in areas where it flows through the city; the river flows directly beneath the central street of Lviv, Freedom Avenue (Prospect Svobody) and the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet.

Lviv's climate is humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with cold winters and mild summers.[5] The average temperatures are 0 °C (32 °F) in January and 23 °C (73 °F) in July.[6] The average annual rainfall is 745 mm (29 in) with the maximum being in summer.[6] Mean sunshine duration per year at Lviv is about 1,804 hours.[7]

Climate data for Lviv (1981–2010, extremes 1936–present)
Month Jan Archaeologists have demonstrated that the Lviv area was settled by the 5th century.[8] The area between Stilsko and Lviv was settled by White Croats[9][10] and the area between the Castle Hill and the river Poltva was settled by the Lendians (Lędzianie), a West Slavic tribe since the 9th century.[11] The city of Lviv was founded in 1250 by King Daniel of Galicia (1201—1264) in the Principality of Halych of Kingdom of Rus' and named in honour of his son Lev[12] as Lvihorod[13][14][15] which is consistent with name of other Ukrainian cities such as Myrhorod, Sharhorod, Novhorod, Bilhorod, Horodyshche, Horodok and many others.

A 17th century portrait depicting Knyaz Lev of Galicia-Volhynia with the city of Lviv in the background

Earlier there was a settlement in the form of a borough with a characteristic layout element - an elongated market square. The foundation of the stronghold by Daniel was, in fact, its next reconstruction after the Batu Khan invasion of 1240.[16][17]

Lviv was invaded by the Mongols in 1261.[18] Various sources relate the events which range from destruction of the castle through to a complete razing of the town. All the sources agree that it was on the orders of the Mongol general Burundai. The Shevchenko Scientific Society (Naukove tovarystvo im. Shevchenka) informs that the order to raze the city was reduced by Burundai. The Galician-Volhynian chronicle states that in 1261 "Said Buronda to Vasylko: 'Since you are at peace with me then raze all your castles'".[19] Basil Dmytryshyn states that the order was implied to be the fortifications as a whole "If you wish to have peace with me, then destroy [all fortifications of] your towns".[20] According to the Universal-Lexicon der Gegenwart und Vergangenheit the town's founder was ordered to destroy the town himself.[21]

After King Daniel's death, King Lev rebuilt the town around the year 1270 at its present location, choosing Lviv as his residence,[18] and made Lviv the capital of Galicia-Volhynia.[22] The city is first mentioned in the Halych-Volhynian Chronicle regarding the events that were dated 1256. The town grew quickly due to an influx of Polish people from Kraków, Poland, after they had suffered a widespread famine there.[21] Around 1280 Armenians lived in Galicia and were mainly based in Lviv where they had their own Archbishop.[23] In the 13th and early 14th centuries, Lviv was largely a wooden city, except for its several stone churches. Some of them, like the Church of Saint Nicholas, have survived to this day, although in a thoroughly rebuilt form.[24] The town was inherited by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1340 and ruled by voivode Dmytro Dedko, the favourite of the Lithuanian prince Lubart, until 1349.[25]

Of note, the region and the region adjacent to Lviv, Leopold, Poland, was a destination of 50,000 Armenian fleeing from the Saljuq and Mongol invasions of Armenia. Citation http://www.armenica.org/cgi-bin/armenica.cgi?=1=1=172=31==1=3=A

Galicia–Volhynia Wars

During the wars over the succession of Galicia-Volhynia Principality in 1339 King Casimir III of Poland undertook an expedition and conquered Lviv in 1340, burning down the old princely castle.[18] Poland ultimately gained control over Lviv and the adjacent region in 1349. From then on the population was subjected to attempts to both Polonize and Catholicize the population.[26] The Lithuanians ravaged Lviv land in 1351 during the Halych-Volhyn Wars[27] with Lviv being plundered and destroyed by prince Liubartas in 1353.[28][29] Casimir built a new city center (or founded a new town) in a basin, surrounded it by walls, and replaced the wooden palace by masonry castle – one of the two built by him.[18][30][31] The old (Ruthenian) settlement, after it had been rebuilt, became known as the Krakovian Suburb.[30]

In 1356 Casimir brought in more Germans and within seven years granted the Magdeburg rights which implied that all city matters were to be resolved by a council elected by the wealthy citizens. The city council seal of the 14th century stated: S(igillum): Civitatis Lembvrgensis. In 1358 the city became a seat of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lviv, which initiated the spread of Latin Church onto the Ruthenian lands.

After Casimir had died in 1370, he was succeeded as king of Poland by his nephew, King Louis I of Hungary, who in 1372 put Lviv together with the region of Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia under the administration of his relative Vladislaus II of Opole, Duke of Opole.[18] When in 1387 Władysław retreated from the post of its governor, Galicia-Volhynia became occupied by the Hungarians, but soon Jadwiga, the youngest daughter of Louis, but also the ruler of Poland and wife of King of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło, unified it directly with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.[18]

Kingdom of Poland

Lviv High Castle, fragment of engraving by A. Gogenberg, 17th century

In 1349, the Earlier there was a settlement in the form of a borough with a characteristic layout element - an elongated market square. The foundation of the stronghold by Daniel was, in fact, its next reconstruction after the Batu Khan invasion of 1240.[16][17]

Lviv was invaded by the Mongols in 1261.[18] Various sources relate the events which range from destruction of the castle through to a complete razing of the town. All the sources agree that it was on the orders of the Mongol general Burundai. The Shevchenko Scientific Society (Naukove tovarystvo im. Shevchenka) informs that the order to raze the city was reduced by Burundai. The Galician-Volhynian chronicle states that in 1261 "Said Buronda to Vasylko: 'Since you are at peace with me then raze all your castles'".[19]

Lviv was invaded by the Mongols in 1261.[18] Various sources relate the events which range from destruction of the castle through to a complete razing of the town. All the sources agree that it was on the orders of the Mongol general Burundai. The Shevchenko Scientific Society (Naukove tovarystvo im. Shevchenka) informs that the order to raze the city was reduced by Burundai. The Galician-Volhynian chronicle states that in 1261 "Said Buronda to Vasylko: 'Since you are at peace with me then raze all your castles'".[19] Basil Dmytryshyn states that the order was implied to be the fortifications as a whole "If you wish to have peace with me, then destroy [all fortifications of] your towns".[20] According to the Universal-Lexicon der Gegenwart und Vergangenheit the town's founder was ordered to destroy the town himself.[21]

After King Daniel's death, King Lev rebuilt the town around the year 1270 at its present location, choosing Lviv as his residence,[18] and made Lviv the capital of Galicia-Volhynia.[22] The city is first mentioned in the Halych-Volhynian Chronicle regarding the events that were dated 1256. The town grew quickly due to an influx of Polish people from Kraków, Poland, after they had suffered a widespread famine there.[21] Around 1280 Armenians lived in Galicia and were mainly based in Lviv where they had their own Archbishop.[23] In the 13th and early 14th centuries, Lviv was largely a wooden city, except for its several stone churches. Some of them, like the Church of Saint Nicholas, have survived to this day, although in a thoroughly rebuilt form.[24] The town was inherited by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1340 and ruled by voivode Dmytro Dedko, the favourite of the Lithuanian prince Lubart, until 1349.[25]

Of note, the region and the region adjacent to Lviv, Leopold, Poland, was a destination of 50,000 Armenian fleeing from the Saljuq and Mongol invasions of Armenia. Citation http://www.armenica.org/cgi-bin/armenica.cgi?=1=1=172=31==1=3=A

During the wars over the succession of Galicia-Volhynia Principality in 1339 King Casimir III of Poland undertook an expedition and conquered Lviv in 1340, burning down the old princely castle.[18] Poland ultimately gained control over Lviv and the adjacent region in 1349. From then on the population was subjected to attempts to both Polonize and Catholicize the population.[26] The Lithuanians ravaged Lviv land in 1351 during the Halych-Volhyn Wars[27] with Lviv being plundered and destroyed by prince Liubartas in 1353.[28][29] Casimir built a new city center (or founded a new town) in a basin, surrounded it by walls, and replaced the wooden palace by masonry castle – one of the two built by him.[18][30][31] The old (Ruthenian) settlement, after it had been rebuilt, became known as the Krakovian Suburb.[30]

In 1356 Casimir brought in more Germans and within seven years granted the Magdeburg rights which implied that all city matters were to be resolved by a council elected by the wealthy citizens. The city council seal of the 14th century stated: S(igillum): Civitatis

In 1356 Casimir brought in more Germans and within seven years granted the Magdeburg rights which implied that all city matters were to be resolved by a council elected by the wealthy citizens. The city council seal of the 14th century stated: S(igillum): Civitatis Lembvrgensis. In 1358 the city became a seat of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lviv, which initiated the spread of Latin Church onto the Ruthenian lands.

After Casimir had died in 1370, he was succeeded as king of Poland by his nephew, King Louis I of Hungary, who in 1372 put Lviv together with the region of Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia under the administration of his relative Vladislaus II of Opole, Duke of Opole.[18] When in 1387 Władysław retreated from the post of its governor, Galicia-Volhynia became occupied by the Hungarians, but soon Jadwiga, the youngest daughter of Louis, but also the ruler of Poland and wife of King of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło, unified it directly with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.[18]

In 1349, the Kingdom of Ruthenia with its capital Lviv was annexed by the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. The kingdom was transformed into the Ruthenian domain of the Crown with Lwów as the capital. On 17 June 1356 King Casimir III the Great granted it Magdeburg rights. In 1362, the High Castle was completely rebuilt with stone replacing the previous made out of wood. The city's prosperity during the following centuries is owed to the trade privileges granted to it by Casimir, Queen Jadwiga and the subsequent Polish monarchs.[18] Germans, Poles and Czechs formed the largest groups of newcomers. Most of the settlers were polonised by the end of the 15th century, and the city became a Polish island surrounded by Orthodox Ruthenian population.[32]

In 1412, the local archdiocese has developed into the In 1412, the local archdiocese has developed into the Roman Catholic Metropolis, which since 1375 as diocese had been in Halych.[18] The new metropolis included regional diocese in Lwow (Lviv), Przemysl, Chelm, Wlodzimierz, Luck, Kamieniec, as well as Siret and Kijow (see Old Cathedral of St. Sophia, Kyiv). First Catholic Archbishop who resided in Lviv was Jan Rzeszowski.

In 1434, the Ruthenian domain of the Crown was transformed into the Ruthenian Voivodeship. In 1444, the city was granted the staple right, which resulted in its growing prosperity and wealth, as it became one of the major trading centres on the merchant routes between Central Europe and Black Sea region. It was also transformed into one of the main fortresses of the kingdom, and was a royal city, like Kraków or Gdańsk. During the 17th century, Lwów was the second largest city of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, with a population of about 30,000.

In 1572, one of the first publishers of books in what is now Ukraine, Ivan Fedorov, a graduate of the Ruthenian Voivodeship. In 1444, the city was granted the staple right, which resulted in its growing prosperity and wealth, as it became one of the major trading centres on the merchant routes between Central Europe and Black Sea region. It was also transformed into one of the main fortresses of the kingdom, and was a royal city, like Kraków or Gdańsk. During the 17th century, Lwów was the second largest city of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, with a population of about 30,000.

In 1572, one of the first publishers of books in what is now Ukraine, Ivan Fedorov, a graduate of the University of Kraków, settled here for a brief period. The city became a significant centre for Eastern Orthodoxy with the establishment of an Orthodox brotherhood, a Greek-Slavonic school and a printer which published the first full versions of the Bible in Church Slavonic in 1580. A Jesuit Collegium was founded in 1608, and on 20 January 1661 King John II Casimir of Poland issued a decree granting it "the honour of the academy and the title of the university".[33]

The 17th century brought invading armies of Swedes, Hungarians,[34][35] Turks,[36][37] Russians and Cossacks[35] to its gates. In 1648 an army of Cossacks and Crimean Tatars besieged the town. They captured the High Castle, murdering its defenders, but the city itself was not sacked due to the fact that the leader of the revolution Bohdan Khmelnytsky accepted a ransom of 250,000 ducats, and the Cossacks marched north-west towards Zamość. It was one of two major cities in Poland which was not captured during the so-called Deluge: the other one was Gdańsk (Danzig). At that time, Lwów witnessed a historic scene, as here King John II Casimir made his famous Lwów Oath. On 1 April 1656, during a holy mass in Lwów's Cathedral, conducted by the papal legate Pietro Vidoni, John Casimir in a grandiose and elaborate ceremony entrusted the Commonwealth under the Blessed Virgin Mary's protection, whom he announced as The Queen of the Polish Crown and other of his countries. He also swore to protect the Kingdom's folk from any impositions and unjust bondage.

Two years later, John Casimir, in honour of the bravery of its residents, declared Lwów to be equal to two historic capitals of the Commonwealth, Kraków and Wilno. In the same year, 1658, Pope Alexander VII declared the city to be Semper fidelis, in recognition of its key role in defending Europe and Roman-Catholicism from Muslim invasion.

In 1672 it was surrounded by the Ottomans who also failed to conquer it. Three years later, the Battle of Lwów (1675) took place near the city. Lwów was captured for the first time since the Middle Ages by a foreign army in 1704 when Swedish troops under King Charles XII entered the city after a short siege. The plague of the early 18th century caused the death of about 10,000 inhabitants (40% of the city's population).[38]

In 1772, following the First Partition of Poland, the region was annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy to the Austrian Partition. Known in German as Lemberg, the city became the capital of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. Lemberg grew dramatically during the 19th century, increasing in population from approximately 30,000 at the time of the Austrian annexation in 1772,[39] to 196,000 by 1910[40] and to 212,000 three years later;[41] while the poverty in Austrian Galicia was raging.[42] In the late 18th and early 19th centuries a large influx of Austrians and German-speaking Czech bureaucrats gave the city a character that by the 1840s were quite Austrian, in its orderliness and in the appearance and popularity of Austrian coffeehouses.[43]

In 1773, the first newspaper in Lemberg, Gazette de Leopoli, began to be published. In 1784, a latin language university was opened with lectures in German, Polish and even Ruthenian; after closing again in 1805, it was reopened

In 1773, the first newspaper in Lemberg, Gazette de Leopoli, began to be published. In 1784, a latin language university was opened with lectures in German, Polish and even Ruthenian; after closing again in 1805, it was reopened in 1817. By 1825 German became the sole language of instruction.[43]

During the 19th century, the Austrian administration attempted to Germanise the city's educational and governmental institutions. Many cultural organisations which did not have a pro-German orientation were closed. After the revolutions of 1848, the language of instruction at the university shifted from German to include Ukrainian and Polish. Around that time, a certain sociolect developed in the city known as the Lwów dialect. Considered to be a type of Polish dialect, it draws its roots from numerous other languages besides Polish. In 1853, kerosene lamps as street lighting were introduced by Ignacy Łukasiewicz and Jan Zeh. Then in 1858, these were updated to gas lamps, and in 1900 to electric ones.

After the so-called "Ausgleich" of February 1867, the Austrian Empire was reformed into a dualist Austria-Hungary and a slow yet steady process of liberalisation of Austrian rule in Galicia started. From 1873, Galicia was de facto an autonomous province of Austria-Hungary with Polish and Ruthenian, as official languages. Germanisation was halted and the censorship lifted as well. Galicia was subject to the Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy, but the After the so-called "Ausgleich" of February 1867, the Austrian Empire was reformed into a dualist Austria-Hungary and a slow yet steady process of liberalisation of Austrian rule in Galicia started. From 1873, Galicia was de facto an autonomous province of Austria-Hungary with Polish and Ruthenian, as official languages. Germanisation was halted and the censorship lifted as well. Galicia was subject to the Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy, but the Galician Sejm and provincial administration, both established in Lviv, had extensive privileges and prerogatives, especially in education, culture, and local affairs. The city started to grow rapidly, becoming the fourth largest in Austria-Hungary, according to the census of 1910. Many Belle Époque public edifices and tenement houses were erected, with many the buildings from the Austrian period, such as the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet, built in the Viennese neo-Renaissance style.

During Habsburg rule, Lviv became one of the most important Polish, Ukrainian and Jewish cultural centres. In Lviv, according to the Austrian census of 1910, which listed religion and language, 51% of the city's population was Roman Catholics, 28% Jews, and 19% belonged to the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. Linguistically, 86% of the city's population used the Polish language and 11% preferred the Ruthenian.[42] At that time, Lviv was home to a number of renowned Polish-language institutions, such as the Ossolineum, with the second-largest collection of Polish books in the world, the Polish Academy of Arts, the National Museum (since 1908), the Historical Museum of the City of Lwów (since 1891), the Polish Copernicus Society of Naturalists, the Polish Historical Society, Lwów University, with Polish as the official language since 1882, the Lwów Scientific Society, the Lwów Art Gallery, the Polish Theatre, and the Polish Archdiocese.

Furthermore, Lviv was the centre of a number of Polish independence organisations. In June 1908, Józef Piłsudski, Władysław Sikorski and Kazimierz Sosnkowski founded here the Union of Active Struggle. Two years later, the paramilitary organisation, called the Riflemen's Association, was also founded in the city by Polish activists.

At the same time, Lviv became the city where famous Ukrainian writers (such as Ivan Franko, Panteleimon Kulish and Józef Piłsudski, Władysław Sikorski and Kazimierz Sosnkowski founded here the Union of Active Struggle. Two years later, the paramilitary organisation, called the Riflemen's Association, was also founded in the city by Polish activists.

At the same time, Lviv became the city where famous Ukrainian writers (such as Ivan Franko, Panteleimon Kulish and Ivan Nechuy-Levytsky) published their work. It was a centre of Ukrainian cultural revival. The city also housed the largest and most influential Ukrainian institutions in the world, including the Prosvita society dedicated to spreading literacy in the Ukrainian language, the Shevchenko Scientific Society, the Dniester Insurance Company and base of the Ukrainian cooperative movement, and it served as the seat of the Ukrainian Catholic Church. Lviv was also a major centre of Jewish culture, in particular as a centre of the Yiddish language, and was the home of the world's first Yiddish-language daily newspaper, the Lemberger Togblat, established in 1904.[44]

In the Battle of Galicia at the early stages of the First World War, Lviv was captured by the Russian army in September 1914 following the Battle of Gnila Lipa. The Lemberg Fortress fell on 3 September. The historian Pál Kelemen provided a first-hand account of the chaotic evacuation of the city by the Austro-Hungarian Army and civilians alike.[45] The town was retaken by Austria–Hungary in June the following year. Lviv and its population, therefore, suffered greatly during the First World War as many of the offensives were fought across its local geography causing significant collateral damage and disruption.

Polish–Ukrainian War

Habsburg Monarchy at the end of the First World War Lviv became an arena of battle between the local Polish population and the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen. Both nations perceived the city as an integral part of their new statehoods which at that time were forming in the former Austrian territories. On the night of 31 October – 1 November 1918 the Western Ukrainian People's Republic was proclaimed with Lviv as its capital. 2,300 Ukrainian soldiers from the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen (Sichovi Striltsi), which had previously been a corps in the Austrian Army, took control over Lviv. The city's Polish majority opposed the Ukrainian declaration and began to fight against the Ukrainian troops.[46] During this combat an important role was taken by young Polish city defenders called Lwów Eaglets.

The Ukrainian forces withdrew outside Lwów's confines by 21 November 1918, after which elements of Polish soldiers began to loot and burn much of the Jewish and Ukrainian quarters of the city, killing approximately 340 civilians (see: Lwów pogrom).[47] The retreating Ukrainian forces besieged the city. The Sich riflemen reformed into the Ukrainian Galician Army (UHA). The Polish forces aided from central Poland, including General Haller's Blue Army, equipped by the French, relieved the besieged city in May 1919 forcing the UHA to the east.

Despite Entente mediation attempts to cease hostilities and reach a compromise between belligerents the Polish–Ukrainian War continued until July 1919 when the last UHA forces withdrew east of the River Zbruch. The border on the River Zbruch was confirmed at the Treaty of Warsaw, when in April 1920 Field Marshal Pilsudski signed an agreement with Symon Petlura where it was agreed that for military support against the Bolsheviks the Ukrainian People's Republic renounced its claims to the territories of Eastern Galicia.

In August 1920 Lviv was attacked by the Red Army under the command of Aleksandr Yegorov and Stalin during the Polish–Soviet War but the city repelled the attack.[48] For the courage of its inhabitants Lviv was awarded the Virtuti Militari cross by Józef Piłsudski on 22 November 1920.

On 23 February 1921, the council of the Lwów pogrom).[47] The retreating Ukrainian forces besieged the city. The Sich riflemen reformed into the Ukrainian Galician Army (UHA). The Polish forces aided from central Poland, including General Haller's Blue Army, equipped by the French, relieved the besieged city in May 1919 forcing the UHA to the east.

Despite Entente mediation attempts to cease hostilities and reach a compromise between belligerents the Polish–Ukrainian War continued until July 1919 when the last UHA forces withdrew east of the River Zbruch. The border on the River Zbruch was confirmed at the Treaty of Warsaw, when in April 1920 Field Marshal Pilsudski signed an agreement with Symon Petlura where it was agreed that for military support against the Bolsheviks the Ukrainian People's Republic renounced its claims to the territories of Eastern Galicia.

In August 1920 Lviv was attacked by the Red Army under the command of Aleksandr Yegorov and Stalin during the Polish–Soviet War but the city repelled the attack.[48] For the courage of its inhabitants Lviv was awarded the Virtuti Militari cross by Józef Piłsudski on 22 November 1920.

On 23 February 1921, the council of the League of Nations declared that Galicia (including the city) lay outside the territory of Poland and that Poland did not have the mandate to establish administrative control in that country, and that Poland was merely the occupying military power of Galicia (as a whole[49]), whose sovereign remained the Allied Powers and fate would be determined by the Council of Ambassadors at the League of Nations.[50] On 14 March 1923, the Council of Ambassadors decided that Galicia would be incorporated into Poland "whereas it is recognised by Poland that ethnographical conditions necessitate an autonomous regime in the Eastern part of Galicia."[51] "This proviso was never honoured by the interwar Polish government."[52] After 1923, Galicia was internationally recognized as part of the Polish state.[49]

During the interwar period, Lwów held the rank of the Second Polish Republic's third most populous city (following Warsaw and Łódź), and it became the seat of the Lwów Voivodeship. Following Warsaw, Lwów was the second most important cultural and academic centre of interwar Poland. For example, in 1920 professor Rudolf Weigl of the Lwów University developed a vaccine against typhus fever. Furthermore, the geographic location of Lwów gave it an important role in stimulating international trade and fostering the city's and Poland's economic development. A major trade fair called Targi Wschodnie was established in 1921. In the academic year 1937–1938, there were 9,100 students attending five institutions of higher education, including the Lwów University as well as the Polytechnic.[54]

While about two-thirds of the city's inhabitants were Poles, some of whom spoke the characteristic Lwów dialect, the eastern part of the Lwów Voivodeship had a relative Ukrainian majority in most of its rural areas. Although Polish authorities obliged themselves internationally to provide Eastern Galicia with an autonomy (including a creation of a separate Ukrainian university in Lwów) and even though in September 1922 adequate Polish Sejm's Bill was enacted,[55] it was not fulfilled. The Polish government discontinued many Ukrainian schools which functioned during the Austrian rule,[56] and closed down Ukrainian departments at the University of Lwów with the exception of one.[57] Prewar Lwów also had a large and thriving Jewish community, which constituted about a quarter of the population.

Unlike in Austrian times, when the size and number of public parades or other cultural expressions corresponded to each cultural group's relative population, the Polish government emphasised the Polish nature of the city and limited public displays of Jewish and Ukrainian culture. Military parades and commemorations of battles at particular streets within the city, all celebrating the Polish forces who fought against the Ukrainians in 1918, became frequent, and in the 1930s a vast memorial monument and burial ground of Polish soldiers from that conflict was built in the city's Lychakiv Cemetery.

While about two-thirds of the city's inhabitants were Poles, some of whom spoke the characteristic Lwów dialect, the eastern part of the Lwów Voivodeship had a relative Ukrainian majority in most of its rural areas. Although Polish authorities obliged themselves internationally to provide Eastern Galicia with an autonomy (including a creation of a separate Ukrainian university in Lwów) and even though in September 1922 adequate Polish Sejm's Bill was enacted,[55] it was not fulfilled. The Polish government discontinued many Ukrainian schools which functioned during the Austrian rule,[56] and closed down Ukrainian departments at the University of Lwów with the exception of one.[57] Prewar Lwów also had a large and thriving Jewish community, which constituted about a quarter of the population.

Unlike in Austrian times, when the size and number of public parades or other cultural expressions corresponded to each cultural group's relative population, the Polish government emphasised the Polish nature of the city and limited public displays of Jewish and Ukrainian culture. Military parades and commemorations of battles at particular streets within the city, all celebrating the Polish forces who fought against the Ukrainians in 1918, became frequent, and in the 1930s a vast memorial monument and burial ground of Polish soldiers from that conflict was built in the city's Lychakiv Cemetery.

Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939 and by 14 September Lviv was completely encircled by German units.[58] Subsequently, the Soviets invaded Poland on 17 September. On 22 September 1939 Lwów capitulated to the Red Army. The USSR annexed the eastern half of the Second Polish Republic with Ukrainian and Belorussian population. The city became the capital of the newly formed Lviv Oblast. The Soviets reopened uni-lingual Ukrainian schools,[59] which were discontinued by the Polish government. The only change over imposed by the Soviets was the language of instruction, with the actual net loss of about 1,000 schools in short order.[60] Ukrainian was made compulsory in the University of Lviv with almost all its books in Polish[citation needed]. It became thoroughly Ukrainized and renamed after Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko. The Polish academics were laid off.[61] Soviet rule turned out to be much more oppressive than Polish rule; the rich world of Ukrainian publications in Polish Lwów, for instance, was gone in Soviet Ukrainian Lviv, and many journalism jobs were lost with it.[62]

German occupation

On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany and several of its allies invaded the USSR. In the initial stage of Operation Barbarossa (30 June 1941)

On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany and several of its allies invaded the USSR. In the initial stage of Operation Barbarossa (30 June 1941) Lviv was taken by the Germans. The evacuating Soviets killed most of the prison population, with arriving Wehrmacht forces easily discovering evidence of the Soviet mass murders in the city[63] committed by the NKVD and NKGB. Ukrainian nationalists, organised as a militia, and the civilian population were allowed to take revenge on the "Jews and the Bolsheviks" and indulged in several mass killings in Lviv and the surrounding region, which resulted in the deaths estimated at between 4,000 and 10,000 Jews. On 30 June 1941 Yaroslav Stetsko proclaimed in Lviv the Government of an independent Ukrainian state allied with Nazi Germany. This was done without preapproval from the Germans and after 15 September 1941 the organisers were arrested.[64][65][66]

Sikorski–Mayski Agreement signed in London on 30 July 1941 between Polish government-in-exile and USSR's government invalidated the September 1939 Soviet-German partition of Poland, as the Soviets declared it null and void.[67] Meanwhile, German-occupied Eastern Galicia at the beginning of August 1941 was incorporated into the General Government as Distrikt Galizien with Lviv as district's capital. German policy towards the Polish population in this area was as harsh as in the rest of the General Government. Germans during the occupation of the city committed numerous atrocities including the killing of Polish university professors in 1941. German Nazis viewed the Ukrainian Galicians, former inhabitants of Austrian Crown Land, as to some point more aryanised and civilised than the Ukrainian population living in the territories belonging to the USSR before 1939. As a result, they escaped the full extent of German acts in comparison to Ukrainians who lived to the east, in the German-occupied Soviet Ukraine turned into the Reichskommissariat Ukraine.[68]

Tango of Death

According to the Third Reich's racia

According to the Third Reich's racial policies, local Jews then became the main target of German repressions in the region. Following German occupation, the Jewish population was concentrated in the Lwów Ghetto established in the city's Zamarstynów (today Zamarstyniv) district, and the Janowska concentration camp was also set up. In the Janowska concentration camp, the Nazis conducted torture and executions to music. The Lviv National Opera members, who were prisoners, played one and the same tune, Tango of Death. On the eve of Lviv’s liberation, German Nazis ordered 40 orchestra musicians to form a circle. The security ringed the musicians tightly and ordered them to play. First, the orchestra conductor, Mund, was executed. Then the commandant ordered the musicians to come to the center of the circle one by one, put their instrument onto the ground and strip naked, after which they were killed by a headshot.[69] A photo of the orchestra players was one of the incriminating documents at the Nuremberg trials.

In 1931 there were 75,316 Yiddish-speaking inhabitants, but by 1941 approximately 100,000 Jews were present in Lviv.[70] The majority of these Jews were either killed within the city or deported to Belzec extermination camp. In the summer of 1943, on the orders of Heinrich Himmler, SS-Standartenführer Paul Blobel was tasked with the destruction of any evidence of Nazi mass murders in the Lviv area. On 15 June Blobel, using forced labourers from Janowska, dug up a number of mass graves a

In 1931 there were 75,316 Yiddish-speaking inhabitants, but by 1941 approximately 100,000 Jews were present in Lviv.[70] The majority of these Jews were either killed within the city or deported to Belzec extermination camp. In the summer of 1943, on the orders of Heinrich Himmler, SS-Standartenführer Paul Blobel was tasked with the destruction of any evidence of Nazi mass murders in the Lviv area. On 15 June Blobel, using forced labourers from Janowska, dug up a number of mass graves and incinerated the remains.[71] Later, on 19 November 1943, inmates at Janowska staged an uprising and attempted a mass escape. A few succeeded, but most were recaptured and killed. The SS staff and their local auxiliaries then, at the time of the Janowska camp's liquidation, murdered at least 6,000 more inmates, as well as the Jews in other forced labour camps in Galicia. By the end of the war, the Jewish population of the city was virtually eliminated, with only around 200 to 800 survivors remaining.[72][73][74]

After the successful Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive of July 1944, the Soviet 3rd Guards Tank Army captured Lviv on 27 July 1944, with a significant cooperation from the local Polish resistance (see: Lwów Uprising). Soon thereafter, the local commanders of Polish Armia Krajowa were invited to a meeting with the commanders of the Red Army. During the meeting, they were arrested, as it turned out to be a trap set by the Soviet NKVD. Later, in the winter and spring of 1945, the local NKVD kept arresting and harassing Poles in Lviv (which according to Soviet sources on 1 October 1944 still had a clear Polish majority of 66.7%) in an attempt to encourage their emigration from the city. Those arrested were released only after they had signed papers in which they agreed to emigrate to Poland, which postwar borders were to be shifted westwards in accordance with the Yalta conference settlements. In Yalta, despite Polish objections, the Allied leaders, Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill decided that Lviv should remain within the borders of the Soviet Union. On 16 August 1945, a border agreement[75] was signed in Moscow between the government of the Soviet Union and the Provisional Government of National Unity installed by the Soviets in Poland. In the treaty, Polish authorities formally ceded the prewar eastern part of the country to the Soviet Union, agreeing to the Polish-Soviet border to be drawn according to the Curzon Line. Consequently, the agreement was ratified on 5 February 1946.

Post-war Soviet Union

In February 1946, Lviv became a part of the Soviet Union. It is estimated that from 100,000 to 140,000 Poles were resettled from the city into the so-called Recovered Territories as a part of postwar population transfers, many of them to the area of newly acquired Wrocław, formerly the German city of Breslau. Many buildings in the old part of the city are examples of Polish architecture, which flourished in Lviv after the opening of the Technical School (later Polytechnic), the first higher-education technical academy on Polish lands. Polytechnic educated generations of architects who were influential in the entire country. Examples are: the main buildings of Lviv Polytechnic, University of Lviv, Lviv Opera, Lviv railway station, former building of Galicyjska Kasa Oszczędności, Potocki Palace.[76] During the interwar period, Lviv was striving to become a modern metropolis, so architects experimented with modernism. It was the period of the most rapid growth of the city, so one can find many examples of architecture from this time in the city.[citation needed] Examples include the main building of Lviv Academy of Commerce, the second Sprecher's building or building of City Electrical Facilities.[citation needed] One monument of the Polish past is the Adam Mickiewicz Monument at the square bearing his name.[citation needed] Many Polish pieces of art and sculpture can be found in Lviv galleries, among them works by Jan Piotr Norblin, Marceleo Bacciarelli, Kazimierz Wojniakowski, Antoni Brodowski, Henryk Rodakowski, Artur Grottger, Jan Matejko, Aleksander Gierymski, Jan Stanisławski, Leon Wyczółkowski, Józef Chełmoński, Józef Mehoffer, Stanisław Wyspiański, Olga Boznańska, Władysław Słowiński, Jacek Malczewski.[citation needed] Poles who stayed in Lviv have formed the organisation the Association of Polish Culture of the Lviv Land.

According to various estimates, Lviv lost between 80% and 90% of its prewar population.[77] Expulsion of the Polish population and the Holocaust together with migration from Ukrainian-speaking surrounding areas (including forcibly resettled from the territories which, after the war, became part of the Polish People's Republic), from other parts of the Soviet Union, altered the ethnic composition of the city. Immigration from Russia and Russian-speaking regions of Eastern Ukraine was encouraged[citation needed]. The prevalence of the Ukrainian-speaking population has led to the fact that under the conditions of Soviet Russification,[citatio

According to various estimates, Lviv lost between 80% and 90% of its prewar population.[77] Expulsion of the Polish population and the Holocaust together with migration from Ukrainian-speaking surrounding areas (including forcibly resettled from the territories which, after the war, became part of the Polish People's Republic), from other parts of the Soviet Union, altered the ethnic composition of the city. Immigration from Russia and Russian-speaking regions of Eastern Ukraine was encouraged[citation needed]. The prevalence of the Ukrainian-speaking population has led to the fact that under the conditions of Soviet Russification,[citation needed] Lviv became a major centre of the dissident movement in Ukraine and played a key role in Ukraine's independence in 1991.

In the 1950s and 1960s, the city expanded both in population and size mostly due to the city's rapidly growing industrial base. Due to the fight of SMERSH with the guerrilla formations of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army the city obtained a nickname with a negative connotation of Banderstadt as the City of Stepan Bandera. The German suffix for city stadt was added instead of the Russian grad to imply alienation. Over the years the residents of the city found this so ridiculous that even people not familiar with Bandera accepted it as a sarcasm in reference to the Soviet perception of western Ukraine. In the period of liberalisation from the Soviet system in the 1980s, the city became the centre of political movements advocating Ukrainian independence from the USSR. By the time of the fall of the Soviet Union the name became a proud mark for the Lviv natives culminating in the creation of a local rock band under the name Khloptsi z Bandershtadtu (Boys from Banderstadt).[78]

Citizens of Lviv strongly supported Viktor Yushchenko during the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election and played a key role in the Orange Revolution. Hundreds of thousands of people would gather in freezing temperatures to demonstrate for the Orange camp. Acts of civil disobedience forced the head of the local police to resign and the local assembly issued a resolution refusing to accept the fraudulent first official results.[79] Lviv remains today one of the main centres of Ukrainian culture and the origin of much of the nation's political class.

In support of the Euromaidan movement, Lviv's executive committee declared itself independent of the rule of President Viktor Yanukovych on 19 February 2014.Euromaidan movement, Lviv's executive committee declared itself independent of the rule of President Viktor Yanukovych on 19 February 2014.[80]

Lviv is divided into six raions (districts), each with its own administrative bodies:

  • Halych district (Галицький район, Halytskyi raion)
  • Zaliznytsia district (Залізничний район, Zaliznychnyi raion), literally "railway neighborhood"
  • Lychakiv district (Личаківський район, Lychakivs'kyi raion)
  • Sykhiv district (Сихівський район, Sykhivs'kyi raion)
  • Franko district (Франківський район<

    Notable suburbs include Vynnyky (місто Винники), Briukhovychi (селище Брюховичі), and Rudne (селище Рудне).

    Demographics

    Lviv residents live 75 years on average, and this age is 7 years longer than the average age in Ukraine and 8 years more than the world average (68 years). In 2010 the average life expectancy was 71 among men and 79.5 years among women.[81] The fertility rates have been steadily increasing between 2001 and 2010; however, the effects of low fertility in the previous years remained noticeable even though the birth rates grew. There is an acute shortage of young people under the age of 25. In 2011, 13.7% of Lviv's population consisted of young people under 15 years and 17.6% of persons aged 60 years and over.[82]

    Historical populations

    Language use throughout 20th century
    Language 1931 1970 1979 1989 Lviv residents live 75 years on average, and this age is 7 years longer than the average age in Ukraine and 8 years more than the world average (68 years). In 2010 the average life expectancy was 71 among men and 79.5 years among women.[81] The fertility rates have been steadily increasing between 2001 and 2010; however, the effects of low fertility in the previous years remained noticeable even though the birth rates grew. There is an acute shortage of young people under the age of 25. In 2011, 13.7% of Lviv's population consisted of young people under 15 years and 17.6% of persons aged 60 years and over.[82]

    Historical populations

    The first known Jews in Lviv date back to the 10th century.[105] The oldest remaining Jewish tombstone dates back to 1348.[105] Apart from the Rabbanite Jews there were many Karaites who had settled in the city after coming from the East and from Byzantium. After Casimir III conquered Lviv in 1349 the Jewish citizens received many privileges equal to that of other citizens of Poland. Lviv had two separate Jewish quarters, one within the city walls and one outside on the outskirts of the city. Each had its separate synagogue, although they shared a cemetery, which was also used by the Crimean Karaite community. Before 1939 there were 97 synagogues.

    Before the Holocaust about one-third of the city's population was made up of Jews (more than 140,000 on the eve of World War II). This number swelled to about 240,000 by the end of 1940 as tens of thousands of Jews fled from the Nazi-occupied parts of Poland into the relative (and temporary) sanctuary of Soviet-occupied Poland (including Lviv) following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact that divided Poland into Nazi and Soviet zones in 1939. Almost all these Jews were killed in the Holocaust. Meanwhile, the Nazis also destroyed the Jewish cemetery, which was subsequently "paved over by the Soviets".[105]

    After the war, a new Jewish population was formed from among the hundreds of thousands of Russians and Ukrainians that migrated to the city. The post-war Jewish population peaked at 30,000 in the 1970s. Currently, the Jewish population has shrunk considerably as a result of emigration (mainly to Israel and the United States) and, to a lesser degree, assimilation, and is estimated at 1,100. A number of organisations continue to be active.

    The Sholem Aleichem Jewish Culture Society in Lviv initiated the construction of a monument to the victims of the ghetto in 1988. On 23 August 1992, the memorial complex to the victims of the Lwów ghetto (1941–1943) was officially opened.[106] During 2011–2012, some anti-Semitic acts against the memorial took place. On 20 March 2011, it was reported that the slogan "death to the Jews" with a swastika was sprayed on the monument.[107] On 21 March 2012, the memorial was vandalized by unknown individuals, in what seemed to be an anti-Semitic act.[108]

    Economy

    E19101 electric bus – product of the Electron

    Lviv is the most important business centre of Western Ukraine. As of 1 January 2011 the city has invested 837.1 million US dollars into the economy, accounting for almost two-thirds of total investment in the Lviv region. In 2015, the companies of Lviv received $14.3 million of foreign direct investment; which is however two times less than a year earlier ($30.9 million in 2014).[109] During January-September 2017 the general amount of direct foreign investment received by the local government in Lviv is $52.4 million. According to the statistics administration, foreign capital was invested by 31 countries (some of the main investors: Poland – 47.7%; Australia - 11.3%; Cyprus — 10.7% and the Netherlands — 6%).[110]

    The total revenue of the city budget of Lviv for 2015 is set at about UAH 3.81 billion, which is 23% more than a year earlier (UAH 2.91 billion in 2014).[111] As of 10 November 2017, the deputies of the Lviv City Council approved a budget in amount of UAH 5.4 billion ($204 million). The large part of which (UAH 5.12 billion) was the revenue of the fund of the Lviv.[112][113]

    The average wage in Lviv in 2015 in the business sector amounted to 7,041 UAH, in the budget sphere - 4,175 UAH.[114] On 1 February 2014, registered unemployment was 0.6%.[115] Lviv is one of the largest cities in Ukraine and is growing rapidly. According to the Ministry of Economy of Ukraine the monthly average salary in the Lviv is a little less than the average for Ukraine which in February 2013 was 2765 UAH ($345). According to the World Bank classification Lviv is a middle-income city. In June 2019, the average wage was amounted to 9,900 UAH ($396), which is in 18,9% more than in a previous year.[116][117]

    One of the new apartment complexes in Lviv

    Lviv has 218 large industrial enterprises, more than 40 commercial banks, 4 exchanges, 13 investment companies, 80 insurance and 24 leasing companies, 77 audit firms and almost 9,000 small ventures.[118] For many years machinery-building and electronics were leading industries in Lviv. The city-based public company Electron, trademark of national TV sets manufacturing, produces the 32 and 37 inches liquid-crystal TV-sets. The «Electrontrans» specializes in design and production of modern electric transport including trams, trolleybuses, electric buses, and spare parts. In 2013 Elektrotrans JV started producing low-floor trams, the first Ukrainian 100% low-floor tramways.[119] LAZ is a bus manufacturing company in Lviv with its own rich history. Founded in 1945, LAZ started bus production in the early 1950s. Innovative design ideas of Lviv engineers have become the world standard in bus manufacturing.[citation needed]

    The total volume of industrial production sold in 2015 amounted to UAH 24.2 billion, which is 39% more than a year earlier (UAH 14.6 billion in 2014).[120][121]

    There are several banks based in Lviv, such as Kredobank, Idea Bank, VS Bank, Oksi Bank and Lviv Bank. None of these banks have bankrupted during the political and economic crisis of 2014-2016. It can be explained by the presence of the foreign capital in most of them.

    In 2015–2019 years, the city is experiencing a construction spike. In Q1 2019, according to statistical data,

    As a result of World War II, Lviv was depolonised, mainly through Soviet-arranged population exchange in 1944–1946 but also by early deportations to Siberia.[103] Those who remained on their own volition after the border shift became a small ethnic minority in Lviv. By 1959 Poles made up only 4% of the local population. Many families were mixed.[103] During the Soviet decades only two Polish schools continued to function: No. 10 (with 8 grades) and No. 24 (with 10 grades).[103]

    In the 1980s the process of uniting groups into ethnic associations was allowed. In 1988 a Polish-language newspaper was permitted (Gazeta Lwowska).[104] The Polish population of the city continues to use the dialect of the Polish language known as Lwów dialect (Polish: gwara lwowska).[104]

    The first known Jews in Lviv date back to the 10th century.[105] The oldest remaining Jewish tombstone dates back to 1348.[105] Apart from the Rabbanite Jews there were many Karaites who had settled in the city after coming from the East and from Byzantium. After Casimir III conquered Lviv in 1349 the Jewish citizens received many privileges equal to that of other citizens of Poland. Lviv had two separate Jewish quarters, one within the city walls and one outside on the outskirts of the city. Each had its separate synagogue, although they shared a cemetery, which was also used by the Crimean Karaite community. Before 1939 there were 97 synagogues.

    Before the Holocaust about one-third of the city's population was made up of Jews (more than 140,000 on the eve of World War II). This number swelled to about 240,000 by the end of 1940 as tens of thousands of Jews fled from the Nazi-occupied parts of Poland into the relative

    Before the Holocaust about one-third of the city's population was made up of Jews (more than 140,000 on the eve of World War II). This number swelled to about 240,000 by the end of 1940 as tens of thousands of Jews fled from the Nazi-occupied parts of Poland into the relative (and temporary) sanctuary of Soviet-occupied Poland (including Lviv) following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact that divided Poland into Nazi and Soviet zones in 1939. Almost all these Jews were killed in the Holocaust. Meanwhile, the Nazis also destroyed the Jewish cemetery, which was subsequently "paved over by the Soviets".[105]

    After the war, a new Jewish population was formed from among the hundreds of thousands of Russians and Ukrainians that migrated to the city. The post-war Jewish population peaked at 30,000 in the 1970s. Currently, the Jewish population has shrunk considerably as a result of emigration (mainly to Israel and the United States) and, to a lesser degree, assimilation, and is estimated at 1,100. A number of organisations continue to be active.

    The Sholem Aleichem Jewish Culture Society in Lviv initiated the construction of a monument to the victims of the ghetto in 1988. On 23 August 1992, the memorial complex to the victims of the Lwów ghetto (1941–1943) was officially opened.[106] During 2011–2012, some anti-Semitic acts against the memorial took place. On 20 March 2011, it was reported that the slogan "death to the Jews" with a swastika was sprayed on the monument.[107] On 21 March 2012, the memorial was vandalized by unknown individuals, in what seemed to be an anti-Semitic act.[108]

    Lviv is the most important business centre of Western Ukraine. As of 1 January 2011 the city has invested 837.1 million US dollars into the economy, accounting for almost two-thirds of total investment in the Lviv region. In 2015, the companies of Lviv received $14.3 million of foreign direct investment; which is however two times less than a year earlier ($30.9 million in 2014).[109] During January-September 2017 the general amount of direct foreign investment received by the local government in Lviv is $52.4 million. According to the statistics administration, foreign capital was invested by 31 countries (some of the main investors: Poland – 47.7%; Australia - 11.3%; Cyprus — 10.7% and the Netherlands — 6%).[110]

    The total revenue of the city budget of Lviv for 2015 is set at about UAH 3.81 billion, which is 23% more than a year earlier (UAH 2.91 billion in 2014).[111] As of 10 November 2017, the deputies of the Lviv City Council approved a budget in amount of UAH 5.4 billion ($204 million). The large part of which (UAH 5.12 billion) was the revenue of the fund of the Lviv.[112][113]

    The average wage in Lviv in 2015 in the business sector amounted to 7,041 UAH, in the budget sphere - 4,175 UAH.[114] On 1 February 2014, registered unemployment was 0.6%.[115] Lviv is one of the largest cities in Ukraine and is growing rapidly. According to th

    The total revenue of the city budget of Lviv for 2015 is set at about UAH 3.81 billion, which is 23% more than a year earlier (UAH 2.91 billion in 2014).[111] As of 10 November 2017, the deputies of the Lviv City Council approved a budget in amount of UAH 5.4 billion ($204 million). The large part of which (UAH 5.12 billion) was the revenue of the fund of the Lviv.[112][113]

    The average wage in Lviv in 2015 in the business sector amounted to 7,041 UAH, in the budget sphere - 4,175 UAH.[114] On 1 February 2014, registered unemployment was 0.6%.[115] Lviv is one of the largest cities in Ukraine and is growing rapidly. According to the Ministry of Economy of Ukraine the monthly average salary in the Lviv is a little less than the average for Ukraine which in February 2013 was 2765 UAH ($345). According to the World Bank classification Lviv is a middle-income city. In June 2019, the average wage was amounted to 9,900 UAH ($396), which is in 18,9% more than in a previous year.[116][117]

    Lviv has 218 large industrial enterprises, more than 40 commercial banks, 4 exchanges, 13 investment companies, 80 insurance and 24 leasing companies, 77 audit firms and almost 9,000 small ventures.[118] For many years machinery-building and electronics were leading industries in Lviv. The city-based public company Electron, trademark of national TV sets manufacturing, produces the 32 and 37 inches liquid-crystal TV-sets. The «Electrontrans» specializes in design and production of modern electric transport including trams, trolleybuses, electric buses, and spare parts. In 2013 Elektrotrans JV started producing low-floor trams, the first Ukrainian 100% low-floor tramways.[119] LAZ is a bus manufacturing company in Lviv with its own rich history. Founded in 1945, LAZ started bus production in the early 1950s. Innovative design ideas of Lviv engineers have become the world standard in bus manufacturing.[citation needed]

    The total volume of industrial production sold in 2015 amounted to UAH 24.2 billion, which is 39% more than a year earlier (UAH 14.6 billion in 2014).[120][121]

    There are several banks based in Lviv, such as Kredobank, Idea Bank, VS Bank, Oksi Bank and Lviv Bank. None of these banks have bankrupted during the political and economic crisis of 2014-2016. It can be explained by the presence of the foreign capital in most of them.

    In 2015–2019 years, the city is experiencing a construction spike. In Q1 2019, according to statistical data, the growth in the volume of new housing construction was recorded in Lviv (3.2 times, to 377

    The total volume of industrial production sold in 2015 amounted to UAH 24.2 billion, which is 39% more than a year earlier (UAH 14.6 billion in 2014).[120][121]

    There are several banks based in Lviv, such as Kredobank, Idea Bank, VS Bank, Oksi Bank and Lviv Bank. None of these banks have bankrupted during the political and economic crisis of 2014-2016. It can be explained by the presence of the foreign capital in most of them.

    In 2015–2019 years, the city is experiencing a construction spike. In Q1 2019, according to statistical data, the growth in the volume of new housing construction was recorded in Lviv (3.2 times, to 377,900 square meters)[122]

    Lviv is a major business center between Warsaw and Kyiv. According to the Lviv Economic Development Strategy, the main branches of the city's economy till 2025 should become tourism and information technologies (IT), the business services and logistics are also a priority.[123] In addition, The Nestlé service center has located in Lviv. This center guides the company's divisions in 20 countries of Central and Eastern Europe.[124] Also during 2016 the Global Service Center VimpelCom in Lviv was launched, which serves finance, procurement and HR operations in eight foreign branches of this company.[125]

    There are many restaurants and shops as well as street vendors of food, books, clothes, traditional cultural items and tourist gifts. Banking and money trading are an important part of the economy of Lviv with many banks and exchange offices throughout the city.

    Lviv is also one of the leaders of software export in Eastern Europe with expected sector growth of 20% by 2020. Over 15% of all IT specialists in Ukraine work in Lviv, with over 4100 new IT graduates coming from local universities each year. About 2500 tech enthusiasts attended Lviv IT Arena - the largest technology conference in Western Ukraine.[126] Over 24,000 IT specialists work in Lviv as for 2019.[127] Lviv is among top 5 most popular Ukrainian cities for opening R&D center in IT and IT outsourcing spheres together with Kyiv, Dnipro, Kharkiv and Odesa.[128]

    In 2009, KPMG, one of the famous international auditing companies, included Lviv in top 30 cities with the greatest potential of information technology development.[129] As of December 2015, there were 192 IT-companies operating in the city, of which 4 large (with more than 400 employees), 16 average (150-300 employees), 97 small (10-110 employees) and 70 micro companies (3-7 employees). From 2017 to 2018 the amount of IT-companies raised to 317.[127]

    The turnover of the Lviv's IT industry in 2015 amounted to $300 million U.S. About 50% of IT services are exported to the US, 37% to Europe, and the rest - to other countries. As of 2015, about 15 thousand specialists were employed in this industry with the average salary of 28 thousand UAH. According to a study of the Economic Effect of the Lviv IT-Market, which was conducted by Lviv IT Cluster and sociological agency "The Farm", there are 257 I

    In 2009, KPMG, one of the famous international auditing companies, included Lviv in top 30 cities with the greatest potential of information technology development.[129] As of December 2015, there were 192 IT-companies operating in the city, of which 4 large (with more than 400 employees), 16 average (150-300 employees), 97 small (10-110 employees) and 70 micro companies (3-7 employees). From 2017 to 2018 the amount of IT-companies raised to 317.[127]

    The turnover of the Lviv's IT industry in 2015 amounted to $300 million U.S. About 50% of IT services are exported to the US, 37% to Europe, and the rest - to other countries. As of 2015, about 15 thousand specialists were employed in this industry with the average salary of 28 thousand UAH. According to a study of the Economic Effect of the Lviv IT-Market, which was conducted by Lviv IT Cluster and sociological agency "The Farm", there are 257 IT companies operating in Lviv in 2017, that employs about 17 thousand specialists. The economic impact of the IT industry in Lviv is $734 million U.S.[130]

    Lviv is one of the most important cultural centres of Ukraine. The city is known as a centre of art, literature, music and theatre. Nowadays, the indisputable evidence of the city cultural richness is a big number of theatres, concert halls, creative unions, and also the high number of many artistic activities (more than 100 festivals annually, 60 museums, 10 theatres).

    Lviv's historic centre has been on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage list since 1998. UNESCO gave the following reasons[131] for its selection:

    Criterion II: In its urban fabric and its architecture, Lviv is an outstanding example of the fusion of the architectural and artistic traditions of central and eastern Europe with those of Italy and Germany.

    Criterion V: The political and commercial role of Lviv attracted to it a number of ethnic groups with different cultural and religious traditions, who established separate yet interdependent communities within the city, evidence for which is still discernible in the modern town's landscape.

    Architecture

    Lviv's historic centre has been on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage list since 1998. UNESCO gave the following reasons[131] for its selection:

    Criterion II: In its urban fabric and its architecture, Lviv is an outstanding example of the fusion of the architectural and artistic traditions of central and eastern Europe with those of Italy and Germany.

    Criterion V: The political and commercial role of Lviv attracted to it a number of ethnic groups with different cultural and religious traditions, who establis

    Criterion V: The political and commercial role of Lviv attracted to it a number of ethnic groups with different cultural and religious traditions, who established separate yet interdependent communities within the city, evidence for which is still discernible in the modern town's landscape.

    ArchitectureUkrainian cities. Its architecture reflects various European styles and periods. After the fires of 1527 and 1556 Lviv lost most of its gothic-style buildings but it retains many buildings in renaissance, baroque and the classic styles. There are works by artists of the Vienna Secession, Art Nouveau and Art Deco.

    The buildings have many stone sculptures and carvings, particularly on large doors, which are hundreds of years old. The remains of old churches dot the central cityscape. Some three- to five-storey buildings have hidden inner courtyards and grottoes in various states of repair. Some cemeteries are of interest: for example, the Lychakivskiy Cemetery where the Polish elite was buried for centuries. Leaving the central area the architectural style changes radically as Soviet-era high-rise blocks dominate. In the centre of the city, the Soviet era is reflected mainly in a few modern-style national monuments and sculptures.

    Monuments

    Lviv is a city of religious variety. Religion (2012): Catholic: 57% (Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church 56% and Roman Catholic Church 1%) Orthodox: 32%, Protestantism: 2% Judaism : 0.1% Other religion: 3% Indifferent to religious matters: 4% Atheism: 1.9%[132]

    Christianity

    At one point, over 60 churches existed in the city. The largest Christian Churches have existed in the city since the 13th century. The city has been the seat of the Catholic Church in 3 rites: The During the interwar period there were monuments commemorating important figures of the history of Poland. Some of them were moved to the Polish "Recovered Territories" after World War II, like the monument to Aleksander Fredro which now is in Wrocław, the monument of King John III Sobieski which after 1945 was moved to Gdańsk, and the monument of Kornel Ujejski which is now in Szczecin. A book market takes place around the monument to Ivan Fеdorovych, a typographer in the 16th century who fled Moscow and found a new home in Lviv.

    New ideas came to Lviv during the Austro–Hungarian rule. In the 19th century, many publishing houses, newspapers and magazines were established. Among these was the Ossolineum which was one of the most important Polish scientific libraries. Most Polish-language books and publications of the Ossolineum library are still kept in a local Jesuit church. In 1997 the Polish government asked the Ukrainian government to return these documents to Poland. Subsequently, in 2003 Ukraine allowed access to these publications for the first time. In 2006 an office of the Ossolineum (which now is located in Wrocław) was opened in Lviv and began a process to scan all its documents. Works written in Lviv contributed to Austrian, Ukrainian, Yiddish, and Polish literature, with a multitude of translations.

    Lviv is a city of religious variety. Religion (2012): Catholic: 57% (Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church 56% and Roman Catholic Church 1%) Orthodox: 32%, Protestantism: 2% Judaism : 0.1% Other religion: 3% Indifferent to religious matters: 4% Atheism: 1.9%[132]

    Christianity<

    At one point, over 60 churches existed in the city. The largest Christian Churches have existed in the city since the 13th century. The city has been the seat of the Catholic Church in 3 rites: The Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Lviv, the Roman Catholics, and the Armenian Church. Each has had a diocesan seat in Lviv since the 16th century. At the end of the 16th century, the Orthodox community in Ukraine transferred their allegiance to the Pope in Rome and became the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. This bond was forcibly dissolved in 1946 by the Soviet authorities and the Roman Catholic community was forced out by the expulsion of the Polish population. Since 1989, religious life in Lviv has experienced a revival.

    Lviv is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lviv, the centre of the Roman Catholic Church in Uk

    Lviv is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lviv, the centre of the Roman Catholic Church in Ukraine and until 21 August 2005 was the centre of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. About 35 percent of religious buildings belong to the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, 11.5 percent to the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, 9 per cent to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate and 6 per cent to the Roman Catholic Church.

    Until 2005, Lviv was the only city with two Catholic Cardinals: Lubomyr Husar (Byzantine Rite) and Marian Jaworski (Latin Rite).

    In June 2001, Pope John Paul II visited the Latin Cathedral, St. George's Cathedral and the Armenian Cathedral.

    Lviv historically had a large and active Jewish community and until 1941 at least 45 synagogues and prayer houses existed. Even in the 16th century, two separate communities existed. One lived in today's old town with the other in the Krakowskie Przedmieście. The Golden Rose Synagogue was built in Lviv in 1582. In the 19th century, a more differentiated community started to spread out. Liberal Jews sought more cultural assimilation and spoke German and Polish. On the other hand, Orthodox and Hasidic Jews tried to retain the old traditions. Between 1941 and 1944, the Germans in effect completely destroyed the centuries-old Jewish tradition of Lviv. Most synagogues were destroyed and the Jewish population forced first into a ghetto before being forcibly transported to concentration camps where they were murdered.[133]

    Under the Soviet Union, synagogues remained closed and were used as warehouses or cinemas. Only since the fall of the Iron Curtain, has the remainder of the Jewish community experienced a faint revival.

    Currently, the only functi

    Under the Soviet Union, synagogues remained closed and were used as warehouses or cinemas. Only since the fall of the Iron Curtain, has the remainder of the Jewish community experienced a faint revival.

    Currently, the only functioning Orthodox Jewish synagogue in Lviv is the Beis Aharon V'Yisrael Synagogue.

    The range of artistic Lviv is impressive. On the one hand, it is the city of classical art. Lviv Opera and Lviv Philharmonic are places that can satisfy the demands of true appraisers of the classical arts. This is the city of one of the most distinguished sculptors in Europe, Johann Georg Pinzel, whose works can be seen on the façade of the St. George's Cathedral in Lviv and in the Pinzel Museum. This is also the city of Solomiya Krushelnytska, who began her career as a singer of Lviv Opera and later became the prima donna of La Scala Opera in Milan.

    The "Group Artes" was a young movement founded in 1929. Many of the artists studied in Paris and travelled throughout Europe. They worked and experimented in different areas of modern art: Futurism, Cubism, New Objectivity and Surrealism. Co–operation took place between avant-garde musicians and authors. Altogether thirteen exhibitions by "Artes" took place in Warsaw, Kraków, Łódz and Lviv. The German occupation put an end to this group. Otto Hahn was executed in 1942 in Lviv and Aleksander Riemer was murdered in Auschwitz in 1943.[134] Henryk Streng and Margit Reich-Sielska were able to escape the Holocaust (or Shoah). Most of the surviving members of Artes lived in Poland after 1945. Only Margit Reich-Sielska (1900–1980) and Roman Sielski (1903–1990) stayed in Soviet Lviv. For years the city was one of the most important cultural centres of Poland with such writers as Aleksander Fredro, The "Group Artes" was a young movement founded in 1929. Many of the artists studied in Paris and travelled throughout Europe. They worked and experimented in different areas of modern art: Futurism, Cubism, New Objectivity and Surrealism. Co–operation took place between avant-garde musicians and authors. Altogether thirteen exhibitions by "Artes" took place in Warsaw, Kraków, Łódz and Lviv. The German occupation put an end to this group. Otto Hahn was executed in 1942 in Lviv and Aleksander Riemer was murdered in Auschwitz in 1943.[134] Henryk Streng and Margit Reich-Sielska were able to escape the Holocaust (or Shoah). Most of the surviving members of Artes lived in Poland after 1945. Only Margit Reich-Sielska (1900–1980) and Roman Sielski (1903–1990) stayed in Soviet Lviv. For years the city was one of the most important cultural centres of Poland with such writers as Aleksander Fredro, Gabriela Zapolska, Leopold Staff, Maria Konopnicka and Jan Kasprowicz living in Lviv.

    Today Lviv is a city of fresh ideas and unusual characters. There are about 20 galleries (The "Dzyga" Gallery, Аrt-Gallery "Primus", Gallery of the History of Ukrainian Military Uniforms, Gallery of Modern Art "Zelena Kanapa" and others). Lviv National Art Gallery is the largest museum of arts in Ukraine, with approximately 50,000 artworks, including paintings, sculptures and works of graphic art of Western and Eastern Europe, from the Middle Ages to modern days.

    In 1842 the Skarbek Theatre was opened making it the third-largest theatre in Central Europe. In 1903 the Lviv National Opera house, which at that time was called the City-Theatre, was opened emulating the Vienna State Opera house. The house initially offered a changing repertoire such as classical dramas in German and Polish language, opera, operetta, comedy and theatre. The opera house is named after the Ukrainian opera diva Salomea Krushelnytska who worked here.

    In the Janowska concentration camp, the Nazis conducted torture and executions to music. To do so they brought almost the whole Lviv National Opera to the camp. Professor Shtriks, opera conductor Mund and other famous Jewish musicians were among the members. From 1941 to 1944 the Nazis massacred 200,000 people including all 40 musicians.[135]

    Nowadays Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet has a large creative group of performers who strive to maintain traditions of Ukrainian opera and classical ballet. The Theatre is a well-organized creative body where over 500 people work towards a common goal. The repertoire includes 10 Ukrainian music compositions. No other similar theatre in Ukraine has such a large number of Ukrainian productions. There are also many operas written by foreign composers, and most of these operas are performed in the original language: Othello, Aida, La Traviata, Nabucco, and A Masked Ball by G. Verdi, Tosca, La Bohème and Madame Butterfly by G. Puccini, Cavalleria Rusticana by P. Mascagni, and Pagliacci by R.

    In the Janowska concentration camp, the Nazis conducted torture and executions to music. To do so they brought almost the whole Lviv National Opera to the camp. Professor Shtriks, opera conductor Mund and other famous Jewish musicians were among the members. From 1941 to 1944 the Nazis massacred 200,000 people including all 40 musicians.[135]

    Nowadays Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet has a large creative group of performers who strive to maintain traditions of Ukrainian opera and classical ballet. The Theatre is a well-organized creative body where over 500 people work towards a common goal. The repertoire includes 10 Ukrainian music compositions. No other similar theatre in Ukraine has such a large number of Ukrainian productions. There are also many operas written by foreign composers, and most of these operas are performed in the original language: Othello, Aida, La Traviata, Nabucco, and A Masked Ball by G. Verdi, Tosca, La Bohème and Madame Butterfly by G. Puccini, Cavalleria Rusticana by P. Mascagni, and Pagliacci by R. Leoncavallo (in Italian); Carmen by G. Bizet (in French), The Haunted Manor by S. Moniuszko (in Polish)

    Museum Pharmacy "Pid Chornym Orlom" (Beneath the Black Eagle) was founded in 1735; it is the oldest pharmacy in Lviv. A museum related to pharmaceutical history was opened on the premises of the old pharmacy in 1966. The idea of creating such a museum had already come up in the 19th century. The Galician Association of Pharmacists was created in 1868; members managed to assemble a small collection of exhibits, thus making the first step towards creating a new museum. Nowadays, the exhibition has expanded considerably, with 16 exhibit rooms and a general exhibition surface totalling 700 sq. m. There are more than 3,000 exhibits in the museum. This is the only operating Museum Pharmacy in Ukraine and Europe.

    Lviv National Museum which houses the National Gallery. Its collection includes more than 140,000 unique items. The museum takes special pride in presenting the largest and most complete collection of medieval sacral art of the 12th to 18th centuries: icons, manuscripts, rare ancient books, decoratively carved pieces of art, metal and plastic artworks, and fabrics embroidered with gold and silver. The museum also boasts a unique monument of Ukrainian Baroque style: the Bohorodchansky Iconostasis. Exhibits include: Ancient Ukrainian art from the 12th to 15th centuries; Ukrainian art from the 16th to 18th centuries; and Ukrainian art from the end of the 18th to the beginning of the 20th centuries.

    Music

    Lviv has an active musical and cultural life. Apart from the Lviv Opera, it has symphony orchestras, chamber orchestras and the Trembita Chorus. Lviv has one of the most prominent music academies and music colleges in Ukraine, the Lviv Conservatory, and also has a factory for the manufacture of stringed musical instruments. Lviv has been the home of numerous composers such as Mozart's son Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart, Stanislav Liudkevych, Wojciech Kilar and Mykola Kolessa.

    Flute virtuoso and composer Albert Franz Doppler (1821–1883) was born and spent his formative years here, including flute lessons from his father. The classical pianist Mieczysław Horszowski (1892–1993) was born here. The opera diva Lviv Conservatory, and also has a factory for the manufacture of stringed musical instruments. Lviv has been the home of numerous composers such as Mozart's son Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart, Stanislav Liudkevych, Wojciech Kilar and Mykola Kolessa.

    Flute virtuoso and composer Albert Franz Doppler (1821–1883) was born and spent his formative years here, including flute lessons from his father. The classical pianist