The Info List - Lusignan

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The House of Lusignan
House of Lusignan
(/ˈluːzɪnjɒn/ LOO-zin-yon) was a royal house of French origin, which at various times ruled several principalities in Europe
and the Levant, including the kingdoms of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Armenia, from the 12th through the 15th centuries during the Middle Ages. It also had great influence in England and France. The family originated in Poitou, near Lusignan in western France, in the early 10th century. By the end of the 11th century, the family had risen to become the most prominent petty lords in the region from their castle at Lusignan. In the late 12th century, through marriages and inheritance, a cadet branch of the family came to control the kingdoms of Jerusalem
and Cyprus. In the early 13th century, the main branch succeeded in the Counties of La Marche and Angoulême. As Crusader kings in the Latin East, they soon had connections with the Hethumid
rulers of the Kingdom of Cilicia, which they inherited through marriage in the mid-14th century. The Armenian branch fled to France,[1] and eventually Russia,[2][unreliable source?] after the Mamluk
conquest of their kingdom. The claim was taken by the Cypriot branch,[3][4] until their line failed. This kingdom was annexed by the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
in the late 15th century.


1 First House of Lusignan

1.1 Origins 1.2 In France

1.2.1 Lords of Lusignan 1.2.2 Counts of La Marche 1.2.3 Counts of Eu 1.2.4 Counts of La Marche and Angoulême

1.3 Crusader kings 1.4 In England 1.5 Kings of Cyprus

2 Second House of Lusignan

2.1 Fall of the Templars 2.2 Kings of Armenia 2.3 Golden Age of Lusignan Cyprus 2.4 Fall of Armenia 2.5 Kings of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Armenia

3 Legacy

3.1 "Prince" de Lusignan 3.2 Dynastic orders

4 Castles and Palaces

4.1 France 4.2 Jerusalem 4.3 Cyprus 4.4 Armenian Cilicia

5 In Mythology

5.1 Melusine

6 In popular culture 7 References 8 Further reading

First House of Lusignan[edit] Origins[edit]

Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry, March: the Château de Lusignan

The Château de Lusignan, near Poitiers, was the principal seat of the Lusignans. It was later destroyed during the Wars of Religion, and only its foundations remain in Lusignan. According to legend, the earliest castle was built by the folklore water-spirit Melusine. The lords of the castle at Lusignan were counts of La Marche, over which they frequently fought with the counts of Angoulême. In France[edit] Lords of Lusignan[edit]

Arms of the lords of Lusignan

Hugh I (early 10th century) Hugh II (died 967) Hugh III Hugh IV Hugh V (died 1060)

Counts of La Marche[edit] Hugh VI inherited by collateral succession the County of La Marche (1091) as a descendant of Almodis.

Hugh VI (died 1110) Hugh VII (died 1151) Hugh VIII (died 1165) Hugh IX (died 1219)

Counts of Eu[edit]

Raoul I (1197–1246) Raoul II (1246–1250) Marie (1250–1260)

Counts of La Marche and Angoulême[edit]

The use of the Lion was a gift from Richard the Lionheart[5] during the Third Crusade

Hugh IX's son, Hugh X, married Isabelle of Angoulême, thus securing Angoulême (1220).

Hugh X (died 1249) Hugh XI (died 1250) Hugh XII (died 1270) Hugh XIII (died 1303) Guy (died 1308) Yolande (died 1314)

Yolande sold the fiefs of Lusignan, La Marche, Angoulême, and Fougères
to Philip IV of France
in 1308. They became a part of the French royal demesne and a common appanage of the crown.

Crusader kings[edit] Main articles: Battle of Hattin, Siege of Jerusalem
(1187), and Third Crusade

Guy de Lusignan
Guy de Lusignan
and Saladin. Saladin
en Guy de Lusignan, 1625 painting by Jan Lievens.

In the 1170s, Amalric de Lusignan arrived in Jerusalem, having been expelled by Richard Lionheart (at that point, acting Duke of Aquitaine) from his realm, which then included the family lands of Lusignan near Poitiers. Amalric married Eschiva, the daughter of Baldwin of Ibelin, and entered court circles. He had also obtained the patronage of Agnes of Courtenay, the divorced mother of King Baldwin IV, who held the county of Jaffa
and Ascalon and was married to Reginald of Sidon. He was appointed Agnes' constable in Jaffa, and later as constable of the kingdom. Hostile rumours alleged he was Agnes' lover, but this is questionable. It is likely that his promotions were aimed at weaning him away from the political orbit of the Ibelin family, who were associated with Raymond III of Tripoli, Amalric I's cousin and the former bailli or regent. Amalric's younger brother, Guy de Lusignan, arrived at some date before Easter 1180. When he arrived is quite unknown, although Ernoul said that he arrived at that time on Amalric's advice. Many modern historians believe that Guy was already well established in Jerusalem by 1180, but there is no supporting contemporary evidence.[citation needed] But, Amalric of Lusignan's success certainly facilitated the social and political advancement of his brother Guy. Older accounts (derived from William of Tyre
William of Tyre
and Ernoul) claim that Agnes was concerned that her political rivals, headed by Raymond of Tripoli, intended to exercise more control by forcing Agnes' daughter, the widowed princess Sibylla, to marry someone of their choosing. Agnes was said to have foiled these plans by advising her son to have Sibylla married to Guy. But, the King, now believed to have been less malleable than earlier historians have portrayed, was considering the international implications: Sibylla had to marry someone who could rally external help to the kingdom, not a local noble. As the new King of France, Philip II, was still a minor, Baldwin's first cousin Henry II of England seemed the best prospect. He owed the Pope a penitential pilgrimage on account of the Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket
affair. Guy was a vassal of Richard of Poitou
and Henry II, and had been formerly rebellious, so they wanted to keep him overseas. Guy and Sibylla were hastily married at Eastertide 1180, apparently preventing a coup by Raymond's faction to marry her to Baldwin of Ibelin, the father-in-law of Almaric. By his marriage Guy became count of Jaffa
and Ascalon and bailli of Jerusalem. He and Sibylla had two daughters, Alice and Maria. Sibylla already had a son from her first marriage to William of Montferrat.

Battle of Hattin
Battle of Hattin
in which Guy de Lusignan
Guy de Lusignan
was captured by Saladin, and Jerusalem
was lost.

An ambitious man, Guy convinced Baldwin IV to name him regent in early 1182. But he and Raynald of Châtillon
Raynald of Châtillon
provoked Saladin
during a two-year period of truce. More important to Baldwin IV's disillusionment with him was Guy's military hesitation during the siege of Kerak. Throughout late 1183 and 1184 Baldwin IV tried to have his sister's marriage to Guy annulled, showing that Baldwin still held his sister with some favour. Baldwin IV had wanted a loyal brother-in-law, and was frustrated in Guy's hardheadedness and disobedience. Sibylla remained at Ascalon, though perhaps not against her will. Unsuccessful in prying his sister and close heir away from Guy, the king and the Haute Cour altered the succession. They placed Baldwin V, Sibylla's son from her first marriage, in precedence over Sibylla. They also established a process to choose the monarch afterwards between Sibylla and Isabella (whom Baldwin and the Haute Cour thus recognized as at least equally entitled to succession as Sibylla), though Sibylla was not herself excluded from the succession. After the death of Baldwin V in 1186, Guy and Sibylla went to Jerusalem
for the funeral, accompanied by an armed guard. Sibylla was crowned as Queen of Jerusalem, on the condition that she annul her marriage with Guy. In return she could marry whom she chose. Her decision to remarry Guy angered the barons.

Map of 12th-century Crusader States. The House of Lusignan
House of Lusignan
at this time controlled the kingdom of Jerusalem, principality of Antioch, and the county of Tripoli.

Guy's term as king is generally seen as a disaster; he was defeated by Saladin
at the Battle of Hattin
Battle of Hattin
in 1187, and was imprisoned in Damascus
while Saladin
reconquered almost the entire kingdom. Upon his release, Guy and Sibylla sought refuge in Tyre, but were denied entry by rival Conrad of Montferrat, the husband of Isabella. During the Siege of Acre in 1191, Sibylla and their two daughters died. Isabella succeeded to the throne as the queen of Jerusalem. Guy left for Limassol
and met with Richard, now king of England. He joined the latter's conquest of Cyprus, which was retaliation for the lord of Cyprus
having taken Richard's fiancée as prisoner. Afterwards Richard and Guy returned to the siege of Acre. Richard gave up his claim to Jerusalem
and supported Guy, while the King of France
and Duke of Austria supported their kinsman Conrad. Guy still saved Conrad’s life when he was surrounded by the enemy. Richard put the matter of the kingdom of Jerusalem
to a vote, which Conrad won, leaving Guy powerless. Richard sold Cyprus
to the Knight Templars, who in turn sold it to Guy. Guy died in 1194, leaving Cyprus
to his older brother Aimery. Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
crowned Aimery as the first king of Cyprus. In 1197 Aimery married Isabella, which brought the crown of Jerusalem
back to the Lusignans. One of Aimery's first actions as king was to make a five-year truce with the Muslims. In England[edit] Main articles: Normandy
campaigns of 1200–1204, Anglo-French War (1202–1214), and Second Barons' War Meanwhile, in France, Hugh le Brun ("Hugh the Swarthy"), like most of the lords of Poitou, backed Arthur of Brittany
Arthur of Brittany
as the better heir to Richard the Lionheart
Richard the Lionheart
when John Lackland acceded to the throne of England in 1199. Eleanor of Aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine
traded English claims for their support of John. To secure his position in La Marche, the widowed Hugh arranged a betrothal with the daughter of his next rival of Angoulême, Isabella of Angoulême. But John married her in August 1200, depriving Hugh of La Marche and his brother of Eu in Normandy. The aggrieved Lusignans turned to their liege lord, Philip Augustus, King of France. Philip demanded John's presence—a tactical impossibility—and declared John a "contumacious vassal."[citation needed] As the Lusignan allies managed to detain both Arthur and Eleanor, John surprised their unprepared forces at the castle of Mirebeau
in July 1202, and took Hugh prisoner with 200 more of Poitou's fighting men. King John's savage treatment of the captives caused outrage among his supporters, and his French barons began to desert him in droves. The Lusignans' diplomatic rebellion resulted in the loss for England of half its territory in France. It was soon incorporated into France
by Philip Augustus. (The other "half", Aquitaine, was the possession of the surviving Eleanor.) John died in 1216, leaving his son Henry III of England
Henry III of England
as king. Isabella married Hugh X of Lusignan
Hugh X of Lusignan
in 1220, and they had five children together. In 1247, Guilliame de Lusignan, a younger son of Hugh X and Isabella, moved from France
to England along with two of his brothers at the request of their half-brother, Henry III. Guillaume (known in English as William de Valence) and his brothers were quickly placed in positions of power by the king; William was married to Joan de Munchensi (d. 1307), a granddaughter and heiress to the great William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. Valence was granted custody of the lands and the title of Earl of Pembroke, giving him great wealth and power in his new land. As a result, he was unpopular, and was heavily involved in the Second Barons' War, supporting the King and Prince Edward against the rebels led by Simon de Montfort. After the final defeat of the rebels at the Battle of Evesham
Battle of Evesham
in 1265, William continued to serve Henry III, and then Edward I, until his death in 1296. William's eldest surviving son, Aymer (c. 1265–1324), succeeded to his father's estates, but he was not formally recognized as Earl of Pembroke until after the death of his mother Joan in 1307. He was appointed guardian of Scotland
in 1306, but with the accession of Edward II to the throne and the consequent rise of Piers Gaveston
Piers Gaveston
to power, his influence declined. He became prominent among the discontented nobles. In 1312, after the Earl of Warwick betrayed him by executing the captured Gaveston, Aymer de Valence left the allied lords and joined the King. Valence was present at Bannockburn in 1314, and later helped King Edward defeat Thomas of Lancaster. However, by the time of his death in 1324, he had again been marginalized at court, and also suffered financial trouble. His wife, Mary de Châtillon, a descendant of King Henry III, was the founder of Pembroke College, Cambridge, reserved for male students. She also founded Denny Abbey, between Cambridge and Ely, where she spent her last days surrounded by nuns. Kings of Cyprus[edit] Main article: War of the Lombards

Part of a series on the

History of Cyprus

Timeline Prehistoric history Ancient history (Roman Era) Medieval history Kingdom of Cyprus Venetian Cyprus Ottoman rule Since 1878


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After another six-year truce with the Muslims, Aimery and most of the royal family died. His only surviving son, Hugh, became King of Cyprus in 1205. The kingdom of Jerusalem
passed to Maria of Montferrat, eldest daughter of Isabella and Conrad. Hugh married his step-sister, Alice of Champagne, daughter of Isabella and Henry of Champagne. They had three children. Henry, the youngest child and only son, became king in 1218 at eight months of age; Alice officially served as his regent. Her uncle Phillip of Ibelin exercised the real power behind the throne, followed by his brother John of Ibelin, the Old Lord of Beirut. Henry was crowned at the age of 8 at Santa Sophia, Nicosia, in 1225.[6] His uncle arranged the early coronation in a political maneuver intended to outflank Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor expected attempt to seize power. Frederick succeeded in 1228 in forcing John of Ibelin to hand over the regency and the island of Cyprus. But, when Frederick left the island in April, John counter-attacked and regained control, which began the War of the Lombards. Henry assumed control of the kingdom when he came of age at 15, in 1232. He became regent of Jerusalem, in 1246, for the infant Conrad IV of Germany, serving as ruler until 1253. Henry was married three times and had only one child, a son Hugh. The boy succeeded him upon his death in 1253, although he was only two months of age. Hugh died in 1267 at age 14, bringing an end to the first House of Lusignan. Second House of Lusignan[edit]

History of Armenia

Etymology Timeline Traditional Urheimat


Stone and Copper Age Shulaveri-Shomu culture c. 6500–3400 BCE

Areni-1 Cave Complex

Kura–Araxes culture c. 3400–2000 BCE

Legend of Hayk (?) 2492 BCE

Bronze and Iron Age Hayasa-Azzi c. 1500–1290 BCE

Arme-Shupria c. 1300s–1190 BCE

Ararat/Urartu Nairi Tribes 1114–860 BCE

Kingdom of Van 860–590 BCE

Scythian and Mede invasions 6th century BCE


Achaemenid period Satrapy of Armina 549–331 BCE

Orontid Dynasty

Ancient Armenia Armenia
Minor 331–72 BCE

Kingdom of Armenia 321 BCE–428 CE

Artaxiad dynasty 189 BCE–12 CE

Empire 84–34 BCE

Arsacid dynasty 52–428 CE

Roman–Parthian War 58–63 CE

Roman Province of Armenia 114–118 CE

Christianization 301 CE

Kingdom of Sophene c.200–94 BCE

Kingdom of Commagene 163 BCE–72 CE

Marzpanate period Byzantine Armenia 387–536

Persian Armenia 428–646

dynasty Battle of Avarayr 451

Middle Ages

Arabic period Emirate of Armenia 653–884

Hamamshen 700s–1300s

Amatuni Dynasty

Medieval Armenia Bagratid Armenia 884–1045

Bagratid dynasty 861–1118

Kingdom of Vaspurakan 908–1021


Sajid dynasty 889–929

Sallarid dynasty 919–1062

Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget 979–1118

Kingdom of Syunik 987–1170

Kingdom of Artsakh 1000–1261

House of Hasan-Jalalyan

Battle of Manzikert 1071

Cilician and Turco-Mongol Period Seljuq rule 1071–1201

Georgian union 1201–1236

Ilkhanid rule 1236–1335

Principality of Khachen 1261–1750

Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
and Aq Koyunlu 1335–1508

Kingdom of Cilicia 1198–1375

Rubenid dynasty 1000–1261

dynasty 1226–1373

Lusignan dynasty 1341–1375

Early modern age

Perso-Ottoman period Safavid and Qajar rule 1502–1828

Five Melikdoms Shah Abbas I's deportation 1606

Ceding of Eastern Armenia 1828

Ottoman rule 1548–1915

Six Vilayets 1878

Hamidian massacres 1895–1896

Armenian Genocide 1909–1918

Russian period Russian rule 1828–1918

Armenian Oblast 1828–1840

Western Armenia 1915–1918

National Liberation Movement

Armenakan 1885

S.D. Hunchakian Party 1887

ARF (Dashnaktsutyun) 1890

Caucasus Campaign 1914–1918

Battle of Sardarapat 1918

Battle of Karakilisa 1918

Modern Armenia First Republic of Armenia 1918–1920

Treaty of Batum 1918

War with Azerbaijan 1918–1920

War with Georgia 1918

Treaty of Sèvres 1920

Wilsonian Armenia 1920

War with Turkey 1920

Treaty of Alexandropol 1920

Modern age

Soviet period Armenian S.S.R. 1920–1991

February Uprising 1921

Republic of Mountainous Armenia 1921

Treaty of Moscow 1921

Treaty of Kars 1921

Territorial claims against Turkey 1945–1953

Independence Armenian diaspora Hidden Armenians Republic of Armenia since 1991

Post-Soviet transition 1991–1995

Modern era since 1995

Republic of Artsakh since 1994

Nagorno-Karabakh War 1989–1994


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Basin attributed to a commission by Hugh IV of Cyprus. An inscription in Arabic reads: "Made by the order of Hugh, favoured by God, the one at the vanguard of the elite troops of the Franks, Hugh of the Lusignans". Another inscription in French reads: "Très haut et puissant roi Hugues de Jherusalem et de Chipre que Dieu manteigne." ("Very high and powerful king Hugh of Jerusalem
and Cyprus, may God maintain him"). 14th century, Egypt
or Syria. Louvre Museum
Louvre Museum

Fall of the Templars[edit] See also: Fall of Tripoli (1289)
Fall of Tripoli (1289)
and Franco-Mongol alliance At that point, Hugh of Antioch, whose maternal grandfather had been Hugh I of Cyprus, took the name Lusignan, thus founding the second House of Lusignan. He succeeded his deceased cousin as King of Cyprus. In 1268, following the execution of Conradin, he was crowned King of Jerusalem. Hugh was frustrated by dealing with the different factions of Jerusalem
nobles, and in 1276 he left for Cyprus. Saint Thomas Aquinas wrote On Kingship for Hugh. In 1284 his son John succeeded him as king of Cyprus
and Jerusalem, but died one year later. John is believed to have been poisoned by his brother, Henry. In 1291 the last remnants of the Kingdom of Jerusalem were captured by Al-Ashraf Khalil, the Sultan of Egypt. Henry fled to Cyprus
and under his rule, that kingdom prospered. He had the "Haute Cour" keep written records for the first time in their history, and developed them from a simple advisory council into a true court that tried criminals. His goal of reclaiming Jerusalem
went unfulfilled, despite alliances with Persia and twice requesting Pope Clement V
Pope Clement V
for assistance. King Henry suffered from epilepsy, which incapacitated him at times. Some of the nobles grew unhappy with his rule, and he had his brother, Guy, the Constable of Cyprus, executed for conspiring against him. Their brother Almaric, the Prince of Tyre, overthrew him with help from the Knights Templar. The revolt was quick and non-violent. Almaric became regent of Cyprus
and Jerusalem, and Henry was exiled to Armenia. There he was imprisoned by Almaric’s brother-in-law King Oshin. Amalric repaired relationships with Venice, Genoa, and the Knights Hospitallers, and became popular among the people. In 1300, the Lusignans, led by Amalric, Prince of Tyre
Amalric, Prince of Tyre
entered into combined military operations with the Mongols under Ghazan
to retake the Holy Land, but without success. In 1307 Pope Clement, under pressure from king Philip IV of France
ordered that all Templars be arrested and their properties seized, leaving Amalric no choice but to comply. This led to a small uprising and calls for Henry to retake the throne, but it quickly subsided. Among those arrested were several nobles, including two members of the Ibelin family. Amalric was murdered in 1310 by Simon of Montolif. After this King Oshin released Henry II. With the aid of the Hospitallers, Henry regained his throne. Those who had helped Amalric were arrested, including their brother Aimery, who was acting governor following Amalric’s murder. Kings of Armenia[edit]

Constantin III of Armenia
on his throne. "Les chevaliers de Saint-Jean-de- Jerusalem
rétablissant la religion en Arménie", 1844 painting by Henri Delaborde.

1342, Amalric’s son, Guy de Lusignan, was elected as King of Armenia and took the name Constantine II. He was initially reluctant as the regent, Oshin of Corycos, was rumored to have poisoned the previous king, and killed Guy’s mother and two brothers. Under his leadership, the Lusignans tried to impose Western Catholicism and the European way of life on the Armenian people, who had a state religion of the Armenian Apostolic Church. The Armenian leadership largely accepted Catholicism, but the peasantry opposed the changes. Eventually, this led civil strife.[3] Constantine was killed in an uprising in 1344, and the throne passed out of the Lusignan family to his distant cousin Gosdantin; he reigned as Constantine III. Constantine III attempted to kill his cousins, in an attempt to eliminate all potential claimants, but they fled to Cyprus. Golden Age of Lusignan Cyprus[edit] Main article: Alexandrian Crusade Hugh IV de Lusignan became king at age 29, and unlike previous Lusignan monarchs he was content being just King of Cyprus, refusing his son Peter’s requests to lead a crusade for Jerusalem. He instead preferred to focus on issues in his realm and was strict on justice. When Peter and his third son John journeyed to Europe
he had the man who helped them tortured and hanged, and sent ships to find and imprison his sons. He had a strong interest in art, literature and philosophy, hosting regular philosophical discussions at his summer villa in Lapithos and commissioned Genealogia deorum gentilium by the Italian writer Giovanni Boccaccio. In 1347 Prince Peter de Lusignan founded the Chivalric Order of the Sword, whose motto was Pour Lealte Maintenir the motto of his house. In 1358 Hugh abdicated the throne, passing it on to his military minded son Peter instead of his grandson Hugh, the heir apparent. Peter believed that since Cyprus
was the last Christian stronghold in the mideast it was his duty to fight the Muslims, and raided the coastal ports of the Asia
Minor. The people of Korikos asked for protection from the Muslims. Peter sent his kinsman, Sir Roberto de Lusignan to lead the siege of Korikos. The Lusignans succeeded, and the various Muslim leaders united against Peter, launching an assault on Cyprus. Peter united Knights of Saint John from Rhodes, Papal armies, and Mediterranean pirates to defeat the Muslim fleets before they could land. After another defeat at Antalya the remaining emirs in the region offered him tribute, and he accepted, sending the flags, coats of arms, and other symbols of his house to be raised in different cities. Peter personally visited many of the cities he conquered, where he was given trophies, gifts, and was even worshiped by some. When Peter returned to Cyprus
he was in risk of losing his throne. Hugh, his nephew who had previously been the heir apparent, went to Pope Urban V
Pope Urban V
in an attempt to be recognized as king. Peter journeyed to Avignon
to present his case. Urban sided with Peter, but Hugh was given a high annual benefit as recompense. Peter also discussed another crusade with the pope, and then decided to visit the other kings and rulers of Europe
to strengthen his army. He visited Germany, France, and England, where the famed “Banquet of the Five Kings” took place. In 1363 Peter attended the Congress of Kraków, hosted by King Casimir the Great of Poland. In attendance were Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, King Louis I of Hungary, the Valdemar IV of Denmark, and other lords and princes. Among the issues discussed were Peter’s crusade, peace treaties between the kings, and the succession for the Polish throne. While there Peter won a royal tournament, adding to his prestige.

The assassination of Peter. "Assassinat Pierre de Lusignan, roi de Chypre", 15th-century painting by Jean Froissart.

While Peter was attempting to launch another crusade and gaining recognition, his brother Prince John ruled as vice-king in Cyprus
and faced many challenges. There was an epidemic in 1363 which resulted in the death of many Cypriots, including their sister Eschiva. The Turks heard that the people of Cyprus
were dying and took advantage by raiding and pillaging the villages. During this time there were also conflicts between the Genose navies docked at Famagusta
and the native Cypriots. Peter was in Genoa at the time and negotiated peace. He failed to gain the support of the major rulers but set off on a crusade with what men he had. He sacked the city of Alexandria, but was prevented from moving on to Cairo, and succeeded only in angering the Sultan. Peter moved on to Beirut, Tripoli, and in 1368 attempted once again to unite Europe
in a crusade. Pope Urban V
Pope Urban V
instead had Peter make peace with the Sultan of Egypt, who was attacking Christian ships in retaliation for Peter's crusade. The increased commerce under Peter’s reign led to Famagusta
becoming one of the wealthiest cities of its time. It became renown as a place where the rich could live in lavish surroundings. While on one of his visits to Rome Peter received word that the barons of Armenia
wanted him as king. He returned to Cyprus
to find that his queen had been unfaithful while he was away, and he tyrannized all nobles she showed favor to, including his brothers. In 1369 Peter was assassinated while in bed by three of his own knights. During his reign he was known as the epitome of chivalry, and was the greatest king of the Lusignan dynasty. He was succeeded by his 12-year-old son, Peter II. Peter’s brother John served as regent for 12-year-old Peter II. John’s appointment was opposed by many, especially Peter’s wife Eleanor of Aragon, who suspected John of arranging the assassination. Vowing revenge, Eleanor asked for military aid from Europe
in order to punish Peter I's murderers. The Genoese agreed, and invaded in 1373, which led to them capturing Famagusta, the most important port in the region. Peter II recalled forces from cities along the Asian Minor to defend Cyprus, resulting in their loss. He signed a treaty with the Genoese, one of the conditions being that his uncle, James, the youngest brother of his father Peter I, be exiled from Cyprus. This ended the war, but James was captured by the Genoese in Rhodes and held captive in Genoa. After the war Eleanor finally killed Prince John, still under the belief he had murdered her husband. Peter II signed a peace treaty with the Sultan of Egypt, and died in 1382 at Nicosia. The Parliament of Cyprus
decided that James I of Cyprus
was to succeed as the new king. Unfortunately James was still a captive of the Genoese. While in captivity he had wed Helvis of Brunswick-Grubenhagen and had 12 children. After agreeing to give the Genoese more rights in Cyprus, he was released. While he was away Cyprus
was governed by a council of 12 nobles. Some of the nobles opposed his return, led by the brothers Perotte and Vilmonde de Montolivve, who wished to be kings themselves. In 1385 James returned again, and succeeded, being crowned in Nicosia. In 1388 he was crowned king of Jerusalem, and in 1393, following the death of his cousin Leon of Armenia, he was crowned king of Armenia. James died in 1398, and was succeeded by his son Janus. Fall of Armenia[edit]

Tomb of Leo V, last king of Armenia, in the Couvent des Célestins, Paris. It was desecrated in the French Revolution
French Revolution
and a new one was built in the Basilique Saint-Denis.[8]

After the death of his kinsman, Constantine IV
Constantine IV
sought an alliance with the Sultan of Egypt, who Peter had made an enemy. This angered the barons of Armenia, who feared annexation by the sultan, and in 1373 Constantine IV
Constantine IV
was murdered. In 1374, Leon V de Lusignan was crowned King of Armenia. He was raised in Cyprus
after having fled Constantine III, and while there he became a knight in the Order of the Sword, which was founded by King Peter I. In 1375, Armenia
was invaded by the Mameluks
and Leon was forced to surrender, putting an end to the last fully independent Armenian entity of the Middle Ages after three centuries of sovereignty. The title was claimed by his cousin, James I of Cyprus, uniting it with the titles of Cyprus
and Jerusalem.[3] Leo and his family were held captive in Cairo
for several years, until King John I of Castile
John I of Castile
ransomed him and made him Lord of Madrid. He died in Paris
in 1393 after trying and failing to gather support for another crusade. Kings of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Armenia[edit] Janus, son of James I and Helvis, married Charlotte de Bourbon and their marriage was described as a "cornerstone in the revitalisation of French culture in the Lusignan court that characterised Janus's rule".[9] Charlotte died on 15 January 1422 of the plague. She was buried in the Royal Monastery of Saint Dominic's in Nicosia. Her many descendants included Queen Charlotte of Cyprus, Queen Jeanne III of Navarre; French Kings Charles VIII, Francis I, Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX, Henry III, Henry IV and the subsequent Bourbon kings; Anne of France, and Mary, Queen of Scots. She is also an ancestress of the current British Royal Family.[citation needed] As king Janus tried to take back Famagusta, which was still held by the Genoese, but was thwarted by conspirators. In 1403, the governor of Genoa, de Mengre, had talks with Janus' representative Giorgio Billi which ended in an agreement by which the cities remained under Genoese hands. Later, he forced the Cypriot people to pay special taxes to assemble an army and siege machines, and he besieged Famagusta
for three years but in vain, since there was access from the sea to the city. In 1406 the siege ended and the Genoese tried to occupy Limassol, but were defeated. Two years later, the island was affected by epidemics. Simultaneously, there were many raids of locusts on the island, which caused destruction to agriculture. A new epidemic arrived in 1419–20, which probably caused the death of Janus' second wife, Charlotte on 15 January 1422. Because the king was very distraught about her death, the body of the dead queen was moved out of the palace where her funeral was, in order to not be seen by Janus. Meanwhile, because Cyprus
was still a permanent base of campaign for pirates and adventurers, after raids around the Cypriot coasts, Janus had repeated discussions with the Sultan of Egypt
Sultan of Egypt
via the sultan's representatives. Janus was unable to stop the raids, which gave the Muslims a reason to attack Cyprus. Cypriot nobles and officials of the kingdom participated in the raids. Barsbay, the Sultan of Egypt, sent military forces to Cyprus
several times. A small force, around 1424, attacked Limassol, and in 1425 the Egyptian army attacked Famagusta
and then pillaged Larnaca
together with the nearby area, including Kiti, Dromolaxia, Kellia, Aradippou and Agrinou. After Larnaca, they went to Limassol, which was also sacked, including the city's castle. In the summer of 1426, the Mamluks launched a large-scale attack against the island. Led by Tangriver Mohamed and Inal el Kakimi, their army contained over 3,000 men and included Mamliks, Turks and Arabs and arrived at the island with 180 ships near Avdimou. Limassol
was again occupied. Janus mustered his army and moved from Nicosia
to Limassol. He asked in vain for help from the forces in Europe: the Genoese were his enemies, and the Venetians and others did not want to destroy commercial relations with the sultan. Following the Battle of Chirokitia
Battle of Chirokitia
(7 July 1426) against the Mamluks, King Janus was captured by the Egyptian forces. He was ransomed after ten months of captivity in Cairo. During his captivity his brother Hugh of Lusignan, Archbishop of Nicosia, took charge of Cyprus. After their victory, the Mamluks pillaged Larnaca
again and then Nicosia, the capital of Cyprus. The royal family retreated to fortified Kyrenia
and were rescued. The invaders took a great deal of loot and captives before they left the island. That disaster, together with the previous raids, the war operations of Janus against Genoese, the epidemics and the invasion of locusts, caused the Cypriot serfs to revolt, as they suffered from living in conditions of utter poverty. The leader of the Cypriot revolutionaries was Alexis, whom they declared as king in Lefkoniko. The revolution was widespread supported by much of the population, who elected their own leaders in many places of Cyprus. Meanwhile, Janus was humiliated in Cairo: they took him, tied up with chains and riding a donkey, in front of the sultan. He was forced to kneel and worship nine times the soil on which the sultan stepped. Europeans mediated in the case, obtaining the release of Janus after collecting sufficient monies for the required ransoms. Cyprus
also had to offer the sultan an annual tax based on income from 5,000 duchies. This tax continued to be paid even after the end of Frankish rule in Cyprus. Together with Janus, some of the captives bought their freedom after their families collected money for ransoms. Those who remained as captives were sold as slaves. While Janus was captive in Cyprus, the nobles and the royal family members were trying to gain his release, while dealing with Alexis' rebellion. With help from Europe, the rebellion was repressed after 10 months. The rebels' leader was arrested and, after terrible tortures, was executed in Nicosia
on 12 May 1427, the same day that King Janus arrived in Paphos
from Cairo. He died in 1432 and was succeeded by his son John.

After the fall of Armenian Cilicia, Lusignan-controlled Cyprus
was the only Christian state in the Middle East.

John married Amadea Palaiologina of Monferrato; she died in 1440. After this he married Helena Palaiologina, the granddaughter of Eastern Roman Emperor
Eastern Roman Emperor
Manuel II Palaeologus. They had two daughters, the eldest of which, Charlotte, would succeed him as ruler of Cyprus. He also had an illegitimate son, James, by his mistress Marietta de Patras. James was made Archbishop of Nicosia
at age 16, but was stripped of his title after murdering the Royal Chamberlain. John eventually forgave him, and appeared to be ready to name James as his successor, but died in 1458 before doing so. He was succeeded by his daughter Charlotte. Charlotte's reign was troubled and brief. She succeeded in building an alliance with the Genoese, via her marriage to Louis of Savoy, Count of Geneva, but it proved futile. Her half-brother James made an alliance with the sultanate of Egypt
Sayf ad-Din Inal. Their combined forces recaptured Famagusta
for the Lusignans, and their blockade forced Charlotte to stay in the castle of Kyrenia
for three years. In 1463 she and Louis fled Cyprus
for Rome, where they were welcomed by Pope Pius II. James was crowned king and married Catherine Cornaro
Catherine Cornaro
in 1468 to establish an alliance with Venice. In 1472 Catherine arrived in Cyprus, and James died several months later under suspicious circumstances. Their son James III of Cyprus
died at one year of age, bringing an end to the Lusignan kingdoms. Legacy[edit]

"...the Lusignans also accumulated an impressive array of titles that extended their influence almost as far and wide as the Roman emperors had done." — Paul Sire, King Arthur's European Realm: New Evidence from Monmouth's Primary Sources[10]

Besides the Cypriot branch, through the acts of the Count
of Poitiers, Alphonse de Poitiers, by the 18th century the domains of Lusignans were divided among a number of other branches :

Lusignan-Lezay Lusignan-Vouvant Lusignan-Cognac Lusignan-Jarnac (the Counts d'Eu) Lusignan-Sidon The principal branch retains Lusignan and the County of La Marche

Two of the Lusignan domains in France
were erected into feudal Marquisates in 1618 and 1722 by Kings Louis XIII and Louis XV respectively.[11] "Prince" de Lusignan[edit] In 1880, a former Maronite
priest Kafta declared that his wife Marie was a descendant of Guy de Lusignan
Guy de Lusignan
and styled her Princess of Lusignan of Cyprus, of Jerusalem
and of Armenia. He took the name Guy de Lusignan and title of Prince. They started selling self-styled chivalric orders.[12] After the death of Guy/Kafta in 1905, Marie's lover became Grand Master and called himself Comte d'Alby de Gratigny. He became involved in a fake art scandal in 1910.[13][14][15] Dynastic orders[edit] The self-styled Prince of the 1880s sold dynastic orders; in some cases, these are based on actual historical orders associated with Lusignan.[12]

Order of Saint Catherine of Mount Sinai Purportedly founded in 1063 by Robert de Lusignan, surnamed "bras-de-fer", for knights on the Crusades
making pilgrimage to Saint Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai. Order of Mélusine Purportedly founded in 1186 by Isabella of Ibelin, Queen of Cyprus
and Jerusalem. Named after Melusine, legendary fairy wife of Raymond de Forez, founder of the house of Lusignan. Order of the Sword of Cyprus
or Silence Purportedly founded in 1195 by Guy de Lusignan
Guy de Lusignan
for the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. Order of Saint Blaise
Saint Blaise
of Armenia Not revived by the self-styled prince, but reputed to have been awarded by the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
in the twelfth century. Saint Blaise
Saint Blaise
was the family's patron saint.

Castles and Palaces[edit] France[edit]

Château de Lusignan
Château de Lusignan
in its heyday the largest castle in France

Tour Mélusine
Tour Mélusine
15th Century Tower constructed to support the defensive fortifications at the village of Vouvant.

Château of Saint Jean d'Angle

Château de Parthenay

Château de La Rochefoucauld


Tower of David

Krak des Chevaliers

Kerak Castle

Sidon Sea Castle

Beaufort Castle


Royal Palace


Saint Hilarion Castle


Buffavento Castle

Kantara Castle

Armenian Cilicia[edit]

Mamure Castle



"Castle of the Snakes"

In Mythology[edit] Melusine[edit]

Melusine's secret is discovered. "Die schöne Melusine", 1844 painting by Julius Hübner.

According to European folklore the House of Lusignan
House of Lusignan
was founded by the faerie Melusine. In the legend Melusine
was exiled from Avalon and doomed to turn into a serpent from the waist down every Saturday. One day a prince, Raymondin of Poitou, came across her in the woods. He had just killed his uncle in a hunting accident and was distraught. Melusine
helped him with this, and he later returned seeking her out. He proposed marriage, and she agreed on the condition that she be left alone every Saturday. Raymondin agreed, and together they had ten children, founding the dynasty. They built the Château de Lusignan
Château de Lusignan
in 15 days, naming it after Melusine. One day Raymondin's brothers asked why she disappeared every Saturday, and Raymondin said that it was a condition of their marriage. One brother spied through the door, and saw Melusine bathing. She was a serpent, or according to some sources, a mermaid, from waist down. He told Raymondin of this, and when Melusine
was confronted she wept at the betrayal, turned into a dragon, and flew away. She would fly over the castle whenever a new Lusignan became lord. It is for this reason that a mermaid is the Lusignan crest and dragons were their supporters.[16] These symbols also adorned the family's various castles. The House of Plantagenet
House of Plantagenet
also claims shared ancestry from Melusine. In popular culture[edit]

King Peter I of Cyprus
is mentioned in The Canterbury Tales. Melusine, the mythological founder of the family, is used as the logo for Starbucks.[17] Kingdom of Heaven (film)
Kingdom of Heaven (film)
centers on the Battle of Hattin
Battle of Hattin
and capture of Jerusalem, with Marton Csokas
Marton Csokas
playing Guy de Lusignan. La reine de Chypre, 1841 opera by Fromental Halévy. Guy de Lusignan
Guy de Lusignan
is a main character in Decameron
by Giovanni Boccaccio. Thomas Aquinas's political treatise, On Kingship, was written for King Hugh III of Cyprus. Sir Walter Scott, in The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border (1802–1803), recounts the legend of Melusina, a supernatural creature The civil war between James II (called "Zacco") and Charlotte of Cyprus
forms the historical background to the events of Dorothy Dunnett's novel Race of Scorpions.


^ Basmadjian, K. J. (Nov–Dec 1920). "Cilicia: Her Past and Future". The New Armenia. 12 (11-12): 168–9.  ^ The Advocate: America's Jewish Journal, Volume 44. 21 December 1921 p. 628 ^ a b c Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Badmoutioun Hayots, Volume II (in Armenian). Athens, Greece: Hradaragoutioun Azkayin Oussoumnagan Khorhourti. pp. 29–56.  ^ Hill, George (2010). A History of Cyprus, Vol. 2 (1 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 441. ISBN 978-1108020633. Retrieved 4 June 2015.  ^ Notes and Queries: A Medium of Intercommunication for Literary Men, General Readers, Etc. Vol. 10. Series 5. London: John Francis, 1878. p. 190 ^ Runciman, p. 180 ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". Cartelfr.louvre.fr. Retrieved 2012-08-11.  ^ Basmadjian, K. J. (Nov–Dec 1920). "Cilicia: Her Past and Future". The New Armenia
12 (11-12): 168–9. ^ Andrée Giselle Simard, The Manuscript Torino J.II.9: A Late Medieval Perspective on Musical Life and Culture at the Court of the Lusignan Kings at Nicosia", pp.35-36, December 2005, retrieved on 15 June 2009 ^ Sire, Paul King Arthur's European Realm: New Evidence from Monmouth's Primary Sources. 2014, McFarland p. 182 0786478012 ^ Dictionnaire des Titres et des terres titrées en France
sous l'ancien régime», Eric Thiou, Éditions Mémoire et Documents, Versailles, 2003 ^ a b Gillingham, Harrold E. (1935). Ephemeral Decorations. ANS Numismatic Notes and Monographs. 66. New York: American Numismatic Society. pp. 2–3; 20–31. OCLC 952177109. Retrieved 8 July 2016.  ^ Order of Melusine ^ NY Times, 24 April 1910, D´ Aulby Protege of Pseudo Prince [dead link] ^ Revived and Recently Created Orders of Chivalry ^ * Richardson, Douglas (2011). Kimball G. Everingham. In Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study In Colonial And Medieval Families, 2nd Edition. CreateSpace. p. 679. ISBN 1449966314. Google Book Search. Retrieved on November 12, 2014. ^ Rippin, Ann (2007). "Space, place and the colonies: re-reading the Starbucks' story". Critical perspectives on international business. Emerald Group Publishing. 3 (2): 136–149. doi:10.1108/17422040710744944. ISSN 1742-2043. 

Further reading[edit]

 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lusignan". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 130–131.  Endnotes:

Louis de Mas Latrie, Histoire de l'île de Chypre sous les princes de la maison de Lusignan (Paris, 1852-1853) W. Stubbs, Lectures on Medieval and Modern History (3rd ed., Oxford, 1900)

Royal house House of Lusignan

Preceded by House of Anjou Ruling house of the Kingdom of Jerusalem 1186–1192 Succeeded by House of Aleramici

Preceded by House of Plantagenet Ruling house of the Kingdom of Cyprus 1192–1474 Succeeded by Venetian Republic

Preceded by House of Hohenstaufen Ruling house of the Kingdom of Jerusalem 1268–1474 Succeeded by None

Preceded by Hethumids Ruling house of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia 1342–1344 Succeeded by House of Neghir

Preceded by House of Neghir Ruling house of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia 1362–1467 Succeeded by None

v t e

Royal houses of Europe

Nordic countries


Knýtlinga Fairhair Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg


Bjelbo Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov


Fairhair Knýtlinga Hardrada Gille Sverre Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg


Munsö Stenkil Sverker Eric Bjelbo Estridsen Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse-Kassel Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte


Fairhair Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Britain and Ireland


Mercia Wuffing Kent Sussex Essex Bernicia Deira Northumbria Uí Ímair Wessex Knýtlinga Normandy Angevin Plantagenet Lancaster York Tudor


Fergus Óengus Strathclyde Mann and the Isles Alpin Northumbria Bernicia Uí Ímair Galloway Dunkeld Sverre Balliol Bruce Stuart


Dinefwr Aberffraw Gwynedd Mathrafal Cunedda Tudor


Ulaid Dál Riata Érainn Corcu Loígde Laigin Connachta Uí Néill Ó Gallchobhair Ó Domhnail Ó Néill Ó Máel Sechlainn Mac Murchada Ó Briain Mac Lochlainn Ó Conchobhair

Gaelic Ireland

Laigin Síl Conairi Ulaid Dáirine Osraige Cruthin Dál nAraidi Connachta Uí Fiachrach Uí Briúin Uí Néill Síl nÁedo Sláine Clann Cholmáin Eóganachta Chaisil Glendamnach Raithlind Uí Dúnlainge Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
(Norse) Uí Ceinnselaig Dál gCais Ó Briain Mac Carthaig Ó Conchobhair Ó Ruairc De Burgh (Norman) FitzGerald (Norman) Ó Domhnaill Ó Néill

Great Britain

Stuart Orange-Nassau Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Windsor

Eastern Europe


Angevin Progon Arianiti Thopia Kastrioti Dukagjini Wied Zogu Ottoman Savoy


Orontid Artaxiad Arsacid Bagratid Artsruni Rubenids Hethumids Lusignan Savoy


Boričević Kulinić Kotromanić Kosača Ottoman Habsburg-Lorraine


Dulo Krum Cometopuli Asen Smilets Terter Shishman Sratsimir Battenberg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Trpimirović Domagojević Svačić Ottoman Luxembourg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine Bonaparte Savoy (disputed)


Plantagenet Lusignan Ottoman Savoy


Pharnavazid Artaxiad Arsacid Ottoman Chosroid Bagrationi


Argead Macedonian Doukas Komnenos Angelos Laskaris Palaiologos Ottoman Wittelsbach Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg


Mindaugas Gediminids Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov


Dragoș (Drăgoșești) Rossetti Bogdan-Muşat Movilești Drăculeşti Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Racoviță Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Basarab


Vojislavljević Balšić Ottoman Crnojević Petrović-Njegoš


House of Basarab Rossetti Bogdan-Mușat Movilești Drăculești Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Romanov Racoviță Ottoman Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Romania/Royal family


Rurik Borjigin Godunov Shuysky Vasa Romanov


Vlastimirović Vukanović Nemanjić Lazarević Mrnjavčević Dejanović Branković Ottoman Obrenović Karađorđević




Rurikids Piast Gediminids Olshanski Olelkovich Giray Romanov Habsburg-Lorraine

1 Transcontinental country. 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia
but having socio-political connections with Europe.

Western Europe


Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Merovingian Carolingian Capet Valois Bourbon Bonaparte Orléans


Aleramici Appiani Bonaparte Bourbon-Parma Bourbon-Two Sicilies Carolingian Della Rovere Este Farnese Flavian Gonzaga Grimaldi Habsburg Julio-Claudian Malatesta Malaspina Medici Montefeltro Nerva–Antonine Ordelaffi Orsini Palaiologos Pallavicini Savoy Severan Sforza Visconti


Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Bourbon-Parma




Bonaparte Orange-Nassau (Mecklenburg) (Lippe) (Amsberg)


Vímara Peres Burgundy Aviz Habsburg Spanish Braganza

Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Asturias Barcelona Jiménez Burgundy Champagne Capet Évreux Trastámara Habsburg Bourbon

Bonaparte Savoy

Central Europe


Babenberg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine


Přemyslid Piast Luxembourg Jagiellon Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine


Ascania Carolingian Conradines Ottonian Luitpolding Salian Süpplingenburg Hohenstaufen Welf Habsburg Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Nassau Luxembourg Wittelsbach Schwarzburg Brunswick-Lüneburg House of Pomerania Hohenzollern Württemberg Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Mecklenburg Vasa Palatine Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov Bonaparte Wettin Lippe Zähringen


Árpád Přemyslid Wittelsbach Angevin Luxembourg Hunyadi Jagiellon Szapolyai Ottoman Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine




Piast Přemyslid Samborides Griffins Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski

After partitions:

Kingdom of Poland Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Wettin Duchy of Warsaw Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk Hohenzollern Duchy of Poznań

v t e

House of Lusignan

Kings of Jerusalem


Guy Aimery I


Hugh I John II Henry II Hugh IV Peter II Peter I James I Janus John Charlotte I James II James III

Kings of Cyprus


Aimery Hugh I Henry I Hugh II Hugh III John I Henry II Amalric Regent
and usurper Hugh IV Peter I Peter II James I Janus John II Charlotte James II James III

Kings of Armenian Cilicia


Constantine II Constantine IV Leo V


James I Janu