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_LUPANG HINIRANG_ (English : _Chosen Land_; Spanish : _Patria Adorada_) is the national anthem of the Philippines . Its music was composed in 1898 by Julián Felipe , and the lyrics were adapted from the Spanish poem _Filipinas _, written by José Palma in 1899. Originally written it did not have lyrics when it was adopted as the anthem of the revolutionary First Philippine Republic and subsequently played during the proclamation of Philippine independence on June 12, 1898.

Under the American period , the Flag Act of 1907 prohibited the public display of flags, banners, emblems, or devices used by revolutionaries in the Philippine–American War . Under this law, the colonial government banned the song from being played. The Flag Law was repealed in 1919. Under the Commonwealth , Commonwealth Act № 382, approved on September 5, 1938, officially adopted the musical arrangement and composition by Julián Felipe as the national anthem.

The Spanish lyrics were translated into Tagalog beginning in the 1940s, with the current Filipino version from 1956 undergoing a slight revision in the 1960s. Over the years, several English versions came into use. On February 12, 1998, Republic Act № 8491 codified the Filipino lyrics, abandoning use of the Spanish and English versions.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Other anthems

* 2 Title

* 3 Lyrics

* 3.1 Other historical lyrics

* 4 Misheard lyrics * 5 Music and tempo

* 6 Usage and regulation

* 6.1 Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines

* 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links

HISTORY

Julián Felipe

José Palma

_Lupang Hinirang_ began as incidental music which President Emilio Aguinaldo commissioned for use in the proclamation of Philippine independence from Spain . This task was given to Julián Felipe and was to replace a march which Aguinaldo had deemed unsatisfactory. The original title of this new march was _Marcha Filipina-Magdalo_ ("Mágdalo Philippine March"), and was later changed to _Marcha Nacional Filipina_ ("Philippine National March") upon its adoption as the national anthem of the First Philippine Republic on 11 June 1898, a day before independence was to be proclaimed.

Felipe said that he had based his composition on three other musical pieces: the _ Marcha Real _, which is the current Spanish national anthem; the _Grand March_ from Giuseppe Verdi\'s _ Aïda _; and the French national anthem, _ La Marseillaise _. It was played by the Banda San Francisco de Malabón (now called the _Banda Matanda_, from present-day General Trias ) during the proclamation rites on 12 June.

In August 1899, the soldier and writer José Palma penned the Spanish poem _Filipinas _. The poem was published for the first time in the newspaper _La Independencia_ on 3 September 1899, and was subsequently set to the tune of the _Marcha Nacional Filipina_.

Philippine law requires that the anthem always be rendered in accordance with Felipe's original musical arrangement and composition, but the original holograph cannot be located. In the 1920s, the time signature was changed to 4/4 to facilitate its singing and the key was changed from the original C major to G .

After the repeal of the Flag Law (which banned the use of all Filipino national symbols) in 1919, the Insular Government decided to translate the hymn from its original Spanish to English . The first translation was written around that time by the renowned poet Paz Marquez Benitez of the University of the Philippines . The most popular translation, called the " Philippine Hymn ", was written by Senator Camilo Osías and an American , Mary A. Lane.

Tagalog translations began appearing in the 1940s, with the first known one titled _Diwa ng Bayan _ ("Spirit of the Country"), which was sung during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines . The second most popular one was _O Sintang Lupa _ ("O Beloved Land") by Julián Cruz Balmaceda , Ildefonso Santos , and Francisco Caballo; this was adopted as the official version in 1948. Upon the adoption of _Diwa ng Bayan_, the song _Awit sa Paglikha ng Bagong Pilipinas_ and the Japanese national anthem _ Kimigayo _ were replaced.

During the term of President Ramon Magsaysay , Education Secretary Gregorio Hernández formed a commission to revise the lyrics. On 26 May 1956, the Pilipino translation _Lupang Hinirang_ was sung for the first time. Minor revisions were made in the 1960s, and it is this version by Felipe Padilla de León which is presently used. The Filipino lyrics have been confirmed by Republic Act No. 8491 (the "Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines") in 1998, abandoning use of both the Spanish and English versions.

Historian Ambeth Ocampo observed that the Spanish lyrics, which were not intended to be sung when composed, do not flow with the music very well compared to later English and Filipino versions which are smoother. Also, some of the original meanings in _Filipinas_ have been lost in translation; for example, the original _Hija del sol de oriente_ (literally, "Daughter of the Orient (Eastern) Sun") became "Child of the sun returning" in the Philippine Hymn and _Perlas ng Silanganan_ ("Pearl of the Orient") in the present official Tagalog version.

OTHER ANTHEMS

_Lupang Hinirang_ was not the first Filipino national anthem to be conceived. The composer and revolutionist Julio Nakpil penned _Marangál na Dalit ng Katagalugan _ (Honourable Hymn of the _Katagalugan_), which was later called _Salve Patria_ ("Hail, Fatherland"). It was originally intended to be the official anthem of the _ Katipunan _, the secret society that spearheaded the Revolution. It is considered a national anthem because Andrés Bonifacio , the chief founder and _Supremo_ of the _Katipunan_, converted the organisation into a revolutionary government—with himself as President—known as the _Repúblika ng Katagalugan_ (Tagalog Republic ) just before hostilities erupted. The arrangement was by Julio Nakpil, who reconstructed it from memory after the original score was destroyed in 1945 during the battle for Manila. It would later be reworked and incorporated in the orchestral piece, _Salve, Filipinas_.

The _Katipunan_ or _Republika ng Katagalugan_ was superseded by Aguinaldo's _República Filipina _. The anthem, later renamed _Himno Nacional_, was never adopted by Aguinaldo for unspecified reasons. It should be noted that the term "_Katagalugan_" in the anthem referred the Philippine Islands as a whole and not just Tagalophone Filipinos .

The translation of _Lupang Hinirang_ was used by Felipe Padilla de León as his inspiration for _ Awit sa Paglikha ng Bagong Pilipinas _, commissioned as a replacement anthem by the Japanese-controlled Second Philippine Republic during World War II , and later adapted during the Martial Law Era under President Ferdinand Marcos .

TITLE

Some English language sources erroneously translate _Lupang Hinirang_ as "Beloved Land" or "Beloved Country"; the first term is actually a translation of the incipit of the original poem _Filipinas_ (_Tierra adorada_), while "Beloved Country" is a translation of _Bayang Magiliw_, the current version's incipit and colloquial name. Some sources assert that an English version of anthem lyrics titled "Philippine Hymn" was legalised by Commonwealth Act № 382. That Act, however, only concerns itself with the instrumental composition by Julián Felipe.

LYRICS

The following Spanish, Filipino and English versions of the national anthem have been given official status throughout Philippine history. However, only the most recent and current Filipino version is officially recognised by law. The Flag and Heraldic Code, approved on 12 February 1998 specifies, "The National Anthem shall always be sung in the national language within or outside the country; violation of the law is punishable by a fine and imprisonment. Several bills have been introduced to amend the Flag and Heraldic Code to highlight the importance of complying, abiding and conforming to the standard expression as prescribed by law. As of 2015 , none have been enacted into law.

Original Spanish Version _Marcha Nacional Filipina_ (1899) Official Commonwealth-Era English Version _The Philippine Hymn_ (1938) Official Filipino Version _Lupang Hinirang_ (1958, rev. 1960s)

Tierra adorada Hija del sol de Oriente, Su fuego ardiente En ti latiendo está.

¡Tierra de amores! Del heroísmo cuna, Los invasores No te hollarán jamás.

En tu azul cielo, en tus auras, En tus montes y en tu mar Esplende y late el poema De tu amada libertad.

Tu pabellón, que en las lides La victoria iluminó, No verá nunca apagados Sus estrellas ni su sol.

Tierra de dichas, del sol y amores, En tu regazo dulce es vivir. Es una gloria para tus hijos, Cuando te ofenden, por ti morir.

Land of the morning Child of the sun returning With fervor burning Thee do our souls adore.

Land dear and holy, Cradle of noble heroes, Ne’er shall invaders Trample thy sacred shores.

Ever within thy skies and through thy clouds And o'er thy hills and sea Do we behold the radiance, feel the throb Of glorious liberty

Thy banner dear to all our hearts Its sun and stars alight, Oh, never shall its shining fields Be dimmed by tyrants might!

Beautiful land of love, o land of light, In thine embrace 'tis rapture to lie But it is glory ever, when thou art wronged For us, thy sons to suffer and die

Bayang Magiliw, Perlas ng Silanganan Alab ng puso Sa Dibdib mo'y buhay.

Lupang Hinirang, Duyan ka ng magiting, Sa manlulupig Di ka pasisiil

Sa dagat at bundok, Sa simoy at sa langit mong bughaw, May dilag ang tula At awit sa paglayang minamahal.

Ang kislap ng watawat mo'y Tagumpay na nagniningning; Ang bituin at araw niya, Kailan pa ma'y di magdidilim

Lupa ng araw, ng luwalhati't pagsinta, Buhay ay langit sa piling mo; Aming ligaya na pag may mang-aapi, Ang mamatay nang dahil sa iyo.

OTHER HISTORICAL LYRICS

Pre-Commonwealth English version: _O Land Beloved_ (1919)

O land beloved, Child of the sunny Orient, Whose ardent spirit Ever burns in thy breast!

O land of beauty, Cradle of valiant warriors, Tyrant oppressors Never will daunt thy sons!

On the blue seas and verdant hills And in the winds and azure skies, Thy immortal voice of Liberty We hear in ringing song arise.

On thy dear banner that has led Thy sons to victory in the fight, Forever shall its sun and stars Unclouded shine with golden light.

Philippines, O land beloved of the sun, On thy dear bosom life is sweet! But in the hour when men must die for thee, Gladly our lives we’ll lay at thy feet!

Official Japanese -era Tagalog version: _Diwa ng Bayan_ (1943) Unofficial English translation: _Spirit of the Country_

Lupang mapalad, Na mutya ng silangan; Bayang kasuyo, Ng sangkalikasan.

Buhay at yaman, Ng Kapilipinuhan; Kuha't bawi, Sa banyagang kamay.

Sa iyong langit, bundok, batis, dagat na pinalupig; Nailibing na ang karimlan, Ng kahapong pagtitiis.

Sakit at luha, hirap, Sisa at sumpa sa pagaamis; ay wala nang lahat at naligtas, Sa ibig manlupit.

Hayo't magdiwang lahi kong minamahal, Iyong watawat ang siyang tanglaw; At kung sakaling ikaw ay muling pagbantaan, Aming bangkay ang siyang hahadlang.

Land that is blessed, that is Pearl of the East; Nation in union with nature.

The life and riches Of the Filipino people Taken and reclaimed From foreign hands.

In Thy skies, mountains, Springs, seas that were conquered Buried already is the darkness Of yesterday's suffering.

Pain and tears, hardship, Difficulty and curse of oppression Are all gone and are saved From those who wish to be cruel .

Come, let us celebrate, my beloved race, Thy flag shall be our guiding light; And should Thou be once more threatened, Our corpses shall block the way.

Official post- World War II Tagalog version: _O Sintang Lupa_ (1948) Unofficial English translation: _O Beloved Land_

O sintang lupa, Perlas ng Silanganan; Diwang apoy kang Sa araw nagmula.

Lupang magiliw, Pugad ng kagitingan, Sa manlulupig Di ka papaslang.

Sa iyong langit, simoy, parang. Dagat at kabundukan, Laganap ang tibok ng puso Sa paglayang walang hanggan.

Sagisag ng watawat mong mahal Ningning at tagumpay; Araw't bituin niyang maalab Ang s'yang lagi naming tanglaw.

Sa iyo Lupa ng ligaya't pagsinta, Tamis mabuhay na yakap mo, Datapwa't langit ding kung ikaw ay apihin Ay mamatay ng dahil sa 'yo.

O beloved land, Pearl of the Orient, A fiery spirit Thou art From the sun come forth.

Land dearest, Nest of valour, To the conquerors Thou shalt never be slain.

In Thy skies, air, meadows, Seas and mountains, Widespread is the heartbeat of freedom without end.

Thy precious flag symbolizes Brilliance and victory; Its sun and stars ablaze Shall ever be our guiding light.

In Thee, Land of joy and loving, 'Tis sweet to live embraced by Thee. Therefore heaven, too, if Thou would be oppressed, Is to die because of Thee.

MISHEARD LYRICS

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The _Lupang Hinirang_ is often taught in schools only during the first year of each educational division (e.g., Grade 1 (in elementary), first year of high school). As time passes, however, students may forget the original lyrics, and replace some words with similar-sounding ones . The most common is the replacement of the word _niya_ (third person possessive; "her/his/its") in "_Ang bituin at araw niya_" ("its stars and sun") with either _nang_ ("so", "in this manner", "that is") or _niya't_ (contracted "and" with "hers/his").

Other common errors include substitution of _na_ ("when") in "_Aming ligaya na 'pag may mang-aapi_" ("'Tis our joy when there be oppressor") with "_ng_" ("of"); "_alab_" ("flame", "passion") in "_Alab ng puso_" ("Burning of the heart") with "_alam_" ("know", "knowledge"); and "_mong_" (contraction of _mo_ and _ng_, meaning "yours that is") in "_Sa langit mong bughaw_" ("in the heavens of yours which is blue") with "_mo'y_" ("yours is").

MUSIC AND TEMPO

_ The lyrics of Lupang Hinirang_, rendered in the precolonial Baybayin script.

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R.A. 8491 specifies that _Lupang Hinirang_ "shall be in accordance with the musical arrangement and composition of Julián Felipe ." However, when literally followed, this means that the national anthem should only be performed by a pianist or by a brass band, as these were the only versions that were produced by Julián Felipe. Moreover, the original version was composed in duple time (i.e., in a time signature of 2/4) as compared to the present quadruple time (4/4). It cannot be sung according to the original score, because the music would be so fast that singers would be unable keep pace.

During televised boxing matches featuring Filipino boxer Manny Pacquiao , singers have been both praised and criticized by the National Historical Institute (NHI) for singing too slow or too fast. The NHI says that the proper tempo is a 2/4 and 100 metronomes and that it should last 53 seconds.

USAGE AND REGULATION

Article XVI, Section 2 of the 1987 Constitution specifies that "The Congress may, by law, adopt a new name for the country, a national anthem, or a national seal, which shall be truly reflective and symbolic of the ideals, history, and traditions of the people. Such law shall take effect only upon its ratification by the people in a national referendum."

FLAG AND HERALDIC CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES

Republic Act № 8491 ("The Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines") regulates usage of the National Anthem, and contains the complete lyrics of _Lupang Hinirang_. Enacted in 1998, it states that _Lupang Hinirang_ "shall always be sung in the national language " regardless if performed inside or outside the Philippines, and specifies that the singing must be done "with fervor".

The Anthem is usually played during public gatherings in the Philippines or in foreign countries where the Filipino audience is sizable. The Code also provides that it be played at other occasions as may be allowed by the National Historical Institute (now known as the National Historical Commission of the Philippines ). It prohibits its playing or singing for mere recreation, amusement, or entertainment except during International competitions where the Philippines is the host or has a representative; local competitions; during the "startup " and "closedown " of radio broadcasting and television stations in the country; and before the initial and last screening of films and before the opening of theatre performances.

The Code also specifies the penalties for any entity which violates its provisions. A government official or employee who fails to observe the Flag Code may face administrative sanctions in addition to the penalties imposed by law.

SEE ALSO

* Marangal na Dalit ng Katagalugan * Flag of the Philippines * Oath of Allegiance (Philippines) * Pledge of Allegiance to the Philippine Flag

NOTES

* ^ Spelled with an F since 1973, affirmed in 1987 – see respective Constitutions * ^ _A_ _B_ This translation is intended for illustrating the evolution of the Philippine national anthem.

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Republic Act No. 8491 of February 12, 1998_ An Act prescribing the Code of the National Flag,Anthem, Motto, Coat-of-Arms and other heraldic items and devices of the Philippines_. Retrieved July 23, 2016. * ^ Pomeroy, William J. (1992). _The Philippines: Colonialism, Collaboration, and Resistance_. International Publishers Co. p. 10. ISBN 0-7178-0692-8 . Retrieved 26 January 2008. ; excerpted quote: "In 1909 an entire band was sent to prison for playing the Philippine National Anthem at a festival in Quiapo, Manila .", citing Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (2005). "The Revolt of the Masses: The Story of Bonifacio and the Katipunan". Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. * ^ "The National Anthem’s predecessor and influences". Malacañang Palace . Retrieved 2015-12-26. * ^ _A_ _B_ The original text, as published in Barcelona, Spain in 1912: Palma, José (1912). _Melancólicas: Coleccion de Poesías_. Manila , Philippines : Liberería Manila Filatélica. (Digital copy found online at HathiTrust Digital Library on 2010-03-31)

* ^ _A_ _B_ Contemporary restatements of and comments about the original text: ^ "The Making of Filipinas". _The Philippines Centennial_. msc.edu.ph. Retrieved 2008-11-12. ^ "The Philippine National Anthem". _Filipinas Heritage Library_. filipinaslibrary.org.ph. Retrieved 2010-03-30. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Ocampo, Ambeth R. (May 24, 2005). "The right way to sing the National Anthem". _ Philippines Daily Inquirer_. Archived from the original on May 26, 2005. (archived from the original on 26 May 2005) * ^ Cribb, Robert; Narangoa Li (2003-07-22). _Imperial Japan and National Identities in Asia, 1895–1945_. Routledge. p. 28. ISBN 0-7007-1482-0 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Ocampo, Ambeth R. (1995). _Mabini's Ghost_. Pasig City , Philippines : Anvil Publishing. * ^ Guerrero, Milagros C. "Andres Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution". National Commission for culture and the Arts (NCCA). Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. Retrieved 26 September 2007. * ^ Colleen A. Sexton (2006). _ Philippines in Pictures_. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-8225-2677-3 . * ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (September 2007). "World and Its Peoples: Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Brunei". Marshall Cavendish: 1242. ISBN 978-0-7614-7642-9 . * ^ "Philippines". nationalanthems.info. Retrieved 2015-12-26. * ^ Kate McGeown (5 October 2010). " Philippines national anthem abuse subject to new law". BBC News. Retrieved 12 February 2013.

* ^ Introduced bills:

* "14th Congress : Senate Bill No. 772 : PHILIPPINE NATIONAL ANTHEM". Senate of the Philippines. September 3, 2007. * "15th Congress : Senate Bill No. 2619 : PHILIPPINE NATIONAL ANTHEM". Senate of the Philippines. December 7, 2010. * "15th Congress : Senate Bill No. 2691 : PHILIPPINE NATIONAL ANTHEM". Senate of the Philippines. February 15, 2011.

* ^ "The Philippines Flag and the National Anthem". _eSerbisyo_. Government of the Republic of the Philippines. 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-03-23. Retrieved 2010-05-04. * ^ Ocampo, Ambeth R. (March 14, 2014). "‘Lupang Hinirang’ or ‘Bayang Magiliw’?". _ Philippine Daily Inquirer _. Philippine Daily Inquirer, Inc. Retrieved July 28, 2016. * ^ "O Sintang Lupa". Sintunado. Archived from the original on 2012-05-12. * ^ _A_ _B_ ABELLA and SOPHIA DEDACE,, Jerri (March 14, 2010). "Arnel Pineda\'s version of RP anthem criticized". _GMA News_. Retrieved 23 August 2013. * ^ " 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". RP Government. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.

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