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Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint
Saint
Louis, was King of France
King of France
and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint. Louis was crowned in Reims
Reims
at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louis's childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and put an end to the Albigensian Crusade
Albigensian Crusade
which had started 20 years earlier. As an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most-powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan
Hugh X of Lusignan
and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England
Henry III of England
tried to restore his continental possessions, but was defeated at the battle of Taillebourg. His reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy, Maine and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king was the supreme judge to whom anyone could appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country and introduced the presumption of innocence in criminal procedure. To enforce the application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs. Following a vow he made after a serious illness and confirmed after a miraculous cure, Louis IX took an active part in the Seventh and Eighth Crusades. He died from dysentery during the latter crusade, and was succeeded by his son Philip III. Louis's actions were inspired by Christian zeal and Catholic devotion. He decided to severely punish blasphemy, for which he set the punishment to mutilation of the tongue and lips,[1]gambling, interest-bearing loans and prostitution. He spent exorbitant sums on presumed relics of Christ, for which he built the Sainte-Chapelle, and he expanded the scope of the Inquisition
Inquisition
and ordered the burning of Talmuds and other Jewish books. He is the only canonized king of France, and there are consequently many places named after him.

Contents

1 Sources 2 Early life 3 Marriage 4 Disputation of Paris 5 Crusading

5.1 Seventh Crusade 5.2 Four years in Palestine 5.3 Eighth Crusade

6 Patron of arts and arbiter of Europe 7 Religious nature 8 Ancestry 9 Children 10 Death and legacy 11 Veneration as a saint 12 Places named after Saint
Saint
Louis 13 Notable portraits 14 In fiction 15 References

15.1 Bibliography

16 External links

Sources[edit] Much of what is known of Louis's life comes from Jean de Joinville's famous Life of Saint
Saint
Louis. Joinville was a close friend, confidant, and counsellor to the king, and also participated as a witness in the papal inquest into Louis' life that ended with his canonisation in 1297 by Pope Boniface VIII. Two other important biographies were written by the king's confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. While several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the king's death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres
William of Chartres
wrote from personal knowledge of the king, and all three are biased favorably. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus' biography,[2] which he wrote using the papal inquest mentioned above. Early life[edit] Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, and baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church. His grandfather on his father's side was Philip II, king of France; while his grandfather on his mother's side was Alfonso VIII, king of Castile. Tutors of Blanche's choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, writing, military arts, and government.[3] He was 9 years old when his grandfather Philip II died and his father ascended as Louis VIII.[4] A member of the House of Capet, Louis was twelve years old when his father died on 8 November 1226. He was crowned king within the month at Reims
Reims
cathedral. Because of Louis's youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority.[5] Louis' mother trained him to be a great leader and a good Christian. She used to say:[6]

I love you, my dear son, as much as a mother can love her child; but I would rather see you dead at my feet than that you should ever commit a mortal sin.

His younger brother Charles I of Sicily
Charles I of Sicily
(1227–85) was created count of Anjou, thus founding the second Angevin dynasty. No date is given for the beginning of Louis's personal rule. His contemporaries viewed his reign as co-rule between the king and his mother, though historians generally view the year 1234 as the year in which Louis began ruling personally, with his mother assuming a more advisory role.[7] She continued to have a strong influence on the king until her death in 1252.[5][8] Marriage[edit] On 27 May 1234, Louis married Margaret of Provence (1221 – 21 December 1295), whose sister Eleanor later became the wife of Henry III of England. The new queen's religious zeal made her a well suited partner for the king. He enjoyed her company, and was pleased to show her the many public works he was making in Paris, both for its defense and for its health. They enjoyed riding together, reading, and listening to music. This attention raised a certain amount of jealousy in his mother, who tried to keep them apart as much as she could.[9] Disputation of Paris[edit] Main article: Disputation of Paris In the 1230s, Nicholas Donin, a Jewish convert to Christianity, translated the Talmud
Talmud
and pressed 35 charges against it to Pope Gregory IX by quoting a series of blasphemous passages about Jesus, Mary or Christianity. There is a Talmudic passage, for example, where Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth is sent to Hell to be boiled in excrement for eternity. Donin also selected an injunction of the Talmud
Talmud
that permits Jews to kill non-Jews. This led to the Disputation of Paris, which took place in 1240 at the court of Louis IX, where rabbi Yechiel of Paris defended the Talmud
Talmud
against the accusations of Nicholas Donin. The translation of the Talmud
Talmud
from Judeo Aramaic to a non-Jewish, profane language was seen by Jews as a profound violation. The disputation led to the condemnation of the Talmud
Talmud
and the burning of thousands of copies.[10] Crusading[edit] When Louis was 15, his mother brought an end to the Albigensian Crusade
Crusade
in 1229 after signing an agreement with Count Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse that cleared the latter's father of wrongdoing.[11] Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse
Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse
had been suspected of murdering a preacher on a mission to convert the Cathars.[12] Louis went on two crusades, in his mid-30s in 1248 (Seventh Crusade), and then again in his mid-50s in 1270 (Eighth Crusade). Seventh Crusade[edit]

Engraving
Engraving
representing the departure from Aigues-Mortes
Aigues-Mortes
of King Louis IX for the Seventh Crusade
Seventh Crusade
(by Gustave Doré)

Equestrian statue of King Saint
Saint
Louis at the Sacré-Cœur

In 1248 Louis decided that his obligations as a son of the Church outweighed those of his throne, and he left his kingdom for a disastrous six-year adventure. Since the base of Muslim
Muslim
power had shifted to Egypt, Louis did not even march on the Holy Land; any war against Islam
Islam
now fit the definition of a Crusade.[13] Louis and his followers landed in Egypt on 5 June 1249 and began his first crusade with the rapid capture of the port of Damietta.[13][14] This attack caused some disruption in the Muslim
Muslim
Ayyubid empire, especially as the current sultan, Al-Malik as-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub, was on his deathbed. However, the march from Damietta
Damietta
toward Cairo through the Nile River Delta
Nile River Delta
went slowly. The rising of the Nile and the summer heat made it impossible for them to advance and follow up on their success.[15] During this time, the Ayyubid sultan died, and the sultan's wife Shajar al-Durr
Shajar al-Durr
set in motion a sudden power shift that would make her Queen and eventually place the Egyptian army of the Mamluks
Mamluks
in power. On 6 April 1250 Louis lost his army at the Battle of Al Mansurah[16] and was captured by the Egyptians. His release was eventually negotiated in return for a ransom of 400,000 livres tournois (at the time France's annual revenue was only about 1,250,000 livres tournois) and the surrender of the city of Damietta.[17]

Louis IX was taken prisoner at the Battle of Fariskur, during the Seventh Crusade
Seventh Crusade
(Gustave Doré).

Four years in Palestine[edit] Following his release from Egyptian captivity, Louis spent four years in the Latin kingdoms of Acre, Caesarea, and Jaffa, using his wealth to assist the Crusaders
Crusaders
in rebuilding their defences[18] and conducting diplomacy with the Islamic powers of Syria and Egypt. In the spring of 1254 he and his army returned to France.[13] Louis exchanged multiple letters and emissaries with Mongol rulers of the period. During his first crusade in 1248, Louis was approached by envoys from Eljigidei, the Mongol military commander stationed in Armenia and Persia.[19] Eljigidei suggested that King Louis should land in Egypt, while Eljigidei attacked Baghdad, to prevent the Saracens of Egypt and those of Syria from joining forces. Louis sent André de Longjumeau, a Dominican priest, as an emissary to the Great Khan Güyük
Güyük
Khan (r. 1246–48) in Mongolia. Güyük
Güyük
died before the emissary arrived at his court, however, and nothing concrete occurred. Instead his queen and now regent, Oghul Qaimish, politely turned down the diplomatic offer.[20] Louis dispatched another envoy to the Mongol court, the Franciscan William of Rubruck, who went to visit the Great Khan Möngke (1251–1259) in Mongolia. He spent several years at the Mongol court. In 1259, Berke, the ruler of the Golden Horde, westernmost part of the Mongolian Empire, demanded the submission of Louis.[21] On the contrary, Mongolian Emperors Möngke
Möngke
and Khubilai's brother, the Ilkhan
Ilkhan
Hulegu, sent a letter seeking military assistance from the king of France, but the letter did not reach France.[22] Eighth Crusade[edit]

Death of Saint
Saint
Louis: On 25 August 1270, Saint
Saint
Louis dies under his fleurdelisé tent before the city of Tunis. Illuminated by Jean Fouquet, Grandes Chroniques de France
Grandes Chroniques de France
(1455–1460)

In a parliament held at Paris, 24 March 1267, Louis and his three sons took the cross. On hearing the reports of the missionaries, Louis resolved to land at Tunis, and he ordered his younger brother, Charles of Anjou, to join him there. The crusaders, among whom was Prince Edward of England, landed at Carthage
Carthage
17 July 1270, but disease broke out in the camp. Many died of dysentery, and on 25 August, Louis himself died.[18][23] Patron of arts and arbiter of Europe[edit] Louis' patronage of the arts drove much innovation in Gothic art
Gothic art
and architecture, and the style of his court radiated throughout Europe by both the purchase of art objects from Parisian masters for export, and by the marriage of the king's daughters and female relatives to foreign husbands and their subsequent introduction of Parisian models elsewhere. Louis' personal chapel, the Sainte-Chapelle
Sainte-Chapelle
in Paris, was copied more than once by his descendants elsewhere. Louis most likely ordered the production of the Morgan Bible, a masterpiece of medieval painting.

Pope Innocent IV
Pope Innocent IV
with Louis IX at Cluny

During the so-called "golden century of Saint
Saint
Louis", the kingdom of France
France
was at its height in Europe, both politically and economically. Saint
Saint
Louis was regarded as "primus inter pares", first among equals, among the kings and rulers of the continent. He commanded the largest army and ruled the largest and wealthiest kingdom, the European centre of arts and intellectual thought at the time. The foundations for the famous college of theology later known as the Sorbonne
Sorbonne
were laid in Paris about the year 1257.[15] The prestige and respect felt in Europe for King Louis IX were due more to the attraction that his benevolent personality created rather than to military domination. For his contemporaries, he was the quintessential example of the Christian prince and embodied the whole of Christendom
Christendom
in his person. His reputation for saintliness and fairness was already well established while he was alive, and on many occasions he was chosen as an arbiter in quarrels among the rulers of Europe.[7] Shortly before 1256, Enguerrand IV, Lord of Coucy, arrested and without trial hanged three young squires of Laon whom he accused of poaching in his forest. In 1256 Louis had him arrested and brought to the Louvre by his sergeants. Enguerrand demanded judgment by his peers and trial by battle, which the king refused because he thought it obsolete. Enguerrand was tried, sentenced, and ordered to pay 12,000 livres. Part of the money was to pay for masses in perpetuity for the men he had hanged. In 1258, Louis and James I of Aragon
James I of Aragon
signed the Treaty of Corbeil, under which Louis renounced his feudal overlordship over the County of Barcelona and Roussillon, which was held by the King of Aragon. James in turn renounced his feudal overlordship over several counties in southern France
France
including Provence
Provence
and Languedoc. In 1259 Louis signed the Treaty of Paris, by which Henry III of England
Henry III of England
was confirmed in his possession of territories in southwestern France
France
and Louis received the provinces of Anjou, Normandy
Normandy
(Normandie), Poitou, Maine, and Touraine.[5] Religious nature[edit]

Louis IX allowing himself to be whipped as penance

The perception of Louis IX as the exemplary Christian prince was reinforced by his religious zeal. Louis was a devout Catholic, and he built the Sainte-Chapelle
Sainte-Chapelle
("Holy Chapel"),[7] located within the royal palace complex (now the Paris Hall of Justice), on the Île de la Cité in the centre of Paris. The Sainte Chapelle, a perfect example of the Rayonnant
Rayonnant
style of Gothic architecture, was erected as a shrine for what he believed to be the Crown of Thorns
Crown of Thorns
and a fragment of the True Cross, supposed precious relics of the Passion of Jesus. Louis purchased these in 1239–41 from Emperor Baldwin II of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, for the exorbitant sum of 135,000 livres (the construction of the chapel, for comparison, cost only 60,000 livres). Louis IX took very seriously his mission as "lieutenant of God on Earth", with which he had been invested when he was crowned in Reims. To fulfill this duty, he conducted two crusades, and even though both ended disastrously, they contributed to his prestige. Everything he did was for the glory of God and for what he saw as the good of his people. He protected the poor and was never heard speak ill of anyone. He excelled in penance and had a great love for the Church. He was merciful even to rebels. When he was urged to put to death a prince who had followed his father in rebellion, he refused, saying: "A son cannot refuse to obey his father."[6]

Hair shirt and scourge of Louis IX. Treasury of Notre-Dame de Paris.

In 1230 the King forbade all forms of usury, defined at the time as any taking of interest. Where the original Jewish and Lombard borrowers could not be found, Louis exacted from the lenders a contribution towards the crusade which Pope Gregory was then trying to launch.[15] Louis also ordered, at the urging of Pope Gregory IX, the burning in Paris in 1243 of some 12,000 manuscript copies of the Talmud
Talmud
and other Jewish books. Eventually, the edict against the Talmud
Talmud
was overturned by Gregory IX's successor, Innocent IV.[24] In addition to Louis' legislation against usury, he expanded the scope of the Inquisition
Inquisition
in France. The area most affected by this expansion was southern France
France
where the Cathar
Cathar
heresy had been strongest. The rate of these confiscations reached its highest levels in the years before his first crusade, and slowed upon his return to France
France
in 1254. In 1250, he headed a crusade, but was taken prisoner. During his captivity, he recited the Divine Office every day. After his release, he visited the Holy Land
Holy Land
before returning to France.[6] In all these deeds, Louis IX tried to fulfill the duty of France, which was seen as "the eldest daughter of the Church" (la fille aînée de l'Église), a tradition of protector of the Church going back to the Franks
Franks
and Charlemagne, who had been crowned by the Pope Leo III in Rome in 800. Indeed, the official Latin title of the kings of France
France
was Rex Francorum, i.e. "king of the Franks" (until Louis' grandfather's reign, Philip II whose seal reads Rex Franciae, i.e. "king of France"), and the kings of France
France
were also known by the title "most Christian king" (Rex Christianissimus). The relationship between France
France
and the papacy was at its peak in the 12th and 13th centuries, and most of the crusades were actually called by the popes from French soil. Eventually, in 1309, Pope Clement V
Pope Clement V
even left Rome and relocated to the French city of Avignon, beginning the era known as the Avignon Papacy (or, more disparagingly, the "Babylonian captivity"). He was renowned for his charity. Beggars were fed from his table, he ate their leavings, washed their feet, ministered to the wants of the lepers, and daily fed over one hundred poor. He founded many hospitals and houses: the House of the Filles-Dieu for reformed prostitutes; the Quinze-Vingt for 300 blind men (1254), hospitals at Pontoise, Vernon, Compiégne.[25] St. Louis installed a house of the Trinitarian Order
Trinitarian Order
in his château of Fontainebleau. He chose Trinitarians as his chaplains, and was accompanied by them on his crusades. In his spiritual testament he wrote: "My dearest son, you should permit yourself to be tormented by every kind of martyrdom before you would allow yourself to commit a mortal sin."[6]

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Louis IX of France

16. Louis VI of France

8. Louis VII of France

17. Adelaide of Savoy

4. Philip II of France

18. Theobald II of Champagne

9. Adela of Champagne

19. Matilda of Carinthia

2. Louis VIII of France

20. Baldwin IV of Hainaut

10. Baldwin V of Hainaut

21. Alice of Namur

5. Isabella of Hainaut

22. Thierry, Count of Flanders

11. Margaret I of Flanders

23. Sibylla of Anjou

1. Louis IX of France

24. Alfonso VII of León

12. Sancho III of Castile

25. Berengaria of Barcelona

6. Alfonso VIII of Castile

26. García V of Navarre

13. Blanche of Navarre

27. Margaret of L'Aigle

3. Blanche of Castile

28. Geoffrey V of Anjou

14. Henry II of England

29. Matilda of England

7. Eleanor of England

30. William X of Aquitaine

15. Eleanor of Aquitaine

31. Aenor of Châtellerault

Children[edit]

Blanche (12 July/4 December[26] 1240 – 29 April 1243), died in infancy. Isabella (2 March 1241 – 28 January 1271), married Theobald II of Navarre. Louis (23 September 1243/24 February 1244[26] – 11 January/2 February 1260). Betrothed to Berengaria of Castile in Paris on 20 August 1255.[26] Philip III (1 May 1245 – 5 October 1285), married firstly to Isabella of Aragon in 1262 and secondly to Maria of Brabant in 1274. John (1246/1247[26] – 10 March 1248), died in infancy. John Tristan (8 April 1250 – 3 August 1270), Count of Valois, married Yolande II, Countess of Nevers. Peter (1251 – 6/7 April 1284), Count of Perche and Alençon, married Joanne of Châtillon. Blanche (early 1253[26] – 17 June 1320), married Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castile. Margaret (early 1255[26] – July 1271), married John I, Duke of Brabant. Robert (1256 – 7 February 1317), Count of Clermont, married Beatrice of Burgundy. The French crown devolved upon his male-line descendant, Henry IV, when the legitimate male line of Robert's older brother Philip III died out in 1589. Agnes (1260 – 19/20 December 1327[26]), married Robert II, Duke of Burgundy.

Louis had his two children that died in infancy to be buried at the Cistercian abbey of Royaumont; in 1820 they were transferred to Saint-Denis Basilica.[27] Death and legacy[edit]

Reliquary
Reliquary
of Saint
Saint
Louis (end of the 13th century) Basilica of Saint Dominic, Bologna, Italy

During his second crusade, Louis died at Tunis
Tunis
on 25 August 1270, in an epidemic of dysentery that swept through his army.[23][28][29] As Tunis
Tunis
was Muslim
Muslim
territory, his body was subject to the process known as mos Teutonicus (a postmortem funerary custom used in medieval Europe whereby the flesh was boiled from the body, so that the bones of the deceased could be transported hygienically from distant lands back home) for its transportation back to France.[30] He was succeeded by his son, Philip III. His heart and intestines, however, were conveyed by his younger brother, Charles I of Naples, for burial in the cathedral of Monreale near Palermo.[31] His bones were carried in a lengthy processional across Sicily, Italy, the Alps, and France, until they were interred in the royal necropolis at Saint-Denis in May 1271.[32] Charles and Philip later disbursed a number of relics to promote his veneration.[33] Veneration as a saint[edit]

Saint
Saint
Louis

Saint
Saint
Louis, painting by El Greco
El Greco
c. 1592 – 95

King of France, Confessor

Born (1214-04-25)25 April 1214 Poissy, France

Died 25 August 1270(1270-08-25) (aged 56) Tunis
Tunis
in what is now Tunisia

Venerated in Roman Catholic Church, Anglican Communion

Canonized 11 July 1297 by Pope Boniface VIII

Feast 25 August

Attributes Depicted as King of France, generally with a crown, holding a sceptre with a fleur-de-lys on the end, possibly with blue clothing with a spread of white fleur-de-lys (coat of arms of the French monarchy)

Patronage France, French monarchy, Third Order of St. Francis, Archdiocese of New Orleans, Roman Catholic Diocese of Port-Louis, hairdressers; passementiers (lacemakers)

Pope Boniface VIII
Pope Boniface VIII
proclaimed the canonization of Louis in 1297;[34] he is the only French king to be declared a saint.[35] Louis IX is often considered the model of the ideal Christian monarch.[34] The impact of his canonization was so great that many of his successors were named Louis. Named in his honour, the Sisters of Charity of St. Louis is a Roman Catholic religious order founded in Vannes, France, in 1803.[36] A similar order, the Sisters of St Louis, was founded in Juilly in 1842.[37][38] He is honoured as co-patron of the Third Order of St. Francis, which claims him as a member of the Order. Even in childhood, his compassion for the poor and suffering people had been obvious to all who knew him and when he became king, over a hundred poor people ate in his house on ordinary days. Often the king served these guests himself. Such acts of charity, coupled with Louis' devout religious practices, gave rise to the legend that he joined the Third Order of St. Francis. Though it is unlikely that Louis did join the order, his life and actions proclaimed him one of them in spirit.[3] Places named after Saint
Saint
Louis[edit] The cities of San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí
in Mexico; St. Louis, Missouri; St. Louis Park, Minnesota; St. Louis, Michigan; San Luis, Arizona; San Luis, Colorado; Saint-Louis du Sénégal; Saint-Louis in Alsace; as well as Lake Saint-Louis
Lake Saint-Louis
in Quebec, the Mission San Luis Rey de Francia in California and São Luís, Maranhão
São Luís, Maranhão
in Brazil are among the many places named after the French king and saint. The Cathedral Saint-Louis in Versailles; the Basilica of St. Louis, King of France
King of France
completed in 1834 and the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis completed in 1914, both in St. Louis, Missouri; and the St. Louis Cathedral, New Orleans were also named for the king. The French royal Order of Saint
Saint
Louis (1693–1790 and 1814–1830), the Île Saint-Louis as well as a hospital in the 10th arrondissement of Paris also bear his name. The national church of France
France
in Rome also carries his name: San Luigi dei Francesi in Italian or Saint
Saint
Louis of France in English. Also the Cathedral of St Louis in Plovdiv, Bulgaria, the Church of St Louis in Moscow, Russia, and rue Saint
Saint
Louis of Pondicherry Port-Louis, the capital city of Mauritius, as well as its cathedral are also named after St. Louis, who is the patron saint of the island. Notable portraits[edit] A bas-relief of St. Louis is one of the carved portraits of historic lawmakers that adorns the chamber of the United States House of Representatives. Saint
Saint
Louis is also portrayed on a frieze depicting a timeline of important lawgivers throughout world history in the Courtroom
Courtroom
at the Supreme Court of the United States. A statue of St. Louis by the sculptor John Donoghue stands on the roofline of the New York State Appellate Division
New York State Appellate Division
Court at 27 Madison Avenue in New York City. The Apotheosis of St. Louis
Apotheosis of St. Louis
is an equestrian statue of the saint, by Charles Henry Niehaus, that stands in front of the Saint
Saint
Louis Art Museum in Forest Park. A heroic portrait by Baron Charles de Steuben
Charles de Steuben
hangs in the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Baltimore. An 1821 gift of King Louis XVIII of France, it depicts St. Louis burying his plague-stricken troops before the siege of Tunis
Tunis
at the beginning of the Eighth Crusade
Eighth Crusade
in 1270. In fiction[edit]

Davis, William Stearns, "Falaise of the Blessed Voice" aka "The White Queen". New York, NY: Macmillan, 1904 Peter Berling, The Children of the Grail Jules Verne, "To the Sun?/Off on a Comet!" A comet takes several bits of the Earth away when it grazes the Earth. Some people, taken up at the same time, find the Tomb of Saint
Saint
Louis is one of the bits, as they explore the comet.

References[edit]

^ Olivier Bobineau, « Retour de l'ordre religieux ou signe de bonne santé de notre pluralisme laïc ? » [archive], Le Monde.fr, 8 décembre 2011 (consulté le 15 janvier 2015) ^ Vie de St Louis, ed. H.-F. Delaborde, Paris, 1899 ^ a b " Saint
Saint
Louis, King of France, Archdiocese of St. Louis, MO". Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ Plaque in the church, Collégiale Notre-Dame, Poissy, France. ^ a b c "Louis IX". Encarta. Microsoft Corporation. 2008.  ^ a b c d Fr. Paolo O. Pirlo, SHMI (1997). "St. Louis". My First Book of Saints. Sons of Holy Mary Immaculate – Quality Catholic Publications. pp. 193–194. ISBN 971-91595-4-5.  ^ a b c "Goyau, Georges. "St. Louis IX." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 24 Feb. 2013". Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ Shadis 2010, p. 17-19. ^ Goldstone 2007, p. 27-35. ^ Naomi Seidman, Faithful Renderings: Jewish-Christian Difference and the Politics of Translation, pp. 136–138 ^ Goldstone 2007, p. 17. ^ Goldstone 2007, p. 11. ^ a b c "Crusades: Crusades of the 13th century". Encarta. Microsoft Corporation. 2008.  ^ Tyerman, p. 787 ^ a b c "Lives of Saints, John J. Crawley & Co., Inc". Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ Dupuy 1993, p. 417. ^ Tyerman, pp. 789–798 ^ a b "Bréhier, Louis. "Crusades." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 24 Feb. 2013". Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ Jackson 1980, p. 481-513. ^ The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ Denis Sinor – The Mongols in the West. Journal of Asian History v.33 n.1 (1999) ^ Aigle, Denise (2005). "The Letters of Eljigidei, H¨uleg¨u and Abaqa: Mongol overtures or Christian Ventriloquism?" (PDF). Inner Asia. 7 (2): 143–162. Retrieved 26 February 2017.  ^ a b Magill & Aves, p. 606. ^ "The Pope Who Saved the Talmud". The 5 Towns Jewish Times. Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/St. Louis IX".  ^ a b c d e f g "Capetian Kings". Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ Brown 1990, p. 810. ^ Cross & Livingstone, p. 1004. ^ Lock, p. 183. ^ Westerhof 2008, p. 79. ^ Gaposchkin, p. 28. ^ Gaposchkin, pp. 28–29. ^ Gaposchkin, pp. 28–30; 76. ^ a b Louis IX, Oxford Dictionary of Saints, (Oxford University Press, 2004), 326. ^ "Louis". The New Encyclopædia Britannica: Micropædia. 7 (15 ed.). 1993. p. 497. ISBN 9780852295717.  ^ "Who We Are". Sisters of Charity of St. Louis. 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.  ^ "Our Father and Patron St. Louis / St. Louis, King of France, 1214–1270 AD" St. Louis Handbook for Schools. Sisters of St Louis. p. 8.  ^ "Our history". Sisters of St Louis. 2015. Retrieved 26 February 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]

Brown, Elizabeth A. R. (Autumn 1990). "Authority, the Family, and the Dead in Late Medieval France". French Historical Studies. 16 (4).  Cross, Frank Leslie; Livingstone, Elizabeth A., eds. (2005). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192802909.  Davis, Jennifer R. (Autumn 2010). "The Problem of King Louis IX of France: Biography, Sanctity, and Kingship". Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 41 (2): 209–225. doi:10.1162/JINH_a_00050.  Dupuy, Trevor N. (1993). The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History. HarperCollins.  Gaposchkin, M. Cecilia. (2008). The Making of Saint
Saint
Louis: Kingship, Sanctity, and Crusade
Crusade
in the Later Middle Ages. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801476259.  Goldstone, Nancy (2007). Four Queens: The Provençal Sisters who ruled Europe. New York: Viking Penguin. ISBN 9780670038435.  Jackson, Peter (July 1980). "The Crisis in the Holy Land
Holy Land
in 1260". The English Historical Review. 95 (376): 481–513. doi:10.1093/ehr/XCV.CCCLXXVI.481. ISSN 0013-8266. JSTOR 568054.  Jordan, William Chester (1979). Louis IX and the Challenge of the Crusade: A Study in Rulership. Princeton.  Le Goff, Jacques (2009). Saint
Saint
Louis. University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0268033811.  Lock, Peter (2013). The Routledge Companion to the Crusades. Routledge. ISBN 1135131376.  Magill, Frank Northen; Aves, Alison, eds. (1998). Dictionary of World Biography: The Middle Ages. 2. Routledge. ISBN 1579580416.  Shadis, Miriam (2010). Berenguela of Castile (1180–1246) and Political Women in the High Middle Ages. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-23473-7.  Streyer, J.R. (1962). "The Crusades of Louis IX". In Setton, K.M. A History of the Crusades. Philadelphia.  Westerhof, Danielle (16 October 2008). Death and the Noble Body in Medieval England. Boydell Press. ISBN 1843834162. 

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John de Joinville. Memoirs of Louis IX, King of France. Chronicle, 1309. Saint
Saint
Louis in Medieval History of Navarre Site about The Saintonge War between Louis IX of France
France
and Henry III of England. Account of the first Crusade
Crusade
of Saint
Saint
Louis from the perspective of the Arabs.. A letter from Guy, a knight, concerning the capture of Damietta
Damietta
on the sixth Crusade
Crusade
with a speech delivered by Saint
Saint
Louis to his men. Etext full version of the Memoirs of the Lord of Joinville, a biography of Saint
Saint
Louis written by one of his knights "St. Lewis, King of France", Butler's Lives of the Saints "Man of the Middle Ages, Saint
Saint
Louis, King of France", Archdiocese of St. Louis, MO

Louis IX of France House of Capet Born: 25 April 1214 Died: 25 August 1270

Regnal titles

Preceded by Louis VIII King of France 8 November 1226 – 25 August 1270 Succeeded by Philip III

v t e

Heads of state of France

Styled President of the Republic after 1871, except from 1940 to 1944 (Chief of State) and 1944 to 1947 (Chairman of the Provisional Government). Detailed monarch family tree Simplified monarch family tree

Merovingians (486–751)

Clovis I Childebert I Chlothar I Charibert I Guntram Chilperic I Sigebert I Childebert II Chlothar II Dagobert I Sigebert II Clovis II Chlothar III Childeric II Theuderic III Clovis IV Childebert III Dagobert III Chilperic II Chlothar IV Theuderic IV Childeric III

Carolingians, Robertians and Bosonids (751–987)

Pepin the Short Carloman I Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(Charles I) Louis I Charles II Louis II Louis III Carloman II Charles the Fat OdoR Charles III Robert IR RudolphB Louis IV Lothair Louis V

House of Capet
House of Capet
(987–1328)

Hugh Capet Robert II Henry I Philip I Louis VI Louis VII Philip II Louis VIII Louis IX Philip III Philip IV Louis X John I Philip V Charles IV

House of Valois
House of Valois
(1328–1589)

Philip VI John II Charles V Charles VI Charles VII Louis XI Charles VIII Louis XII Francis I Henry II Francis II Charles IX Henry III

House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(1422–1453)

Henry VI of England

House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(1589–1792)

Henry IV Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis XV Louis XVI Louis XVII

First Republic (1792–1804)

National Convention Directory Consulate

First Empire (1804–1815)

Napoleon
Napoleon
I Napoleon
Napoleon
II

Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
(1815–1830)

Louis XVIII Charles X Louis XIX Henry V

July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1830–1848)

Louis Philippe I

Second Republic (1848–1852)

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure Executive Commission Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte

Second Empire (1852–1870)

Napoleon
Napoleon
III

Government of National Defense (1870–1871)

Louis-Jules Trochu

Third Republic (1871–1940)

Adolphe Thiers Patrice de Mac-Mahon Jules Armand Dufaure* Jules Grévy Maurice Rouvier* Sadi Carnot Charles Dupuy* Jean Casimir-Perier Charles Dupuy* Félix Faure Charles Dupuy* Émile Loubet Armand Fallières Raymond Poincaré Paul Deschanel Alexandre Millerand Frédéric François-Marsal* Gaston Doumergue Paul Doumer André Tardieu* Albert Lebrun

Vichy France
France
(1940–1944)

Philippe Pétain

Provisional Government (1944–1947)

Charles de Gaulle Félix Gouin Georges Bidault Vincent Auriol Léon Blum

Fourth Republic (1947–1958)

Vincent Auriol René Coty

Fifth Republic (1958–present)

Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher* Georges Pompidou Alain Poher* Valéry Giscard d'Estaing François Mitterrand Jacques Chirac Nicolas Sarkozy François Hollande Emmanuel Macron

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk*. Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before being fully elected.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 89182909 LCCN: n79055295 ISNI: 0000 0001 2142 9736 GND: 118729411 SELIBR: 208757 SUDOC: 028525949 BNF: cb120344600 (data) ULAN: 500245812 NDL: 00865799 NKC: mzk2002111

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