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LOTHIAN (/ˈloʊ.ði.ən/ ; Scots : Lowden; Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
: Lodainn ) is a region of the Scottish Lowlands
Scottish Lowlands
, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth
and the Lammermuir Hills . The principal settlement is the Scottish capital, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, while other significant towns include Livingston , Linlithgow
Linlithgow
, Queensferry , Dalkeith , Musselburgh , North Berwick , Dunbar
Dunbar
, and Haddington .

Historically, the term Lothian
Lothian
referred to a province encompassing most of what is now southeastern Scotland. In the 7th century it came under the control of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia
Bernicia
, the northern part of the later kingdom of Northumbria
Northumbria
, but the Angles' grip on Lothian
Lothian
was quickly weakened following the Battle of Nechtansmere in which they were defeated by the Picts. Lothian
Lothian
was annexed to the Kingdom of Scotland
Scotland
around the 10th century.

Subsequent Scottish history saw the region subdivided into three shires —Mid , East , and West Lothian —leading to the popular term "THE LOTHIANS".

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Lothian
Lothian
under the control of the Angles * 3 Language * 4 Local Government * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The Lothian
Lothian
Burn as it passes through Niddrie , Midlothian.

The origin of the name is debated. It perhaps comes from the British *Lugudūniānā (Lleuddiniawn in Modern Welsh spelling) meaning 'country of the fort of Lugus
Lugus
', the latter being the Celtic god of commerce. Alternatively it may take its name from a watercourse which flows through the region, now known as the Lothian
Lothian
Burn, the name of which comes from the British lutna meaning 'dark or muddy stream'.

A popular legend is that the name comes from King Lot , who is king of Lothian
Lothian
in the Arthurian legend . The usual Latin form of the name is Laudonia.

LOTHIAN UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE ANGLES

Traprain Law in East Lothian, said to have been the site of King Lot's capital.

Lothian
Lothian
was settled by Angles at an early stage and formed part of the Kingdom of Bernicia, which extended south into present-day Northumberland. Many place names in the Lothians and Scottish Borders demonstrate that the English language became firmly established in the region from the sixth century onwards. In due course Bernicia
Bernicia
united with Deira
Deira
to form the Kingdom of Northumbria
Northumbria
.

Little is recorded of Lothian's history specifically in this time. After the Norse settled in what is now Yorkshire, Northumbria
Northumbria
was effectively cut in two. How much Norse influence spread to the English north of the River Tees
River Tees
is uncertain. Bernicia
Bernicia
continued as a distinct territory, sometimes described as having a king, at other times an ealdorman (earl). Bernicia
Bernicia
became distinct from other English territories at this time due to its links with the other Christian kingdoms in what is present-day Scotland
Scotland
and seems to have little to do with the Norse-controlled areas to the south. Roger of Wendover wrote that Edgar, King of the English granted Laudian to the King of Scots in 973 on condition that he come to court whenever the English king or his successors wore his crown. It is widely accepted by medieval historians that this marks the point at which Lothian
Lothian
came under Scottish control. The River Tweed became the de facto Anglo-Scottish border
Anglo-Scottish border
following the Battle of Carham in 1018.

William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
invaded Lothian
Lothian
and crossed over the River Forth but did not re-annex it. At this time Lothian
Lothian
appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
as Loðen or Loþen. As late as 1091, the Chronicle describes how the Scottish king, Malcolm , 'went with his army out of Scotland
Scotland
into Lothian', and in the reign of King David , the people living in Lothian
Lothian
are described as 'English' subjects of the king.

LANGUAGE

In the post-Roman period, Lothian
Lothian
was dominated by British speakers whose language is generally called Cumbric and was closely related to Welsh . In Welsh tradition Lothian
Lothian
is part of the 'Old North' (Hen Ogledd ). Reminders exist in British place-names like Tranent , Linlithgow
Linlithgow
and Penicuik .

Although one of the few areas of mainland Scotland
Scotland
where the Gaelic language was never dominant, the presence of some Gaelic place-names, e.g. Dalry , Currie
Currie
, Balerno
Balerno
and Cockenzie , has been attributed to the 'temporary occupation... the presence of a landowning Gaelic-speaking aristocracy and their followers for something like 150–200 years.'

Over time and due to various factors, the language of Lothian
Lothian
and Northumbria, a northern variety of Middle English
Middle English
, came to displace Gaelic as the language of the Lowlands. The dialects of the modern Lothians are sometimes considered to be part of Central Scots .

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973
Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973
abolished the county councils and burgh corporations, replacing them with regions and districts . Lothian
Lothian
Regional Council formally took over responsibility from the old county councils in May 1975. The Lothian
Lothian
region was split into four districts: East, Mid and West Lothian, and the City of Edinburgh. The former had more or less identical boundaries to the county council it replaced, but West and Mid Lothian
Lothian
had large amounts of land taken from them to form the City of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
district. The council was responsible for education, social work, water, sewerage, transport (including local buses within Edinburgh).

The two-tier system was ended by the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994 . Lothian
Lothian
Regional Council was replaced by four unitary councils based on the former districts. The Pentland Hills
Pentland Hills
in rural Lothian.

NOTES

* ^ Also known as the Burdiehouse , Niddrie , Brunstane or Magdalene Burn as it passes through those neighbourhoods. * ^ In contrast to the nearby Peffer Burn, the name of which comes from pefr, 'clear stream'.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Estimated population by sex, single year of age and administrative area, mid-2014" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 17 May 2015. * ^ "Dictionary of the Scots Language :: SND :: Lowden prop. n". Dsl.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-05-26. * ^ "Ancient Lothian
Lothian
Timeline". Cyberscotia.net. * ^ Koch, John, Celtic Culture, ABC-CLIO, 2006, p. 1191. * ^ A B Harris, Stuart (2002). The Place Names of Edinburgh: their Origins and History. London & Edinburgh: Steve Savage Publishers Ltd. ISBN 1904246060 . * ^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
* ^ A B "Ancient Lothian". Cyberscotia.net. * ^ Craig Cockburn (2005-11-02). "Gaelic roots need to be unearthed". BBC News. * ^ W. F. H. Nicolaisen (2001). Scottish Place Names. John Donald Publishers. p. 240. ISBN 0-85976-556-3 .

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