LOTHIAN (/ˈloʊ.ði.ən/ ; Scots : _Lowden_;
Scottish Gaelic :
_Lodainn_ ) is a region of the
Scottish Lowlands , lying between the
southern shore of the
Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth and the
Lammermuir Hills . The
principal settlement is the Scottish capital,
Edinburgh , while other
significant towns include Livingston ,
Linlithgow , Queensferry ,
North Berwick ,
Dunbar , and Haddington .
Historically, the term
Lothian referred to a province encompassing
most of what is now southeastern Scotland. In the 7th century it came
under the control of the Anglian kingdom of
Bernicia , the northern
part of the later kingdom of
Northumbria , but the Angles' grip on
Lothian was quickly weakened following the Battle of Nechtansmere in
which they were defeated by the Picts.
Lothian was annexed to the
Scotland around the 10th century.
Subsequent Scottish history saw the region subdivided into three
shires —Mid , East , and
West Lothian —leading to the popular term
* 1 Etymology
Lothian under the control of the Angles
* 3 Language
* 4 Local Government
* 5 Notes
* 6 References
* 7 External links
Lothian Burn as it passes through Niddrie , Midlothian.
The origin of the name is debated. It perhaps comes from the British
_*Lugudūniānā_ (_Lleuddiniawn_ in Modern Welsh spelling) meaning
'country of the fort of
Lugus ', the latter being the Celtic god of
commerce. Alternatively it may take its name from a watercourse which
flows through the region, now known as the
Lothian Burn, the name of
which comes from the British _lutna_ meaning 'dark or muddy stream'.
A popular legend is that the name comes from
King Lot , who is king
Lothian in the
Arthurian legend . The usual Latin form of the name
LOTHIAN UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE ANGLES
Traprain Law in East Lothian, said to have been the site of King
Lothian was settled by Angles at an early stage and formed part of
the Kingdom of Bernicia, which extended south into present-day
Northumberland. Many place names in the Lothians and Scottish Borders
demonstrate that the English language became firmly established in the
region from the sixth century onwards. In due course
Deira to form the Kingdom of
Little is recorded of Lothian's history specifically in this time.
After the Norse settled in what is now Yorkshire,
effectively cut in two. How much Norse influence spread to the English
north of the
River Tees is uncertain.
Bernicia continued as a distinct
territory, sometimes described as having a king, at other times an
Bernicia became distinct from other English
territories at this time due to its links with the other Christian
kingdoms in what is present-day
Scotland and seems to have little to
do with the Norse-controlled areas to the south. Roger of Wendover
wrote that Edgar, King of the English granted _Laudian_ to the King of
Scots in 973 on condition that he come to court whenever the English
king or his successors wore his crown. It is widely accepted by
medieval historians that this marks the point at which
under Scottish control. The
River Tweed became the _de facto_
Anglo-Scottish border following the
Battle of Carham in 1018.
William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror invaded
Lothian and crossed over the River
Forth but did not re-annex it. At this time
Lothian appears in the
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle _ as _Loðen_ or _Loþen_. As late as 1091, the
_Chronicle_ describes how the Scottish king, Malcolm , 'went with his
army out of
Scotland into Lothian', and in the reign of King David ,
the people living in
Lothian are described as 'English' subjects of
In the post-Roman period,
Lothian was dominated by British speakers
whose language is generally called
Cumbric and was closely related to
Welsh . In Welsh tradition
Lothian is part of the 'Old North' (_Hen
Ogledd _). Reminders exist in British place-names like
Although one of the few areas of mainland
Scotland where the Gaelic
language was never dominant, the presence of some Gaelic place-names,
e.g. Dalry ,
Cockenzie , has been attributed to
the 'temporary occupation... the presence of a landowning
Gaelic-speaking aristocracy and their followers for something like
Over time and due to various factors, the language of
Northumbria, a northern variety of
Middle English , came to displace
Gaelic as the language of the Lowlands. The dialects of the modern
Lothians are sometimes considered to be part of
Central Scots .
Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 abolished the county
councils and burgh corporations, replacing them with regions and
Lothian Regional Council formally took over responsibility
from the old county councils in May 1975. The
Lothian region was split
into four districts: East, Mid and West Lothian, and the City of
Edinburgh. The former had more or less identical boundaries to the
county council it replaced, but West and Mid
Lothian had large amounts
of land taken from them to form the City of
Edinburgh district. The
council was responsible for education, social work, water, sewerage,
transport (including local buses within Edinburgh).
The two-tier system was ended by the Local Government etc. (Scotland)
Act 1994 .
Lothian Regional Council was replaced by four unitary
councils based on the former districts. The
Pentland Hills in
* ^ Also known as the
Burdiehouse , Niddrie ,
Magdalene Burn as it passes through those neighbourhoods.
* ^ In contrast to the nearby Peffer Burn, the name of which comes
from _pefr_, 'clear stream'.
* ^ "Estimated population by sex, single year of age and
administrative area, mid-2014" (PDF). National Records of Scotland.
Retrieved 17 May 2015.
* ^ "Dictionary of the Scots Language :: SND :: Lowden prop. n".
Dsl.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-05-26.
* ^ "Ancient
Lothian Timeline". Cyberscotia.net.
* ^ Koch, John, _Celtic Culture_, ABC-CLIO, 2006, p. 1191.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Harris, Stuart (2002). _The Place Names of Edinburgh:
their Origins and History_. London & Edinburgh: Steve Savage
Publishers Ltd. ISBN 1904246060 .
* ^ _
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle _
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Ancient Lothian". Cyberscotia.net.
* ^ Craig Cockburn (2005-11-02). "Gaelic roots need to be
unearthed". BBC News.
* ^ W. F. H. Nicolaisen (2001). _Scottish Place Names_. John Donald
Publishers. p. 240. ISBN 0-85976-556-3 .