HOME
The Info List - Long War (1591–1606)


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire

* Crown of Bohemia * Saxony * Austria
Austria

Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Croatia Transylvania
Transylvania
Wallachia
Wallachia
Moldavia
Moldavia
Spain
Spain
Zaporozhian Host Serbian hajduks Papal States
Papal States
Tuscany Knights of St. Stephen Duchy of Ferrara
Duchy of Ferrara
Duchy of Mantua
Duchy of Mantua
Republic of Ragusa
Republic of Ragusa
Duchy of Savoy Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
Nogai Horde
Nogai Horde

COMMANDERS AND LEADERS

Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor
Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor
Vincenzo I Gonzaga Hermann Christof von Russwurm Karl von Mansfeld Ruprecht von Eggenberg Giorgio Basta István Bocskai Michael the Brave
Michael the Brave
Starina Novak Sultan
Sultan
Murad III
Murad III
, Ottoman Emperor Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed III
Mehmed III
, Ottoman Emperor Sultan
Sultan
Ahmed I
Ahmed I
, Ottoman Emperor Koca Sinan Pasha Lala Mehmed Pasha Tiryaki Hasan Pasha Damat Ibrahim Pasha Telli Hasan Pasha
Telli Hasan Pasha

STRENGTH

95,000 160,000–180,000

CASUALTIES AND LOSSES

Unknown, heavy Unknown, heavy

* v * t * e

Long Turkish War
Long Turkish War

* Sisak * Veszprém * Tata (1) * Székesfehérvár (1) * Romhány * Banat * Győr (1) * Călugăreni * Giurgiu
Giurgiu
* Esztergom
Esztergom
* Brest * Eger
Eger
* Keresztes * Herzegovina * Tata (2) * Győr (2) * Buda
Buda
(1) * Şelimbăr * Kanizsa * Mirăslău * Guruslău * Székesfehérvár (2) * Braşov * Buda
Buda
(2) * Buda
Buda
(3) * BOCSKAI UPRISING

* v * t * e

Ottoman–Habsburg wars
Ottoman–Habsburg wars

HUNGARY AND THE BALKANS

* Mohács (1526) * Hungarian Campaign (1527–28) * Croatia (1527-93) * Balkans (1529) * Vienna
Vienna
(1529) * Little War in Hungary
Little War in Hungary
(1530–52) * Klis (1536–37) * Temesvár (1552) * Eger
Eger
(1552) * Szigetvár (1566) * Long War (1593–1606) * Bocskai insurrection (1604–1606) * Austro-Turkish War (1663–64) * Great Turkish War
Great Turkish War
(1683–1699) * Austro-Turkish War (1716–18) * Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–39) * Austro-Turkish War (1787–91)

MEDITERRANEAN

* Cephalonia (1500) * Balearics (1501) * Pantelleria (1515) * Algiers (1516) * Tlemcen (1517) * Algiers (1529) * Formentera (1529) * Coron (1532-34) * Tunis (1535) * Mahón (1535) * Preveza (1538) * Castelnuovo (1539) * Girolata (1540) * Alborán (1540) * Algiers (1541) * Nice (1543) * Mahdiye (1550) * Gozo (1551) * Tripoli (1551) * Ponza (1552) * Corsica (1553-59) * Bougie (1555) * Oran (1556) * Balearics (1558) * Mostaganem (1558) * Djerba (1560) * Orán and Mers-el-Kébir (1563) * Vélez de la Gomera (1564) * Malta (1565) * Lepanto (1571) * Tunis (1574) * Fez (1576) * Cape Corvo (1613) * Żejtun (1614) * Cape Celidonia (1616)

The LONG TURKISH WAR or THIRTEEN YEARS\' WAR was an indecisive land war between the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, primarily over the Principalities of Wallachia
Wallachia
, Transylvania
Transylvania
and Moldavia
Moldavia
. It was waged from 1593 to 1606 but in Europe is sometimes called the FIFTEEN YEARS WAR, reckoning from the 1591–92 Turkish campaign that captured Bihać
Bihać
.

In the series of Ottoman wars in Europe it was the major test of force between the Ottoman–Venetian War (1570–73) and the Cretan War (1645–69) . The next of the major Ottoman-Habsburg wars
Ottoman-Habsburg wars
was the Great Turkish War
Great Turkish War
of 1683-99. Overall, the conflict consisted in a great number of costly battles and sieges, but with very little result for either side.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview * 2 Prelude

* 3 History

* 3.1 1593 * 3.2 1594 * 3.3 1595–96 * 3.4 1601–06

* 4 Aftermath * 5 Battles * 6 References * 7 Sources

OVERVIEW

The major participants of the war were the Habsburg Monarchy, the Principality of Transylvania
Transylvania
, Wallachia
Wallachia
and Moldavia
Moldavia
opposing the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. Ferrara, Tuscany, Mantua and the Papal State
Papal State
were also involved to a lesser extent.

PRELUDE

Skirmishes along the Habsburg–Ottoman border intensified from 1591. In 1592, the fort of Bihać
Bihać
fell to the Ottomans.

HISTORY

1593

In the spring of 1593, Ottoman forces from the Eyalet of Bosnia laid siege to the city of Sisak in Croatia, starting the Battle of Sisak that eventually ended in a victory for the Christian
Christian
forces on June 22, 1593. That victory marked the end of the Hundred Years\' Croatian–Ottoman War (1493-1593).

The war started on July 29, 1593, when the Ottoman army under Sinan Pasha launched a campaign against the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
and captured Győr (Turkish : Yanıkkale) and Komarom (Turkish : Komaron) in 1594.

1594

In early 1594, the Serbs in Banat rose up against the Ottomans . The rebels had, in the character of a holy war , carried war flags with the icon of Saint Sava
Saint Sava
. The war banners were consecrated by Patriarch Jovan Kantul , and the uprising was aided by Serbian Orthodox metropolitans Rufim Njeguš of Cetinje and Visarion of Trebinje . In response, Ottoman Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Koca Sinan Pasha demanded that the green flag of the Prophet Muhammed be brought from Damascus
Damascus
to counter the Serb flag and ordered that the sarcophagus containing the relics of Saint Sava
Saint Sava
be removed from the Mileševa monastery and transferred to Belgrade
Belgrade
via military convoy. Along the way, the Ottoman convoy killed all the people in its path as a warning to the rebels. The Ottomans publicly incinerated the relics of Saint Sava on a pyre atop the Vračar plateau on April 27 and had the ashes scattered.

1595–96

In 1595, an alliance of Christian
Christian
European powers was organized by Pope Clement VIII
Pope Clement VIII
to oppose the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(the Holy League of Pope Clement VIII
Pope Clement VIII
); a treaty of alliance was signed in Prague
Prague
by the Holy Roman Emperor , Rudolf II and Sigismund Báthory of Transylvania. Aron Vodă of Moldavia
Moldavia
and Michael the Brave
Michael the Brave
of Wallachia
Wallachia
joined the alliance later that year. The Spanish Habsburgs sent an army of 6,000 experienced infantry and 2,000 cavalry from the Netherlands under Karl von Mansfeld, commander in chief of the Spanish Army of Flanders
Army of Flanders
, who took the command of the operations in Hungary.

The Ottomans' objective of the war was to seize Vienna
Vienna
, while the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
wanted to recapture the central territories of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
controlled by the Ottoman Empire. Control over the Danube
Danube
line and possession of the fortresses located there was crucial. The war was mainly fought in Royal Hungary (mostly present day western Hungary and southern Slovakia
Slovakia
), Transdanubia , Royal Croatia and Slavonia
Slavonia
, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
( Rumelia
Rumelia
– present day Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Serbia
Serbia
), and Wallachia
Wallachia
(in present-day southern Romania ). The Habsburg troops broke into the Hatvan
Hatvan
castle in 1596

In 1595, the Christians, led by Mansfeld, captured Esztergom
Esztergom
and Visegrád
Visegrád
, strategic fortresses on the Danube, but they did not engage in the siege of the key fortress of Buda
Buda
. The Ottomans launched a siege of Eger
Eger
(Turkish : Eğri), conquering it in 1596.

On the Balkans, in 1595 a Spanish fleet of galleys from Naples and Sicily under Pedro de Toledo, marquis of Villafranca , sacked Patras
Patras
, on the Rumelia
Rumelia
Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire, in retaliation for Turkish raids against the Italian coasts. The raid was so spectacular that Sultan
Sultan
Murad III
Murad III
discussed the extermination of the Christians of Constantinople
Constantinople
in revenge, but he finally decided to order the expulsion of all the unmarried Greeks from the city. In the following years, Spanish fleets continued to raid the Levant
Levant
waters, but there was not a reprisal of the large-scale naval warfare between Christians and Ottomans. Instead, they were privateers such as Alonso de Contreras who took the role of harassing the Ottoman sailing.

On the eastern front of the war, Michael the Brave
Michael the Brave
, prince of Wallachia, started a campaign against the Ottomans in the autumn of 1594, conquering several castles near the Lower Danube
Danube
, including Giurgiu
Giurgiu
, Brăila
Brăila
, Hârşova
Hârşova
, and Silistra
Silistra
, while his Moldavian allies defeated the Ottoman armies in Iaşi
Iaşi
and other parts of Moldova. Michael continued his attacks deep within the Ottoman Empire, taking the forts of Nicopolis , Ribnic, and Chilia and even reaching as far as Adrianople. At one point his forces were only 24 kilometres (15 mi) from the Ottoman capital, Constantinople
Constantinople
. The execution of the mutinous Walloon mercenaries in 1600

He was however forced to fall back across the Danube, and the Ottomans in turn led a massive counter-offensive (100,000 strong) which aimed to not only take back their recently captured possessions but also conquer Wallachia
Wallachia
once and for all. The push was initially successful, managing to capture not only Giurgiu
Giurgiu
but also Bucharest and Târgovişte, in spite of meeting fierce opposition at Călugăreni (23 August 1595). At this point the Ottoman command grew complacent and stopped pursuing the retreating Wallachian army, focusing instead on fortifying Târgovişte and Bucharest and considering their task all but done. Michael had to wait almost two months for aid from his allies to arrive, but when it did his counter-offensive took the Ottomans by surprise, managing to sweep through the Ottoman defences on three successive battlefields, at Târgovişte (18 October), Bucharest (22 October), and Giurgiu
Giurgiu
(26 October). The Battle of Giurgiu in particular was devastating for the Ottoman forces, which had to retreat across the Danube
Danube
in disarray.

The war between Wallachia
Wallachia
and the Ottomans continued until late 1599, when Michael was unable to continue the war due to poor support from his allies.

The turning point of the war was the Battle of Mezőkeresztes , which took place in the territory of Hungary on October 24–26, 1596. The combined Habsburg-Transylvanian force of 45–50,000 troops was defeated by the Ottoman army. The battle turned when Christian soldiers, thinking they had won the battle, stopped fighting in order to plunder the Ottoman camp. Despite this victory, the Ottomans realized for the first time the superiority of Western military equipment over Ottoman weapons. This battle was the first significant military encounter in Central-Europe between a large Christian
Christian
army and the Ottoman Turkish Army after the Battle of Mohács . Nevertheless, Austrians recaptured Győr and Komarom in 1598.

1601–06

This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (October 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

The siege of Buda
Buda
in 1602

In August 1601, at the Battle of Guruslău , Giorgio Basta and Michael the Brave
Michael the Brave
defeated the Hungarian nobility led by Sigismund Báthory , who accepted Ottoman protection. After the assassination of Michael the Brave
Michael the Brave
by mercenary soldiers under Basta's orders, the Transylvanian nobility, led by Mózes Székely , was again defeated at the Battle of Braşov in 1603 by the Habsburg Empire and Wallachian troops led by Radu Şerban . Hence, the Austrians seemed to be able to win a decisive victory.

The last phase of the war (from 1604 to 1606) corresponds to the uprising of the Prince of Transylvania
Transylvania
Stephen Bocskay . When Rudolf – mostly based on false charges – started prosecutions against a number of noble men in order to fill up the court's exhausted treasury, Bocskay, an educated strategist, resisted. He collected desperate Hungarians together with disappointed members of the nobility to start an uprising against the Habsburgs ruler. The troops marched westwards, supported by the Hajduk
Hajduk
of Hungary, won some victories and regained the territories that had been lost to the Habsburg army until Bocskay was first declared the Prince of Transylvania
Transylvania
( Târgu Mureș , February 21, 1605) and later also to Hungary (Szerencs, April 17, 1605). The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
supported Bocskay with a crown that he refused (being Christian). As Prince of Hungary he accepted negotiations with Rudolf II and concluded the Treaty of Vienna
Vienna
(1606) .

AFTERMATH

This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (October 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

The peace negotiations in Zsitvatorok in 1606

The Long War ended with the Peace of Zsitvatorok on November 11, 1606, with meagre territorial gains for the two main empires—the Ottomans won the fortresses of Eger
Eger
, Esztergom
Esztergom
and Kanisza, but gave the region of Vác
Vác
(which they had occupied since 1541) to Austria. The treaty confirmed the Ottomans' inability to penetrate further into Habsburg territories. It also demonstrated that Transylvania
Transylvania
was beyond Habsburg power. Though Emperor Rudolf had failed in his war objectives, he nonetheless won some prestige thanks to this resistance to the Turks and by presenting the war as a victory. For the first time, he was also recognized as an Emperor by the Ottomans. The treaty stabilized conditions on the Habsburg–Ottoman frontier. Also, while Bocksay managed to retain his independence, he also agreed to give up the title of "king of Hungary".

BATTLES

The siege of Buda
Buda
The siege of Esztergom
Esztergom
in 1595 The recapture of Pápa in 1597

* Sisak * Veszprém * Tata (1) * Székesfehérvár (1) * Romhány * Banat * Győr (1) * Călugăreni * Giurgiu
Giurgiu
* Esztergom
Esztergom
* Brest * Eger
Eger
* Keresztes * Herzegovina * Tata (2) * Győr (2) * Buda
Buda
(1) * Şelimbăr * Kanizsa * Mirăslău * Guruslău * Székesfehérvár (2) * Braşov * Buda
Buda
(2)

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Csorba, Csaba; Estók, János; Salamon, Konrád (1998). Magyarország Képes Tört