36.2% White British
2.1% White Irish
0.2% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller
16.2% Other White
2% White & Black Caribbean
1.2% White & Black African
1.2% White & Asian
2% Other Mixed
2.7% Other Asian
11.4% Black African
7.8% Black Caribbean
3.9% Other Black
The London Borough of Hackney (// ( listen)) is a London Borough in Inner London, United Kingdom. The historical and administrative heart of Hackney is Mare Street, which lies 5 miles (8 km) north-east of Charing Cross.
Southern and eastern parts of the borough are popularly regarded as being part of east London, with the north-west belonging to north London.
The London Plan issued by the Greater London Authority assigns whole boroughs to sub-regions for statutory monitoring, engagement and resource allocation purposes. The most recent (2011) iteration of this plan assigns Hackney to the ‘East’ sub-region, while the 2008 and 2004 versions assigned the borough to ‘North’ and ‘East’ sub-regions respectively.
The Borough is currently divided into twenty-one wards which between them return fifty-seven councillors. Fifteen of the wards return three councillors and the remaining six return two each, in a first past the post system of elections. Ward boundaries are regularly revised, with the last review being in 2014.
Unlike most other English local authorities, the Borough is now governed by a directly-elected Mayor who is also the political leader of the Council. The Mayor – currently Philip Glanville  – is supported by a cabinet, councillors and a Speaker who fulfils the civic and ceremonial duties previously undertaken by the (non-political) mayor.
The borough comprises two parliamentary constituencies: Hackney North and Stoke Newington (represented by Diane Abbott MP) and Hackney South and Shoreditch (represented by Meg Hillier MP); both are Privy Counsellors and Labour Party Members of Parliament. The borough is in the North East London Assembly constituency returning Jennette Arnold AM, as the directly elected Assembly Member. Hackney is part of the London constituency in the European Parliament.
The constituent parts of the borough are Hackney, Shoreditch and Stoke Newington. Originally Ancient Parishes, these areas have had consistent boundaries since the mediaeval period.
Parishes in Middlesex were grouped into ‘Divisions’, with Stoke Newington part of the Finsbury Division and Hackney and Shoreditch part of the Tower Division. The Tower Division was noteworthy in that the men of the area owed military service to the Tower of London.
The Ancient Parishes provided a framework for both civil (administrative) and ecclesiastical (church) functions, but during the nineteenth century there was a divergence into distinct civil and ecclesiastical parish systems. In London the Ecclesiastical Parishes sub-divided to better serve the needs of a growing population, while the Civil Parishes continued to be based on the same Ancient Parish areas.
The Metropolis Management Act 1855 merged the Civil Parishes of Hackney and Stoke Newington under a new Hackney District. This proved very unpopular, especially in more affluent Stoke Newington and after four unsuccessful attempts the two parishes regained their independence when they were separated by mutual consent under the Metropolis Management (Plumstead and Hackney) Act of 1893.
The London Government Act 1899 converted the three Civil Parishes into Metropolitan Boroughs based on the same boundaries. There were minor rationalisations, notably that Shoreditch absorbed part of the tiny Liberty of Norton Folgate (with the rest going to neighbouring Bethnal Green), while Stoke Newington absorbed the South Hornsey exclaves of Hornsey.
In 1965 the three old boroughs were merged into the new London Borough of Hackney, which adopted a coat of arms that included elements representing its predecessors:
The borough was formed by the merger of the metropolitan boroughs of Hackney, Shoreditch and Stoke Newington, with the boundaries of these very closely based on the Ancient Parishes of the same name; these areas have been consistently defined for many centuries. Historically, the River Lea formed the boundary between the predecessor counties of Middlesex and Essex.
Within these areas are a large number of sub-districts, some of which have sub-districts of their own. These areas are generally based on former hamlets which expanded and merged as the area urbanised. These sub-districts have never been administrative units so have never had any formal boundaries, however a degree of informal definition has developed.
The sub-districts typically take Metropolitan Borough\Ancient Parish boundaries where available, and can also have customary boundaries such as roads, railways, postcode boundaries or a combination of these as publicly understood limits. Despite this, many areas have only a weakly or partially understood extent and it is not unusual for perceptions of place to overlap or change over time.
Although the former boroughs\parishes are the only areas to have had formalised boundaries there is still a degree of nuance with these boundaries too. These areas are described, together with any sub-districts, as follows:
Stoke Newington is part of North London. The formal and traditional eastern boundary is Stoke Newington High Street, but West Hackney is sometimes informally considered part of the area.
Hackney is seen as part of East London and includes : Homerton, Dalston (including Kingsland and Shacklewell), Upper and Lower Clapton, Hackney Central, Hackney Wick, South Hackney, West Hackney, De Beauvoir Town and Stamford Hill - with the last three of these not always counted as part of East London.
The London Borough of Hackney covers an area of 19.06 square kilometres (7.4 sq mi), rising westward from the Lea to reach 30 metres (98 ft) above sea level at Clapton Common and Stamford Hill. The area around Victoria Park, in the south of the borough lies about 15 metres (49 ft) above sea level..
After the Norman Conquest the area became part of the Forest of Middlesex which covered much of the county, but this gives rise to misunderstanding, as in this context ‘Forest’ is a legal term referring to royal hunting rights and had a weak correlation with woodland cover, especially in the early post-Conquest Period.
By the time of the earliest reliable maps, in the 18th century, the area covered by the modern borough was an agricultural area characterised by enclosed farmland with small hamlets and very little woodland. There were a number of commons most of which survived to become the basis of modern parks. Many of the major roads were present by this time, the road now known as the A10 was Roman, and others, like many in England, may be older. 
With the obvious exception of the urbanisation of the area, the greatest changes have been to the waterways and wetlands of the area. The River Lea, the area’s primary geographic feature, has lost its grazing marshes and seen the River Lee Navigation created in 1770. This is an artificial channel of the river, passing through Hackney Cut and across the Hackney Marshes to straighten a meander of the natural river. In Roman times and for a long time after, the River Lea was an estuary, tidal as far as Hackney Wick.
The New River was opened in 1613, diverting water from the Lea catchment to create a source of drinking water for London. The New River still passes through the borough, close to Finsbury Park and flows towards Islington. Another man-made feature, the Regents Canal also crosses the borough to the south of De Beauvoir Town in the west, joining the Hertford Union Canal below Victoria Park.
Much of Hackney retains an inner-city character, but in such places as Dalston large housing estates have been joined by newly developed gated communities. In South Hackney, near Victoria Park, terraced Georgian, Victorian and Edwardian housing still survives.
Light industries in the area around the River Lea employ over 3,000 people.
The Lea and Hackney Marshes are underlain by alluvium soils; and the higher ground between Homerton and Stamford Hill is formed on a widening bed of London Clay. Brickearth deposits are within tongues of clay extending beneath Clapton Common, Stamford Hill and Stoke Newington High Street. The centre and south western districts lie on river terrace deposits of Taplow Gravel. Victoria Park and Well Street Common lie on flood plain gravel.
This data was taken between 1971 and 2000 at the nearest national weather station in Greenwich; around 7 miles (11.3 km) south of Hackney Town Hall:
|Climate data for London (Greenwich)|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.0
|Average high °C (°F)||8.3
|Average low °C (°F)||2.6
|Record low °C (°F)||−10.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||51.6
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||10.8||8.5||9.6||9.4||9.0||8.3||8.0||7.6||8.5||10.7||10.1||9.9||110.4|
|Average snowy days||4||4||3||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||3||16|
|Average relative humidity (%)||81.0||76.0||69.0||64.0||62.0||60.0||60.0||62.0||67.0||73.0||78.0||82.0||69.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||49.9||71.4||107.1||159.8||181.2||181.0||192.1||195.1||138.9||108.1||58.5||37.4||1,480.5|
|Source #1: Record highs and lows from BBC Weather, except August and February maximum from Met Office|
|Source #2: All other data from Met Office, except for humidity and snow data which are from NOAA|
|Climate data for London (Heathrow airport 1981−2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.1
|Average low °C (°F)||2.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||55.2
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||11.1||8.5||9.3||9.1||8.8||8.2||7.7||7.5||8.1||10.8||10.3||10.2||109.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||61.5||77.9||114.6||168.7||198.5||204.3||212.0||204.7||149.3||116.5||72.6||52.0||1,632.6|
|Source: Met Office|
In the 13th century the name appears as Hackenaye or Hacquenye, but no certain derivation is advanced. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Place Names (fourth edition) discusses the origin of the name. The first surviving records of the place name are as Hakney (1231) and Hakeneye (1242 and 1294). The ‘ey’ suffix almost certainly refers to an island; the dictionary favours the interpretation that Hackney means ‘Haka’s island,’ with Haka being a notable local person and the island (or inaccessible place surrounded by marshes) lying close to the River Lea. This was once a much wilder place than today.
The Dictionary suggests that the ‘Hack’ element may also derive from:
Given the island context, the ‘hatch’ option is unlikely to be correct, so the favoured 'Haka's Island' or the 'Island on the bend' seem more likely.
The place name will have originally referred to just the island or possibly both the island and the manor of the same name based around it. Subsequently, the name Hackney was applied to the whole ancient parish of Hackney.
In the Iron Age and probably until after the Roman period (as the Romans used tribal territories as administrative sub-divisions), the River Lea was considered to separate the territories of the Catuvellauni to the west of the river from the Trinovantes to the east.
In the Anglo-Saxon period, the River Lea separated the core territories of the East Saxons (on the east side) from the Middle Saxons (on the western, Hackney side) they often controlled. This continuity of this natural boundary from pre-Roman period may be a result of the differing Saxon groups taking control of pre-defined territories.
After both areas were brought under the control of Alfred the Great, the river became the boundary between the historic counties of Middlesex (Hackney) and Essex (modern Newham, Waltham Forest and Redbridge).
In the Tudor period, the lands of religious orders were seized by the Crown and put up for sale. Thus Hackney became a retreat for the nobility around Hackney Central and Homerton. Henry VIII's Palace was by Lea Bridge roundabout, where BSix Sixth Form College stands today. Sutton House, on Homerton High Street, is the oldest surviving dwelling in Hackney, originally built in 1535 as Bryck Place for Sir Ralph Sadleir, a diplomat. The village of Hackney flourished from the Tudor to late Georgian periods as a rural retreat.
The first documented "hackney coach"—the forerunner of the more generic "hackney carriage"—operated in London in 1621. Current opinion is that the name "hackney," to refer to a London taxi, is derived from the village name. (Hackney, associated with high-stepping horses and horse-drawn carriages, is the root of the French word haquenée, a term used for a small breed of horse, and the Sardinian achetta horse.) Construction of the railway in the 1850s ended Hackney's rural reputation by connecting it to other parts of the city and stimulating development.
Many grand houses stood in Stoke Newington and Stamford Hill; the latter neighbourhood became a center of Hackney's many Orthodox Jewish residents from the 1930s. Alfred Hitchcock made many of his first films in Hoxton at the Gainsborough Studios in Poole Street.
Following extensive post-war development and immigration since the late 20th century, population pressure has increased and the area's many Georgian and Victorian terraces are being gentrified, warehouses are being converted to housing, and new flats are being built. It was ranked as inner London's 'greenest borough' and London Transport's 'best bike borough 2006', with 62 parks and open spaces, covering 815 acres (3.3 km2). Seven Hackney parks have now achieved Green Flag status. One, Abney Park, became scheduled in 2009 as one of Britain's historic parks and garden at risk from neglect and decay. Hackney Marshes play host to the largest collection of football pitches in Europe. Part of it was used as a site for events of the 2012 Summer Olympics.
There are 1,300 listed buildings in Hackney, including the Hackney Empire, Tudor Sutton House, and the Grade I medieval St Augustine's Tower. The borough contains 25 conservation areas including Clapton Square and urban open-spaces including Clapton Common and Clissold Park. Conservation areas also protect large areas of Georgian and Victorian housing, and areas of industrial heritage.
|Source: A Vision of Britain through time|
In 1801, the civil parishes that form the modern borough had a total population of 14,609. This rose steadily throughout the 19th century, as the district became built up; reaching 95,000 in the middle of that century. When the railways arrived the rate of population growth increased — reaching nearly 374,000 by the turn of the century. This increase in population peaked before World War I, falling slowly in the aftermath until World War II began an exodus from London towards the new towns under the Abercrombie Plan for London (1944). The population is now rising again, and the 2001 census gives Hackney a population of 202,824.
The population is ethnically diverse. Of the resident population, 89,490 (41%) people describe themselves as White British. 30,978 (14%) are in other White ethnic groups, 63,009 (29%) are Black or Black British, 20,000 (9%) are Asian or Asian British, 8,501 (4%) describe themselves as 'Mixed', and 6,432 (3%) as Chinese or Other.
There is also a large Turkish and Kurdish population resident in Hackney. Turkish and Kurdish communities are located in all parts of the borough, though there is a greater concentration in north and central Hackney.
132,931 (66%) of the resident population were British born. A further 10,095 (5%) were born in other parts of Europe, and the remaining 59,798 (29%) born elsewhere in the world.
The 2001 census also shows Christianity is the biggest religion in Hackney, with 44% of residents identifying Christian; 18% identified as Muslim, 4% Jewish, and 3% belonged to other religions. A further 19% stated no religion, and 12% did not state a response. By the 2011 census, residents identifying themselves as Christian fell to 38.6%, whilst those with no religion rose to 28.2%. Judaism had a modest increase, Islam had a small increase, and Hinduism made a slight drop.
32% of households are owner–occupied.
The largest rise of ethnic groups between 2001 and 2011 was 'Other', which increased by 222%. This was followed by 'Mixed', which rose by 84%.
|White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller||474||0.2%|
|Asian or Asian British: Indian||7,624||3.8%||7,599||3.1%|
|Asian or Asian British: Pakistani||2,165||1.1%||1,905||0.8%|
|Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi||5,970||2.9%||6,180||2.5%|
|Asian or Asian British: Chinese||2,377||1.2%||3,436||1.4%|
|Asian or Asian British: Other Asian||1,655||0.8%||6,747||2.7%|
|Asian or Asian British: Total||19,791||9.8%||25,867||10.5%|
|Black or Black British: African||24,290||12.0%||27,976||11.4%|
|Black or Black British: Caribbean||20,879||10.3%||19,168||7.8%|
|Black or Black British: Other Black||4,840||2.4%||9,714||3.9%|
|Black or Black British: Total||50,009||24.7%||56,858||23.1%|
|Mixed: White and Black Caribbean||3,075||1.5%||4,989||2.0%|
|Mixed: White and Black African||1,599||0.8%||2,866||1.2%|
|Mixed: White and Asian||1,576||0.8%||3,020||1.2%|
|Mixed: Other Mixed||2,251||1.1%||4,994||2.0%|
|Other: Any other ethnic group||4,055||2.0%||11,338||4.6%|
|Black, Asian, and minority ethnic: Total||82,356||40.7%||111,653||45.3%|
Every ward remains among the 10% most deprived in the country, with 47% of children living in low-income households.
Hackney has a reputation as one of the most crime-ridden London boroughs, and some of its streets have even been referred to as "Murder Mile", but cooperation between local police and council has resulted in the borough experiencing a bigger drop in crime than in any other London borough in the four-year period up to 2007 (28% reduction).
In 2002, the borough entered into a ten-year contract with the Learning Trust, an independent collaborative body that organises education for Hackney's 27,000 pupils in over 70 schools, nurseries and play centres. The trust was set up in response to an OFSTED report that identified failings in the then existing system. Two of London's most successful City Academies are in Hackney with another two in development and plans to rebuild or renovate every other Hackney school by 2016. LBH regained responsibility for education in 2012, absorbing the Learning Trust under the new name Hackney Learning Trust.
London bus routes 4, 8, 19, 21, 26, 29, 30, 35, 38, 43, 47, 48, 55, 56, 67, 73, 76, 106, 135, 141, 149, 205, 214, 236, 242, 243, 253, 254, 259, 271, 276, 277, 279, 308, 318, 341, 349, 388, 393, 394, 425, 476, 488, W15 and Night routes N8, N19, N26, N38, N55, N73, N205, N253 and N279.
Hackney has only two London Underground stations, both on the fringes of the borough. Manor House on the Piccadilly Line is located on its extreme north-western fringe on the boundary with Haringey, while Old Street lies on Hackney’s south-west border with Islington.
However, three London Overground lines serve Hackney: the North London Line crosses from west to east while the East London Line runs from Highbury & Islington and passes through Dalston Junction and on south through Haggerston, Hoxton, Shoreditch towards destinations south of the River Thames, including Clapham Junction, Crystal Palace, Croydon, and New Cross. Local services on the Lea Valley Lines passed into London Overground on 31 May 2015. Trains originate at London Liverpool Street and head towards either Enfield Town (via Bush Hill Park), Cheshunt (via Turkey Street) or Chingford (via Clapton)..
It is proposed that Crossrail 2 will provide Hackney with its first underground station at Dalston with the potential of the future ‘eastern branch’ with stops at Hackney Central and Hackney Wick.
In March 2011, the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were: bus, minibus or coach, 16.9% of all residents aged 16–74; underground, metro, light rail, tram, 9.2%; bicycle, 9.2%; on foot, 7.5%; driving a car or van, 7.1%; train, 4.6%; work mainly at or from home, 3.5%.
The London Borough of Hackney has formal twinning arrangements with:
Hackney has an informal twinning with:
The borough also has informal links with South Africa, Turkey, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. The Homerton University Hospital has its own twinning arrangements with the Rambam Health Care Campus (Haifa, Israel) and St George's Hospital (Grenada). Schools are encouraged to pursue links with specific schools abroad – such as the arrangement between Our Lady's and a school in Hangzhou, South West China.
London/Hackney travel guide from Wikivoyage
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to London Borough of Hackney.|