Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) is an American global aerospace,
defense, security and advanced technologies company with worldwide
interests. It was formed by the merger of
Lockheed Corporation with
Martin Marietta in March 1995. It is headquartered in Bethesda,
Maryland, in the Washington, DC, area.
Lockheed Martin employs
approximately 100,000 people worldwide.
Lockheed Martin is one of the largest companies in the aerospace,
defense, security, and technologies industry. It is the world's
largest defense contractor based on revenue for fiscal year 2014.
In 2013, 78% of Lockheed Martin's revenues came from military
sales; it topped the list of US federal government contractors and
received nearly 10% of the funds paid out by the Pentagon. In 2009
US government contracts accounted for $38.4 billion (85%),
foreign government contracts $5.8 billion (13%), and commercial
and other contracts for $900 million (2%).
Lockheed Martin operates in four business segments: Aeronautics,
Missiles and Fire Control, Rotary and Mission Systems, and Space
Systems. The company has received the
Collier Trophy six times,
including in 2001 for being part of developing the X-35/F-35B LiftFan
Propulsion System, and most recently in 2006 for leading the
team that developed the
F-22 Raptor fighter jet.
Lockheed Martin is
currently developing the
F-35 Lightning II
F-35 Lightning II and leads the international
supply chain, leads the team for the development and implementation of
technology solutions for the new
Space Fence (AFSSS
replacement), and is the primary contractor for the development of
Orion (spacecraft) command module. The company also invests in
healthcare systems, renewable energy systems, intelligent energy
distribution and compact nuclear fusion.
2 Government contracts
3 Corruption investigations
4.1 Advanced design and development division
4.3 Missiles and Fire Control
4.4 Rotary and Mission Systems
4.7 Joint ventures
5 Corporate governance
5.1 Board of directors
5.2 Chief executive officer
Chairman of the board
6.1 Double Helix methodology
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
Merger talks between
Lockheed Corporation and
Martin Marietta began in
March 1994, with the companies announcing their $10 billion
planned merger on August 30, 1994. The headquarters for the combined
companies would be at
Martin Marietta headquarters in Bethesda,
Maryland. The deal was finalized on March 15, 1995, when the two
companies' shareholders approved the merger. The segments of the
two companies not retained by the new company formed the basis for the
present L-3 Communications, a mid-size defense contractor in its own
Lockheed Martin also later spun off the materials company
Martin Marietta Materials.
Both companies contributed important products to the new portfolio.
Lockheed products included the Trident missile, P-3 Orion, F-16
Fighting Falcon, F-22 Raptor, C-130 Hercules,
A-4AR Fightinghawk and
the DSCS-3 satellite.
Martin Marietta products included Titan rockets,
Sandia National Laboratories
Sandia National Laboratories (management contract acquired in 1993),
Space Shuttle External Tank,
Viking 1 and
Viking 2 landers, the
Transfer Orbit Stage (under subcontract to Orbital Sciences
Corporation) and various satellite models.
On April 22, 1996,
Lockheed Martin completed the acquisition of Loral
Corporation's defense electronics and system integration businesses
for $9.1 billion, the deal having been announced in January. The
remainder of Loral became Loral Space & Communications.
Lockheed Martin abandoned plans for a $8.3 billion merger with
Northrop Grumman on July 16, 1998, due to government concerns over the
potential strength of the new group; Lockheed/Northrop would have had
control of 25% of the Department of Defense's procurement budget.
For the Mars Climate Orbiter,
Lockheed Martin incorrectly provided
NASA with software using measurements in US Customary force units when
metric was expected; this resulted in the loss of the Orbiter at a
cost of $125 million. The development of the spacecraft
cost $193.1 million.
Lockheed Martin's Center For Leadership Excellence (CLE) Building in
In May 2001,
Lockheed Martin sold
Lockheed Martin Control Systems to
BAE Systems. On November 27, 2000, Lockheed completed the sale of its
Aerospace Electronic Systems business to
BAE Systems for
$1.67 billion, a deal announced in July 2000. This group
encompassed Sanders Associates, Fairchild Systems, and Lockheed Martin
Space Electronics & Communications. In 2001, Lockheed
Martin won the contract to build the F-35 Lightning II; this was the
largest fighter aircraft procurement project since the F-16, with an
initial order of 3,000 aircraft. In 2001,
Lockheed Martin settled a
nine–year investigation conducted by NASA's Office of Inspector
General with the assistance of the Defense Contract Audit Agency. The
company paid the
United States government $7.1 million based on
allegations that its predecessor, Lockheed Engineering Science
Corporation, submitted false lease costs claims to NASA.
On May 12, 2006,
The Washington Post
The Washington Post reported that when Robert Stevens
took control of
Lockheed Martin in 2004, he faced the dilemma that
within 10 years, 100,000 of the about 130,000 Lockheed Martin
employees – more than three-quarters – would be retiring. On
August 31, 2006,
Lockheed Martin won a $3.9 billion contract from
NASA to design and build the CEV capsule, later named Orion for the
Ares I rocket in the Constellation Program. In 2009, NASA reduced the
capsule crew requirements from the initial six seats to four for
transport to the International Space Station.
On August 13, 2008,
Lockheed Martin acquired the government business
unit of Nantero, Inc., a company that had developed methods and
processes for incorporating carbon nanotubes in next-generation
electronic devices. In 2009,
Lockheed Martin bought
On November 18, 2010,
Lockheed Martin announced that it would be
Eagan, Minnesota location by 2013 to reduce costs and
optimize capacity at its locations nationwide. In January 2011,
Lockheed Martin agreed to pay the US Government $2 million to
settle allegations that the company submitted false claims on a U.S.
government contract for that amount. The allegations came from a
contract with the Naval Oceanographic Office Major Shared Resource
Center in Mississippi. On May 25, 2011
Lockheed Martin bought the
first Quantum Computing System from D-Wave Systems. Lockheed Martin
and D-Wave will collaborate to realize the benefits of a computing
platform based upon a quantum annealing processor, as applied to some
of Lockheed Martin's most challenging computation problems. Lockheed
Martin established a multi-year contract that includes one system,
maintenance and services. Potentially an important milestone for both
On May 28, 2011 it was reported that a cyber-attack using previously
stolen EMC files had broken through to sensitive materials at the
contractor. It is unclear if the Lockheed incident is the specific
prompt whereby on June 1, 2011, the new
United States military
strategy, makes explicit that a cyberattack is casus belli for a
traditional act of war.
On July 10, 2012,
Lockheed Martin announced it was cutting its
workforce by 740 workers to reduce costs and remain competitive as
necessary for future growth. On August 2, 2012, the Vice President
for Business Development, George Standridge stated that his company
has offered 6 more C-130J aircraft to the Indian Air Force, for which
discussions are underway with the Indian Government. On November
Lockheed Martin announced that
Marillyn Hewson will become
the corporation's chief executive officer on January 1, 2013.
On January 7, 2013,
Lockheed Martin Canada
Lockheed Martin Canada announced that it will be
acquiring the engine maintenance, repair and overhaul assets from
Aveos Fleet Performance
Aveos Fleet Performance in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. On July 3, 2013,
Lockheed Martin announced that it was partnering with
use the company's software for integrated command and control of its
unmanned aerial vehicles.
Lockheed Martin teamed up with Bell
Helicopter to propose the
V-280 Valor tiltrotor for the Future
Vertical Lift (FVL) program. In September 2013, Lockheed Martin
acquired the Scotland-based tech firm, Amor Group, saying the deal
would aid its plans to expand internationally and into non-defence
markets. On November 14, 2013, Lockheed announced they would be
Akron, Ohio facility laying off 500 employees and
transferring other employees to other locations.
In March 2014,
Lockheed Martin acquired Beontra AG, a provider of
integrated planning and demand forecasting tools for airport, planning
to expand their business in commercial airport information technology
solutions. Also in March 2014,
Lockheed Martin announced its
acquisition of Industrial Defender Inc. On June 2, 2014 Lockheed
Martin received a Pentagon contract to build a space fence that would
track debris, keeping it from damaging satellites and spacecrafts.
In September 2014, Lockheed agreed a deal to sell 40 F-35 fighter jets
South Korea for delivery between 2018 and 2021, for a fee in the
range of $7.06 billion.
On July 20, 2015,
Lockheed Martin announced plans to purchase Sikorsky
United Technologies Corporation
United Technologies Corporation at a cost of $7.1
The Pentagon has criticized the acquisition as
causing a reduction in competition. In November 2015, the
acquisition received final approval from the Chinese government,
with a total cost of $9 billion. Dan Schulz was named the
president of Lockheed Martin's Sikorsky company. Lockheed Martin
has shown[when?] sketches for a twin-engine, blended wing body
strategic airlifter similar in size to the C-5. On March 31, 2015,
the US Navy awarded
Lockheed Martin a contract worth $362 million for
construction of Freedom-class ship LCS 21 and $79 million for advanced
procurement for LCS 23. The Freedom-class ships are built by
Fincantieri Marinette Marine in Marinette, Wisconsin. In December
2015, Lockheed won a $867 million seven-year contract to train
Australia’s next generation of military pilots. There is also an
option in the deal to extend this contract across 26 years which would
greatly increase the deal’s value.
In August 2016, Canadian Forces Maritime tested an integrated
submarine combat system developed by Lockheed Martin. The test marked
Canada’s first use of the combat system with the MK 48 heavyweight
torpedo, variant 7AT.
In May 2017, during a visit to
Saudi Arabia by President Donald Trump,
Saudi Arabia signed business deals worth tens of billions of dollars
with U.S. companies, including Lockheed Martin.
See also: 2017 United States–
Saudi Arabia arms deal
Lockheed Martin received $36 billion in government contracts in
2008 alone, more than any company in history. It does work for more
than two dozen government agencies from the Department of Defense and
the Department of Energy to the Department of Agriculture and the
Environmental Protection Agency. It's involved in surveillance and
information processing for the CIA, the FBI, the Internal Revenue
Service (IRS), the
National Security Agency
National Security Agency (NSA), The Pentagon, the
Census Bureau and the Postal Service.
In October 2013, Lockheed announced it expected to finalise a $2.2
billion contract with the
United States Air Force for two advanced
military communications satellites.
Lockheed Martin has already begun to help the military transition to
renewable energy sources with solar photovoltaic powered microgrids
 and as the military aims to reach 25% renewable energy by 2025
 in order to improve national security.
On March 3, 2012, the U.S. Justice Department said that Lockheed
Martin had agreed to settle allegations that the defense contractor
had sold overpriced perishable tools used on many contracts. The DoJ
said the allegations were based specifically on the subsidiary Tools
& Metals Inc's inflation of costs between 1998 and 2005, which
Lockheed Martin then passed on to the U.S. government under its
contracts. Further, in March 2006, Todd B. Loftis, a former TMI
president, was sentenced to 87 months in prison and ordered to pay a
fine of $20 million following his guilty plea.
On February 20, 2013,
Lockheed Martin Corp complied with the U.S.
District Court in New York, agreeing to pay a $19.5 million lawsuit to
conclude a securities fraud class-action legal battle that had accused
the company of deceiving shareholders in regards to expectations for
the company's information technology division.
On December 20, 2014,
Lockheed Martin Integrated Systems agreed to
False Claims Act lawsuit paying $27.5 million to finalize
allegations that it had knowingly overbilled the taxpayer for work
performed by company staff who did not hold the relevant, essential
qualifications for the contract.
On June 4, 2017, Richard Stone was threatened to disclose the
blueprints of Advance Targeting System to Craig Matthew which could
lead to Industrial Espionage. Craig decided to sell it to North Korea,
to cause chaos between the countries. Although, He was arrested trying
to leave the country whilst under surveillance as he was suspected of
drug trafficking. University of Greenwich has set a team of young
forensic investigators to unfold his USB to find possible
Advanced design and development division
C-130 Hercules; in production since the 1950s, now as the C-130J
Submarine launch of a Lockheed Trident missile
Lockheed Martin Aeronautics
Missiles and Fire Control
Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control
Rotary and Mission Systems
Lockheed Martin Rotary and Mission Systems
Lockheed Martin Rotary and Mission Systems (formerly Mission Systems
and Sensors, and then Mission Systems & Training)
Lockheed Martin Space Systems
Lockheed Martin Canada
Lockheed Martin Australia
Lockheed Martin Advanced
Lockheed Martin Enterprise Business Services
Lockheed Martin Finance Corporation
Lockheed Martin U.K.
SIM Industries – a
Lockheed Martin company
International Launch Services
International Launch Services (with Khrunichev, RSC Energia)
Lockheed Martin Alenia Tactical Transport Systems
Lockheed Martin Alenia Tactical Transport Systems (with Alenia
Aeronautica), now folded
MEADS International (with
EADS and MBDA)
Space Imaging (46%, remainder public)
United Launch Alliance
United Launch Alliance (with Boeing)
Javelin Joint Venture (with Raytheon)
Longbow LLC (with Northrop Grumman)
United Space Alliance
United Space Alliance (with Boeing)
Kelly Aviation Center (with GE and Rolls-Royce)
Protector USV – an unmanned surface vehicle (with Rafael Advanced
Defense Systems and BAE Systems)
Defense Support Services (DS2) with Day & Zimmermann
Lockheed Martin Aerostructures Limited (with Indian company Tata
Advanced Systems Limited)
Military Maintenance Repair and Overhaul Center (AMMROC)
(with Mubadala Development Company)
PAE (Pacific Architects and Engineers) Holding, Inc
Board of directors
The board of directors consists of 14 members. As of February 2016,
Daniel Akerson (since 2014)
Nolan Archibald (since 2002)
Rosalind Brewer (since 2011)
David Burritt (since 2008)
Bruce Carlson (since 2015)
James Ellis (since 2004)
Thomas Falk (since 2010)
Gwendolyn King (since 1995)
James Loy (since 2005)
Joseph Ralston (since 2003)
Anne Stevens (since 2002)
Chief executive officer
Norman Augustine (1995–1997)
Vance Coffman (1997–2004)
Robert J. Stevens
Robert J. Stevens (2004–2012)
Marillyn Hewson (2013–)
Chairman of the board
Robert J. Stevens
Robert J. Stevens (2005–2013)
Marillyn Hewson (2014–)
As of 2017
Lockheed Martin shares are mainly held by institutional
investors (State Street Corporation, Capital Group Companies, Vanguard
group, BlackRock, and others)
Lockheed Martin is listed as the largest U.S. government contractor
and "ranks third for number of incidents, and twenty-first for size of
settlements on the 'contractor misconduct' database maintained by the
Project on Government Oversight, a Washington, D.C.-based watchdog
group." Since 1995, the company has agreed to pay
$606 million to settle 59 instances of misconduct.
In 2013, Lt. Gen. Christopher Bogdan criticized the company's F-35
fighter program. The general said: "I want them both to start behaving
like they want to be around for 40 years...I want them to take on some
of the risk of this program. I want them to invest in cost reductions.
I want them to do the things that will build a better relationship.
I'm not getting all that love yet." The criticism comes in the
wake of previous criticism from former Defense Secretary Robert Gates
regarding the same program.
According to the magazine Politico,
Lockheed Martin has "a political
network that is already the envy of its competitors", and its
contracts enjoy wide bipartisan support in the U.S. Congress thanks to
it having "perfected the strategy of spreading jobs on weapons
programs in key states and congressional districts". The company's
2010 lobbying expenditure by the third quarter was $9.9 million
(2009 total: $13.7 million).
Through its political action committee (PAC), the company provides low
levels of financial support to candidates who advocate national
defense and relevant business issues. It is "the top contributor
to the incoming
House Armed Services Committee chairman, Republican
Buck McKeon of California, giving more than $50,000 in the most recent
election cycle. It also topped the list of donors to Sen. Daniel
Inouye (D-HI), the chair of the
Senate Appropriations Committee
Senate Appropriations Committee before
his death in 2012."
Lockheed Martin Employees Political Action Committee is one of the 50
largest in the country, according to FEC data. With contributions from
3,000 employees, it donates $500,000 a year to about 260 House and
Senate candidates. For the 2004 election cycle,[clarification needed]
Lockheed's PAC contributed $350,279 to federal candidates, with about
62 percent going to Republicans, according to the Center for
Responsive Politics. That compares with $515,000 from General
Dynamics' political action committee and $122,850 from BAE Systems
North America, the center's data showed.
Senior management consists of the CEO, COO and CFO, and Executive Vice
Presidents (EVP) of five business areas. The EVPs are responsible
for managing major programs.
Employees in each program are organized into four tiers: Tier1
–Program Manager/VP, Tier2-Functional Teams (Finance, Chief
Engineer, Quality, Operations, etc.), Tier3-Integrated Product Teams
(IPTs) (Weapon System Development, Weapon System Integration, etc.),
and Tier4-detailed product development. Floor or touch workers belong
to component assembly teams.
Lockheed Martin manages and maintains
its relationship with these touch workers through its supervisors and
Lockheed Martin manages employees through its Full Spectrum Leadership
and LM21 programs. The LM21 program relies on Six Sigma
principles, which are techniques to improve efficiency. Senior
management constructs leadership councils and assigns managers to
Kaizen events, which target specific processes for
improvement. A manager facilitates teams and processes stakeholders
and suppliers to streamline process implementation.
Tier2 Functional Leads and Tier3 IPT Leads report to Tier1. IPT leads
are responsible for entire systems or products defined by the
contract’s Statement of Work.
To control quality,
Lockheed Martin trains and builds IPT teams.
and ensures that work is executed correctly through a Technical
Performance Measure (TPM) system which emphasizes its Lean and 6 Sigma
processes. Middle management uses commitment mechanisms that parallel
high commitment and human relations theory.
Floor employees assemble aircraft using Flow-to-takt lean
manufacturing process which uses properties from both division of
labor and scientific management. By separating tasks based on parts,
Lockheed Martin utilizes the division of labor theory,
specialization on a specific area creates efficiency.
Double Helix methodology
The Double Helix methodology is a systems development methodology used
by Lockheed Martin. It combines experimentation, technology, and a
warfighter's concept of operations to create new tactics and
Defense contractor – table of comparable companies
Lockheed Martin Maintenance Trophy
Top 100 US Federal Contractors – $38.5 billion in FY09
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Lockheed Martin Joint Strike Fighter wins
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South Korea to sign deal this month to buy 40 F-35 jets for $7
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Photovoltaic-Powered Microgrid Deployment for Enhanced National
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lockheed Martin.
Lockheed Martin site
Business data for Lockheed Martin: Google Finance
FAS, history and key dates
Prepar3D(R): Visual flight simulation software development kit for
"A Security Analyst Wins Big in Court". Time magazine
Lockheed Martin at SourceWatch
"Lockheed Wins Contract to Build NASA's New Spaceship". Washington
"Patents owned by Lockheed Martin". US Patent & Trademark Office.
Retrieved December 5, 2005.
"Jury Slaps Defense Giant for Neglecting National Security". ABC News
"NASA: Mars Surveyor Was Doomed By Humans". CBS News
"Lockheed Fined Over Secrets Breach". BBC News
"Coast Guard Failed to Properly Oversee Contracts, Officials Say".
Ceremonial event planned for final F-22 Raptor
LM Information Technology
LM Missiles and Fire Control
LM Rotary and Mission Systems
LM Space Systems
LM Global Training and Logistics
LM Mission Systems and Sensors
LM Systems Integration - Owego
LM Transportation & Security Solutions
United Space Alliance
United Launch Alliance
Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory
LM Space Applications Laboratory
Michoud Assembly Facility
Sandia National Laboratories
Sandia National Laboratories (former)
Atlas V rocket
Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank
GPS Block IIIA
Lockheed Martin aircraft and spacecraft
Model 10 Electra family
L-188 Electra family
Shooting Star family
Desert Hawk III
Satellite Internet access
Satellite data unit
Satellite radio / TV
Digital audio radio service
Astra Digital Radio
Sirius XM Holdings
Sirius Satellite Radio
Sky Television plc
Relay satellite companies
Thales Alenia Space
Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems
ETSI Satellite Digital Radio
List of communications satellite firsts
List of communication satellite companies
ISNI: 0000 0000 9688 3