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The Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
("Connie") is a propeller-driven, four-engined airliner built by Lockheed Corporation
Lockheed Corporation
between 1943 and 1958 at Burbank, California. Lockheed built 856 in numerous models—all with the same triple-tail design and dolphin-shaped fuselage. Most were powered by four 18-cylinder Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclones. The Constellation was used as a civil airliner and as a military and civilian air transport, seeing service in the Berlin and the Biafran airlifts. Three of them served as the presidential aircraft for Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Contents

1 Design and development

1.1 Initial studies 1.2 Development of the Constellation

2 Operational history

2.1 World War II 2.2 Postwar use 2.3 Records 2.4 Obsolescence

3 Variants 4 Operators 5 Surviving aircraft

5.1 Commercial 5.2 Military

6 Specifications (L-1049G Super Constellation) 7 Accidents and incidents 8 See also 9 References

9.1 Notes 9.2 Bibliography

10 External links

Design and development[edit] Initial studies[edit] Lockheed had been working on the L-044 Excalibur, a four-engine, pressurized airliner, since 1937. In 1939, Trans World Airlines, at the instigation of major stockholder Howard Hughes, requested a 40-passenger transcontinental airliner with a range of 3,500 mi (5,600 km)[1]—well beyond the capabilities of the Excalibur design. TWA's requirements led to the L-049
L-049
Constellation, designed by Lockheed engineers including Kelly Johnson and Hall Hibbard.[2] Willis Hawkins, another Lockheed engineer, maintains that the Excalibur program was purely a cover for the Constellation.[3]

A preserved C-121C Super Constellation, registration N73544, in flight in 2004

Development of the Constellation[edit] The Constellation's wing design was close to that of the P-38 Lightning, differing mostly in size.[4] The triple tail kept the aircraft's height low enough to fit in existing hangars,[3] while features included hydraulically boosted controls and a de-icing system used on wing and tail leading edges.[1] The aircraft had a maximum speed of over 375 mph (600 km/h), faster than that of a Japanese Zero fighter, a cruise speed of 340 mph (550 km/h), and a service ceiling of 24,000 ft (7,300 m).[5] According to Anthony Sampson in Empires of the Sky, Lockheed may have undertaken the intricate design, but Hughes' intercession in the design process drove the concept, shape, capabilities, appearance, and ethos.[6] These rumors were discredited by Johnson. Howard Hughes
Howard Hughes
and Jack Frye
Jack Frye
confirmed that the rumors were not true in a letter in November 1941.[7] Operational history[edit] World War II[edit]

The first Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
on January 9, 1943

With the onset of World War II, the TWA
TWA
aircraft entering production were converted to an order for C-69 Constellation military transport aircraft, with 202 aircraft intended for the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF). The first prototype (civil registration NX25600) flew on January 9, 1943, a short ferry hop from Burbank to Muroc Field
Muroc Field
for testing.[1] Edmund T. "Eddie" Allen, on loan from Boeing, flew left seat, with Lockheed's own Milo Burcham
Milo Burcham
as copilot. Rudy Thoren and Kelly Johnson were also on board. Lockheed proposed the model L-249 as a long-range bomber. It received the military designation XB-30, but the aircraft was not developed. A plan for a very long-range troop transport, the C-69B (L-349, ordered by Pan Am in 1940 as the L-149),[8] was canceled. A single C-69C (L-549), a 43-seat VIP transport, was built in 1945 at the Lockheed-Burbank plant. The C-69 was mostly used as a high-speed, long-distance troop transport during the war.[9] A total of 22 C-69s were completed before the end of hostilities, but not all of these entered military service. The USAAF cancelled the remainder of the order in 1945. However, some aircraft remained in USAF service into the 1960s, serving as passenger ferries for the airline that relocated military personnel, wearing the livery of the Military Air Transport Service. At least one of these airplanes had rear-facing passenger seats. Postwar use[edit]

TWA
TWA
L-749A Constellation at Heathrow in 1954 with an under fuselage "Speedpack" freight container

Super Constellation (C-121C) during pilot training in Epinal - Mirecourt, France

After World War II, the Constellation came into its own as a fast civilian airliner. Aircraft already in production for the USAAF as C-69 transports were finished as civilian airliners, with TWA receiving the first on 1 October 1945. TWA's first transatlantic proving flight departed Washington, DC, on December 3, 1945, arriving in Paris on December 4 via Gander and Shannon.[1] TWA
TWA
transatlantic service started on February 6, 1946 with a New York-Paris flight in a Constellation. On June 17, 1947, Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) opened the first-ever scheduled round-the-world service with their L-749
L-749
Clipper America. The famous flight "Pan Am 1" operated until 1982. As the first pressurized airliner in widespread use, the Constellation helped to usher in affordable and comfortable air travel. Operators of Constellations included TWA, Eastern Air Lines, Pan Am, Air France, BOAC, KLM, Qantas, Lufthansa, Iberia Airlines, Panair do Brasil, TAP Portugal, Trans-Canada Air Lines
Trans-Canada Air Lines
(later renamed Air Canada), Aer Lingus, VARIG, Cubana de Aviación, and Línea Aeropostal Venezolana. Records[edit] Sleek and powerful, Constellations set a number of records. On April 17, 1944, the second production C-69, piloted by Howard Hughes
Howard Hughes
and TWA president Jack Frye, flew from Burbank, California, to Washington, DC, in 6 hours and 57 minutes (about 2,300 miles (3,700 km) at an average 331 miles per hour (533 km/h)). On the return trip, the aircraft stopped at Wright field to give Orville Wright
Orville Wright
his last flight, more than 40 years after his historic first flight. He commented that the Constellation's wingspan was longer than the distance of his first flight.[2] On September 29, 1957, a TWA
TWA
L-1649A flew from Los Angeles to London in 18 hours and 32 minutes (about 5,420 miles (8,720 km) at 292 miles per hour (470 km/h)). The L-1649A holds the record for the longest-duration, non-stop passenger flight aboard a piston-powered airliner. On TWA's first London-to-San Francisco flight on October 1–2, 1957, the aircraft stayed aloft for 23 hours and 19 minutes (about 5,350 miles (8,610 km) at 229 miles per hour (369 km/h)). Obsolescence[edit]

L-1049H freighter of Nordair
Nordair
Canada at Manchester Airport
Manchester Airport
in 1966

A Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
L-049
L-049
preserved at TAM Museum

The advent of jet airliners such as the de Havilland Comet, Boeing 707, Douglas DC-8, Convair
Convair
880, and Sud Aviation Caravelle
Sud Aviation Caravelle
rendered the piston-engined Constellation obsolete. The first routes lost to jets were the long overseas routes, but Constellations continued to fly domestic routes. The last scheduled passenger flight in the lower 48 states was made by a TWA
TWA
L749 on May 11, 1967, from Philadelphia to Kansas City, Missouri.[10] Constellations carried freight in later years, and were used on backup sections of Eastern Airlines' shuttle service between New York, Washington, and Boston until 1968. Many old propeller airliners were used on overnight freight runs, even into the 1990s, as their low speed was not an impediment. An Eastern Constellation to date still holds the record for a New York to Washington flight from liftoff to touchdown in just over 30 minutes. The record was set prior to speed restrictions by the FAA below 10,000 ft.[11] One of the reasons for the elegant appearance of the aircraft was the fuselage shape—a continuously variable profile with no two bulkheads the same shape. Unfortunately, this construction was very expensive and was replaced by mostly tube-shaped modern airliners. The tube is more resistant to pressurization changes and cheaper to build. With the shutdown of Constellation production, Lockheed elected not to develop a first-generation jetliner, instead sticking to its lucrative military business and production of the modest turboprop-powered Lockheed L-188 Electra
Lockheed L-188 Electra
airliner. Lockheed did not build a large civilian passenger aircraft again until its L-1011 Tristar
L-1011 Tristar
debuted in 1972. While a technological marvel, the L-1011 was a commercial failure, and Lockheed left the commercial airliner business permanently in 1983.[12] Variants[edit] Main article: Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
variants

Super Constellation at Charles Prince Airport, Rhodesia
Rhodesia
(now Zimbabwe) in 1975, used as a flying club headquarters

A United States Navy
United States Navy
R7V-2 (L-1249) in flight: The L-1249 used Pratt & Whitney T34 turboprop engines in place of the Wright R-3350 radials.[13]

The initial military versions carried the Lockheed designation of L-049; as World War II
World War II
came to a close, some were completed as civilian L-049
L-049
Constellations followed by the L-149 ( L-049
L-049
modified to carry more fuel tanks). The first purpose-built passenger Constellations were the more powerful L-649 and L-749
L-749
(which had more fuel in the outer wings),[8][page needed] L-849 (an unbuilt model to use the R-3350 TurboCompound engines adopted for the L-1049 ), L-949 (an unbuilt, high-density seating-cum-freighter type, what would come to be called a "combi aircraft").[8] These were followed by the L-1049 Super Constellation
L-1049 Super Constellation
(with longer fuselage), L-1149 (proposal to use Allison turbine engines)[8] and L-1249 (similar to L-1149, built as R7V-2/YC-121F),[8] L-1449 (unbuilt proposal for L1049G, stretched 55 in (140 cm), with new wing and turbines)[8] and L-1549 (unbuilt project to stretch L-1449 95 in (240 cm)).[8] The final civilian variant was the L-1649 Starliner
L-1649 Starliner
(all new wing and L1049G fuselage).[8] Military versions included the C-69 and C-121 for the Army Air Forces/Air Force and the R7O R7V-1 (L-1049B) EC-121 WV-1 (L-749A) WV-2 (L-1049B) (widely known as the Willie Victor) and many variant EC-121 designations for the Navy [14][15] Operators[edit] See also: List of Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
operators After TWA's initial order was filled following World War II, customers rapidly accumulated, with over 800 aircraft built. In military service, the U.S. Navy and Air Force operated the EC-121 Warning Star variant until 1978, nearly 40 years after work on the L-049
L-049
began. Cubana de Aviación
Cubana de Aviación
was the first airline in Latin America to operate Super Constellations. Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines
was the first airline from an Asian country to fly the Super Constellation. Surviving aircraft[edit]

An abandoned Constellation display in Florida (1970s)

Lockheed L-1049 G Super Constellation on display close to Munich International Airport

Commercial[edit]

On Display

L-049

C/N 1970 - on display at the Pima Air & Space Museum in Tucson, Arizona. This is a former C-69 transport, s/n 42-94549, that was converted for civilian service, and was one of the first TWA aircraft.[16] C/N 2071 - on display at the TAM Museum, located in São Carlos, Brazil. Previously, it served as a children's attraction at the entrance of Silvio Pettirossi International Airport
Silvio Pettirossi International Airport
in Asunción, Paraguay. It is painted in the markings of Panair do Brasil. [17] C/N 2072 - parked adjacent to a flight school and cafe at Greenwood Lake Airport in West Milford, New Jersey. It was delivered as Air France's first Constellation in June 1946 as L-049
L-049
F-BAZA, before being sold to Frank Lembo Enterprises in May 1976 for $45,000 for use as a restaurant and lounge. It was flown to the airport in July 1977, and, along with the airport, was sold to the State of New Jersey in 2000. In 2005, the interior was refurbished for use as a flight school office.[18] C/N 2081 - on display in Aerosur livery, on the first ring road in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. It is known as El Avión Pirata.[19]

L-749

C/N 2503 - on display at the Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace
Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace
(The Museum of Air and Space) located at Paris-Le Bourget Airport
Paris-Le Bourget Airport
near Le Bourget, France, 10 km north of Paris. It initially served with Pan American Airways, before being transferred to Air France, with whom it served until 1960. Afterwards, it was used by the Compagnie Générale des Turbo-Machines (General Company of Turbomachinery) as an engine testbed until December 1974.[20] C/N 2553 - on display in TWA
TWA
colors (although this aircraft never flew for TWA) at the Large Item Storage facility for the UK Science Museum at Wroughton, near Swindon. This aircraft was used by the Rolling Stones to transport equipment during their 1973 Australian tour.[21] It is the only Constellation in the United Kingdom and is viewable on certain open days.[22]

L-1049 Super Constellation

C/N 4544 - on display at the Museum of Flight
Museum of Flight
in Seattle, Washington. It is painted in the markings it carried during its service with Trans-Canada Air Lines
Trans-Canada Air Lines
from 1954 to the 1960s. After TCA service, it was sold to World Wide Airways and later retired in Montreal by 1965; it was renovated as a restaurant and bar in and around the Montreal area, and sold and moved again to Toronto
Toronto
and used as convention facility by the Regal Constellation Hotel. It was sold again and stored at Toronto
Toronto
Pearson International Airport. Finally, it was sold to the Museum of Flight, restored in Rome, New York, and shipped to Seattle for display.[23][24] C/N 4557 - on display at the Air Mobility Command Museum
Air Mobility Command Museum
at Dover Air Force Base in Dover, Delaware. It is painted to represent a USAF C-121C, but was never actually delivered to the air force. C/N 4604 - on display at the Flugausstellung Hermeskeil, near Hermeskeil, Germany. It is a former Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Super Constellation, and was the actual aircraft that Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
flew into Moscow
Moscow
in 1955, when he negotiated the release of German POWs. C/N 4671 - on display near Munich International Airport
Munich International Airport
at Munich, Germany. It is painted to represent Super Constellation D-ALEM, Lufthansa's first long-haul aircraft of 1955.[25]

L-1649 Starliner

C/N 1040 - on display in front of the Fantasy of Flight
Fantasy of Flight
attraction in Lakeland, Florida.[26] C/N 1042 - on display at OR Tambo International Airport, South Africa at the South African Airways Technical area. The aircraft is owned by the South African Airways Museum Society.[27]

Under restoration or in storage

L-1049 Super Constellation

C/N 4519 - to display by the Amicale du Super Constellation located at the Nantes Airport
Nantes Airport
in Nantes, France. It was delivered to Air France on November 2, 1953, and was upgraded to a L-1049 G in 1956, serving until August 8, 1967, having totaled 24,284 hours under Air France's colors. After retirement, it was sent to Spain, to be registered EC-BEN, briefly flying humanitarian and medevac missions in Biafra. Aero Fret bought it in 1968, brought it back home to France, registered it as F-BRAD, and operated it on cargo hauls until 1974. When the Constellation landed in Nantes one last time to be scrapped, it was ultimately saved by Mr. Gaborit, who revamped it somewhat by his own modest means to finally park it near the terminal, accessible to visitors for a few years, until the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Nantes-Atlantique Airport bought it, to contract the Amicale du Super Constellation to undergo a complete restoration of the old aircraft.[28] C/N 4825 City of Miami - parked on an unused runway at the Rafael Hernández Airport in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico. It was struck by a runaway DC-4 on February 3, 1992, resulting in damage to the right wing and main spar.[29] C/N 4830 Star of America - to airworthiness by the National Airline History Museum in Kansas City, Missouri. This aircraft was originally built in 1957, stored for several years, and then delivered to cargo carrier Slick Airways. It was restored in 1986 by the Save-a-Connie, Inc. organization, later renamed as the National Airline History Museum. It was originally painted in red and white with Save-a-Connie, but was later repainted in the 1950s livery of TWA
TWA
to resemble its original Star of America Constellation.[30] The aircraft appeared at New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport at the original TWA terminal designed by Eero Saarinen
Eero Saarinen
to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the airline with the paint scheme donated by TWA
TWA
in Kansas City for the occasion. The Star of America has appeared at many airshows and was even used in The Aviator, the 2004 film depicting the life of TWA's one-time owner Howard Hughes, the man often credited with helping design and develop the original Constellation series.[31]

L-1649 Starliner

C/N 1018 - to airworthiness by Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Technik North America at Auburn, Maine. This aircraft was purchased at auction in 2007, along with C/N 1038, by the Deutsche Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Berlin Foundation. Lufthansa has built a hangar at the airport, which will allow the aircraft to be restored indoors. C/N 1038 - in storage at the Lewiston-Auburn Municipal Airport in Auburn, Maine. This aircraft was purchased at auction in 2007, along with C/N 1018, by the Deutsche Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Berlin Foundation, and stripped of all usable spares to support the restoration of C/N 1018.

Military[edit]

The Breitling Super Constellation

Airworthy

C-121C

S/N 54-0156 - Flies with the Super Constellation Flyers Association out of Basel, as The Breitling Super Constellation. Its restoration was sponsored by Swiss watch manufacturer Breitling, and is now registered in the Swiss Aircraft registry as HB-RSC. This Constellation is one of two flying in the world.[32]

HARS Super Connie at Wollongong, 2004

S/N 54-0157 - Flies with the Historical Aircraft Restoration Society (HARS) out of Illawarra Regional Airport
Illawarra Regional Airport
near Wollongong, Australia. Following its restoration, it was painted in pseudo- Qantas
Qantas
livery including the Quantas logo on the tail, (with the usual Qantas lettering along the fuselage and on the wing-end fuel tanks replaced with the word "CONNIE") and registered as VH-EAG. This Constellation is one of two flying in the world.[33]

On Display

VC-121A

S/N 48-0609 - on display at Jeongseok Airport
Jeongseok Airport
on Jeju Island, South Korea. It was donated to Korean Air
Korean Air
in 2005, and restored to airworthy condition at Tucson, Arizona. It was then ferried to South Korea, where it made its final flight, under its own power, from Seoul to its current location for static display. It has been repainted in 1950s Korean Air
Korean Air
colors, and rendered unable to fly by the presence of unservicable engines.[34]

L-749A restored at Aviodrome

S/N 48-0612 - on display at the Dutch National Aviation Museum Aviodrome. It was restored to airworthy condition and ferried from Tucson, Arizona, to the Netherlands, where restoration continued. It is now painted in the KLM
KLM
livery of the 1950s, depicting a KLM Lockheed L-749A. Renamed Flevoland, this is the only airworthy example of the "short" version of the Constellation. However, thanks to Korean Air, which donated two airworthy engines from S/N 48-0609 (see above), this aircraft was scheduled to be flying again, but the flights were cancelled. As of 2016, the aircraft is on display in the Aviodrome museum. S/N 48-0614 Columbine - on display at the Pima Air and Space Museum in Tucson, Arizona. This aircraft was used by Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
during his role as Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe
Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe
commander before he became president. It is on loan from the National Museum of the US Air Force.[35]

VC-121E

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
flew in three Constellations, named Columbine, Columbine II, and Columbine III.

S/N 53-7885 Columbine III - on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base
near Dayton, Ohio. Columbine III was used as Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidential aircraft, and was eventually retired to the museum in 1966, where it is now displayed in the museum's Presidential Gallery.[36] The interior of the aircraft is open to the public.

C-121C

S/N 54-0155 - on display at Lackland Air Force Base
Lackland Air Force Base
near San Antonio, Texas. S/N 54-0177 - on display at the National Air and Space Museum, Udvar-Hazy Center
Udvar-Hazy Center
located at Dulles Airport in Virginia.[37] S/N 54-0180 - on display at Charleston Air Force Base
Charleston Air Force Base
near North Charleston, South Carolina.

EC-121K

BuNo 137890 - on display at Tinker Air Force Base
Tinker Air Force Base
near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. BuNo 141297 - on display at the Museum of Aviation at Robins Air Force Base near Warner Robins, Georgia. BuNo 141309 - on display at the Aerospace Museum of California
Aerospace Museum of California
at the former McClellan Air Force Base
McClellan Air Force Base
in North Highlands, California. This aircraft is a former navy aircraft on loan from the National Museum of the United States Air Force. It is painted in the markings of a USAF EC-121 Warning Star.[38] BuNo 141311 - on display at the Chanute Aerospace Museum
Chanute Aerospace Museum
at the former Chanute AFB
Chanute AFB
in Rantoul, Illinois. BuNo 143221 - on display at the National Museum of Naval Aviation
National Museum of Naval Aviation
at NAS Pensacola
NAS Pensacola
near Pensacola, Florida.

EC-121T

N4257U on display at the Combat Air Museum in Topeka

S/N 52-3418 - on display at the Combat Air Museum in Topeka, Kansas. This aircraft was delivered to the Air Force in October 1954. It served an additional 22 years, until it was retired and flown to Davis Monthan AFB for storage on April 7, 1976. It June 1981, it was ferried to Topeka, Kansas, with Frank Lang in command. S/N 52-3425 - on display at the Peterson Air and Space Museum
Peterson Air and Space Museum
at Peterson AFB
Peterson AFB
in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Previously assigned to the 966th AEWCS at McCoy AFB, Florida, and then the 79th AEWCS at Homestead AFB, Florida. It was the last operational EC-121 and was deployed by the 79th AEWCS to NAS Keflavik, Iceland. It was delivered to Peterson AFB
Peterson AFB
in October 1978.[39] S/N 53-0548 - on display at the Yanks Air Museum
Yanks Air Museum
in Chino, California. Stored at Camarillo Airport, from 2000 to 2012, this aircraft made its final flight, to Chino, on January 14, 2012. S/N 53-0554 - on display at the Pima Air & Space Museum in Tucson, Arizona. As of April 6, 2014, it is undergoing restoration on its radome.[40] S/N 53-0555 - on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base
near Dayton, Ohio, in the museum's Modern Flight Gallery.[41]

L-1049G

IN315 - on display at the Naval Aviation Museum at Dabolim in Goa, India. This aircraft is a former Air India
India
Super Constellation (VT-DHM Rani of Ellora) that was later transferred to the Indian Navy
Indian Navy
[42]

Under restoration or in storage

WV-1

BuNo 124438 - to airworthiness by Gordon Cole at Salina, Kansas. This aircraft was the first of two WV-1s delivered to the US Navy in 1949. Essentially, it was a prototype for the EC-121 Warning Star
EC-121 Warning Star
that followed. Retired from the Navy in 1957, it served the FAA from 1958 to 1966, before being flown to Salina in 1967 for retirement. It remains parked there, and was last flown in 1992.[43]

VC-121A

S/N 48-0610 Columbine II
Columbine II
- to airworthiness by Dynamic Aviation in Bridgewater, Virginia. This aircraft served as the first Air Force One, during the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower, before it was replaced by Columbine III as Eisenhower's primary presidential aircraft in 1954. After a long period of storage at Marana Regional Airport, near Tucson, Arizona, this aircraft made its first flight, since 2003, in March 2016, when it was ferried to Bridgewater for additional restoration.[44][45][46][47] S/N 48-0613 Bataan - to airworthiness by Lewis Air Legends in San Antonio, Texas. This aircraft was used as a personal transport by General Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
during the Korean War, and later by other Army general officers until 1966, when it was transferred to NASA. Following its permanent retirement in 1970, it was placed on display at a museum at Fort Rucker
Fort Rucker
near Daleville, Alabama. It was acquired by the Planes of Fame Air Museum
Planes of Fame Air Museum
at Chino, California
Chino, California
in 1992, and overhauled into airworthy condition for a flight to Dothan, Alabama, where it received additional work. After a thorough restoration back to its original configuration with a "VIP interior", it was placed on display at the Planes of Fame secondary location in Valle, Arizona. Then, in 2015, it was sold to Lewis Air Legends, and prepped for a ferry flight to Chino, arriving there on January 14, 2016.

EC-121T

S/N 51-3417 - in storage at Helena Regional Airport
Helena Regional Airport
in Helena, Montana. Acquired by the Castle Air Museum
Castle Air Museum
of Atwater, California
Atwater, California
in 2014.

C-121J

BuNo 131643 - in storage at Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Ninoy Aquino International Airport
in Manila, Philippines. It was impounded at the airport in June 1988, and stored in deteriorating condition,[48] but in September 2014, it was secured for removal and static preservation by the Qantas
Qantas
Founders Outback Museum, Longreach.[49]

Specifications (L-1049G Super Constellation)[edit]

Data from Great Aircraft of the World[50] and Quest for Performance[51] General characteristics

Crew: five flight crew, varying cabin crew Capacity: typically 62–95 passengers (109 in high-density configuration) Length: 116 ft 2 in (35.42 m) Wingspan: 126 ft 2 in (38.47 m) Height: 24 ft 9 in (7.54 m) Wing area: 1,654 ft2 (153.7 m2) Empty weight: 79,700 lb (36,150 kg) Useful load: 65,300 lb (29,620 kg) Max. takeoff weight: 137,500 lb (62,370 kg) Powerplant: 4 × Wright R-3350-DA3 Turbo Compound 18-cylinder supercharged radial engines, 3,250 hp (2,424 kW) each

Performance

Maximum speed: 377 mph (327 kn, 607 km/h) Cruise speed: 340 mph (295 kn, 547 km/h) at 22,600 ft (6,900 m) Stall speed: 100 mph (87 kn, 160 km/h) Range: 5,400 mi (4,700 nmi (8,700 km)) Service ceiling: 24,000 ft (7,620 m) Rate of climb: 1,620 ft/min (8.23 m/s) Wing loading: 87.7 lb/ft2 (428 kg/m2) Power/mass: 0.094 hp/lb (0,155 W/kg)

Accidents and incidents[edit] Main article: List of accidents and incidents involving the Lockheed Constellation Like every other major type in long service and operation, accidents and incidents have been recorded that have substantially reduced the numbers flying. See also[edit]

Related development

L-049
L-049
Constellation C-69 Constellation L-649 Constellation L-749
L-749
Constellation L-1049 Super Constellation C-121/R7V Constellation L-1249 Super Constellation (R7V-2/YC-121F) L-1649A Starliner

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Boeing
Boeing
377 Douglas DC-4E Douglas DC-6 Douglas DC-7 Bristol Britannia

Related lists

List of Lockheed aircraft List of models of the Lockheed Constellation List of military aircraft of the United States List of military aircraft of the United States
List of military aircraft of the United States
(naval)

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b c d Taylor 1993, pp. 606–607. ^ a b Yenne 1987, pp. 44–46. ^ a b Boyne 1998, pp. 135–137. ^ Johnson 1985, pp. 82 ^ "Lockheed C-69 Constellation." militaryfactory.com, May 25, 2009. Retrieved: July 18, 2009. ^ Sampson 1985 ^ Johnson 1985, pp. 92 ^ a b c d e f g h Stringfellow and Bowers 1992. ^ Pace 2003, p. 17. ^ Germain 1998, p. 89. ^ " Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
L749 N749NL Comeback." World News. Retrieved: February 22, 2011. ^ Birtles 1998, p. 56. ^ Alternate Wars.com - R7V-2 Standard Aircraft Characteristics; Retrieved 10/12/11 ^ Swanborough, Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. United States Navy
United States Navy
Aircraft Since 1911. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1976. ISBN 0-87021-968-5. ^ Fahey, James C. The Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet, volumes 1–4, 1939–45. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1965. ^ "Lockheed L-049
L-049
Constellation." Pima Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: July 18, 2009. ^ , "Lockheed Constellation, A majestade dos ares (in Portuguese). Museum Asas de um Sonho (Portugal). Retrieved: July 18, 2009. ^ Pettersen, Ralph M. "N9412H c/n 2072." Constellation Survivors, 2011. Retrieved: February 22, 2011. ^ Kinder, Steve. "AirlineFan: AeroSur Constellation N2520B in AeroSur Colors" "AirlineFan: AeroSur Constellation N2520B in AeroSur Colors", 2008. Retrieved: June 17, 2012. ^ "F-ZVMV c/n 2503." conniesurvivors.com. Retrieved: July 18, 2009. ^ "THE STONES' CONNIE - The Lockheed File". www.adastron.com.  ^ Hayles, John. "Science Museum Swindon: Constellation N7777G." Archived 2008-07-27 at the Wayback Machine. aeroflight.co.uk, July 4, 2009. Retrieved: July 18, 2009. ^ Bogash, Robert "Super Constellation CF-TGE." rbogash.com. Retrieved: November 3, 2011. ^ Petersen, Ralph M. "CF-TGE c/n 4544." conniesurvivors.com. Retrieved: November 3, 2011. ^ "Lockheed L-1049 G Super Constellation" Archived 2009-06-14 at the Wayback Machine. Munich Airport
Munich Airport
Retrieved: August 31, 2009. ^ Pettersen, Ralph M. "N974R c/n 1040." Constellation Survivors, 2011. Retrieved: February 22, 2011. ^ "Lockheed L1649A Starliner, ZS-DVJ, c/n 1042." The South African Airways Museum Society via saamuseum.co.za. Retrieved: July 18, 2009. ^ "Story of F-BGNJ." Archived 2011-07-21 at the Wayback Machine. Amicale du Super Constellation. Retrieved: March 23, 2010. ^ Pettersen, Ralph M. "HI-542CT c/n 4825." Constellation Survivors, 2011. Retrieved: February 22, 2011. ^ "N6937C Lockheed Super Constellation "Star of America." Airline History Museum at Kansas City.Retrieved: July 18, 2009. ^ Denning, Larry. "Connie at the Movies." Archived 2012-02-25 at the Wayback Machine. Airline History Museum at Kansas City. Retrieved: July 18, 2009. ^ Pettersen, Ralph M. "Breitling Super Constellation. After the discovery of corrosion, it was grounded for a time, but is flying again after extensive repairs." conniesurvivors.com, May 2004. Retrieved: July 18, 2009. ^ "Historical Aircraft Restoration Society Super Constellation." Archived 2012-01-31 at the Wayback Machine. hars.org.au. Retrieved: January 30, 2012. ^ Pettersen, Ralph M. "N494TW c/n 2601." Constellation Survivors, 2011. Retrieved: February 22, 2011. ^ Pima Air and Space Museum webpage. Retrieved 2013-11-05 ^ Petersen, Ralph M. "53-7885 c/n 4151." Lockheed Constellation Survivors. Retrieved: 16 July 2013. ^ "C-121A." National Air and Space Museum. Retrieved 9 March 2018. ^ "EC-121D."[permanent dead link] Aerospace Museum of California. Retrieved: January 20, 2013. ^ "EC121T". Archived 2010-11-28 at the Wayback Machine. petemuseum.org. Retrieved: November 21, 2010. ^ "Lockheed EC-121T Constellation." Pima Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: July 18, 2009. ^ Lockheed EC-121D Constellation National Museum of the United States Air Force via nationalmuseum.af.mil. Retrieved: October 16, 2016. ^ "N4247K c/n 4144." conniesurvivors.com. Retrieved: November 21, 2010. ^ [1] Salina Connie. Retrieved February 16, 2013. ^ Dagenhart, Jenna (March 23, 2016). "First Air Force One
Air Force One
Aircraft Lands in Bridgewater for Restorations". WVIR. Retrieved March 24, 2016.  ^ "First Air Force One
Air Force One
plane decaying in Arizona field - NBC News".  ^ First Air Force One
Air Force One
(3 June 2014). "AMERICA'S LOST AIR FORCE ONE" – via YouTube.  ^ Rogoway, Tyler. "The First Air Force One
Air Force One
Has Taken To The Skies Once Again".  ^ "N4247K." conniesurvivors.com. Retrieved: November 23, 2010. ^ " Qantas
Qantas
Founders Museum Saves a 'Super Constellation'". Warbirds News. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2015.  ^ Cacutt 1989, pp. 314–322. ^ Loftin, L. K. Jr. Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft. NASA SP-468. Retrieved: April 22, 2006.

Bibliography[edit]

Birtles, Phillip. Lockheed L-1011 TriStar
Lockheed L-1011 TriStar
(Airliner Color History). St. Paul: Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1998. ISBN 978-0-7603-0582-9. Boyne, Walter J. Beyond the Horizons: The Lockheed Story. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. ISBN 0-312-24438-X. Cacutt, Len, ed. "Lockheed Constellation". Great Aircraft of the World. London: Marshall Cavendish, 1989. ISBN 1-85435-250-4. Germain, Scott E. Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
and Super Constellation. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 1998. ISBN 1-58007-000-0. Johnson, Clarence L. "Kelly" with Smith, Maggie. Kelly: More Than My Share of It All. Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985. ISBN 0-87474-564-0. Marson, Peter J. The Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
Series. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians), 1982. ISBN 0-85130-100-2. Pace, Steve. X-Planes: Pushing the Envelope of Flight. Osceola, Wisconsin: Zenith Imprint, 2003. ISBN 978-0-7603-1584-2. Sampson, Anthony. Empires of the Sky: The Politics, Contest and Cartels of World Airlines. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1985. ISBN 0-340-37668-6. Smith, M.J. Jr. Passenger Airliners of the United States, 1926–1991. Missoula, Montana: Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1986. ISBN 0-933126-72-7. Stringfellow, Curtis K. and Peter M. Bowers. Lockheed Constellation: A Pictorial History. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks, 1992. ISBN 0-87938-379-8. Taylor, Michael J.H., ed. " Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
and Super Constellation". Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. New York: Crescent, 1993. ISBN 0-517-10316-8. United States Air Force
United States Air Force
Museum Guidebook. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation, 1975. Yenne, Bill, Lockheed. Greenwich, Connecticut: Bison Books, 1987. ISBN 0-517-60471-X.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lockheed Constellation.

Lockheed Martin: How the Constellation Became the Star of the Skies Popular Mechanics, June 1943, The Flying Shark one of the first detailed articles on the C-69 Constellation Connie Survivors Goleta Air and Space Museum: Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
Survivors Warbird Alley: Connie page A photograph and description of VH-EAB and two colored promotional posters for Qantas
Qantas
Empire Airways's Constellation services, Qantas Empire Airways Lockheed L749 Constellation VH-EAB. Restoration of Lockheed L-1649A Super Star to airworthy condition by Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Technik One of four similar aerial photographs of VH-EAB by Frank Hurley, with brief annotation Super Constellation Flyers Association Many detailed close-up photographs of the Constellation from the Airline History Museum Maintenance parts catalog Constellation model L-049
L-049
reissue:1947

v t e

Lockheed and Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
aircraft and spacecraft

Transports

Constellation family

Constellation L-049 L-649 L-749 L-1049 L-1249 Starliner C-69 C-121 EC-121 R6V XB-30

Hercules family

C-130 C-130J AC-130 DC-130 HC-130 EC-130

EC-130H

KC-130 LC-130 MC-130 WC-130 L-100

Model 10 Electra family

Model 10 Electra Junior Lodestar Hudson Super Electra Ventura

L-188 Electra family

L-188 P-3 EP-3 CP-140 P-7

Other types

Air Express Altair C-5 C-141 Excalibur JetStar Orion Saturn Sirius TriStar

RAF

Vega

Fighter-bombers

Lightning family

P-38 XP-49 XP-58

Shooting Star family

F-80 F-94 T-33 T2V

Starfighter famiily

XF-104 F-104 NF-104A CL-1200

Raptor family

YF-22 F-22 FB-22 X-44

Other types

A-4AR A-9 F-16 F-35 F-117 XFM-2 XF-90 YP-24

Reconnaissance

Blackbird family

A-12 SR-71 Blackbird YF-12 D-21

Maritime patrol

P-2 Neptune S-3 Viking

Other manned

U-2 YO-3 TR-X SR-72

Other UAVs

Aequare AQM-60 Desert Hawk Desert Hawk III Fury MQM-105 Polecat RQ-3 RQ-170

Helicopters

CL-475 XH-51 AH-56 Cheyenne VH-71 Kestrel

Experimental

Have Blue L-133 L-301 QueSST Senior Peg Senior Prom Star Clipper XC-35 X-7 X-17 X-24C X-26B X-33 X-35 X-55 X-56 XFV XV-4

Light aircraft

Big Dipper Explorer L-402 Little Dipper

Missiles

Agena High Virgo Perseus Ping-Pong Polaris Poseidon Trident I Trident II

v t e

Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
family

Constellation

L-049
L-049
(C-69) L-149 L-549 (C-69C) L-649 L-749
L-749
(C-121A/B PO-1W/WV-1)

Super Constellation

L-1049 (C-121C/G/J EC-121 R7O-1/R7V-1 WV-2/WV-3) L-1249 (YC-121F * R7V-2)

Starliner

L-1649

See also List of models of the Lockheed Constellation List of Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
operators List of accidents and incidents involving the Lockheed Constellation

v t e

United States military transport aircraft designations, Army/Air Force and Tri-Service systems

Army/Air Force sequence (1925-1962)

C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 C-6 C-7 C-8 C-9 C-10 C-11 C-12 C-131 C-14 C-15 C-16 C-17 C-18 C-19 C-20 C-21 C-22 C-23 C-24 C-25 C-26 C-27 C-28 C-29 C-30 C-31 C-32 C-33 C-34 C-35 C-36 C-37 C-38 C-39 C-40 C-41/A C-42 C-43 C-44 C-45 C-46 C-47/T C-48 C-49 C-50 C-51 C-52 C-53 C-54 C-55 C-56 C-57 C-58 C-59 C-60 C-61 C-62 C-63 C-64 C-65 C-66 C-67 C-68 C-69 C-70/A/B/C/D C-71 C-72 C-73 C-74 C-75 C-76 C-77/B-D C-78 C-79 C-80 C-81 C-82 C-83 C-84 C-85 C-86 C-87 C-88 C-89 C-90 C-91 C-92 C-93 C-94 C-95 C-96 C-97/KC-97 C-98 C-99 C-100 C-101 C-102 C-103 C-104 C-105 C-106 C-107 C-108 C-109 C-110 C-111 C-112 C-113 C-114 C-115 C-116 C-117 C-118 C-119 C-120 C-121/F C-122 C-123/A C-124 C-125 C-126 C-127 (I) C-127 (II) C-128 C-129 C-130/J C-131 C-132 C-133 C-134 C-135/KC-135 C-136 C-137 C-1381 C-1391 C-140 C-141 C-142

Tri-service sequence (1962-present)

C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 C-6 C-7/B C-8 C-9 C-10 C-11 C-12 C-131 C-14 C-15 C-161 C-17 C-18 C-19 C-20A-D/F-H C-21 C-22 C-23 C-24 C-25 C-26 C-27/J C-28 C-29 C-301 C-31 C-32 C-33 C-341 C-35 C-36 C-37A/B C-38 C-391 C-40 C-41 C-421 C-431 C-441 C-45 C-46

Revived original sequence (2005-present)

C-143 C-144 C-145 C-146

Non-sequential designations

C-767 C-880

1 Not assigned See also: AC-47  • AC-119  • AC-130  • DC-130  • EC-130  • HC-130  • KC-130  • LC-130  • MC-130  • WC-130  • CT-39  • CT-43

v t e

USN/USMC transport designations 1931–1962

Atlantic Aircraft

RA

Budd

RB

Curtiss

RC R2C4 R3C4 R4C R5C

Douglas

RD R2D R3D R4D R5D R6D

Bellanca

RE

Kinner

RK

Kreider-Reisner

RK2 R2K

Martin

RM

Lockheed

RO R2O R3O R4O R5O R6O R7O-1/-2 to "V" (see below, at "Lockheed")

Stinson

RQ R2Q2 R3Q

Fairchild

RQ R2Q R3Q2 R4Q

Ford

RR

Sikorsky

RS

Northrop

RT

Lockheed

from "O" (see above, at "Lockheed") R6V R7V-1/-2 R8V

Convair

RY R2Y R3Y R4Y

1 Not assigned 2 Assigned to a different manufacturer's type 3 Sequence restarted 4 Assigned to a different class of aircraft

v t e

USN/USMC patrol aircraft designations 1923–1962

Patrol

Boeing

XPB PB P2B P3B

Curtiss

P2N

Douglas

PD P2D P3D

Grumman

PF

Hall

PH P2H

General Aviation

PJ

Keystone

PK

Martin

PM P2M P3M P4M P5M P6M P7M

Naval Aircraft Factory

PN P2N P3N1 P4N

Lockheed

PO

Sikorsky

PS P2S

Lockheed

PV P2V P3V

Consolidated

PY P2Y P3Y P4Y-1 P4Y-2 P5Y P6Y

Patrol Bomber

Boeing

PBB PB2B

North American

PBJ

Martin

PBM PB2M

Naval Aircraft Factory

PBN

Lockheed

PBO

Sikorsky

PBS

Canadian Vickers

PBV

Consolidated

PBY PB2Y PB3Y PB4Y-1 PB4Y-2

Patrol Torpedo Bomber

Hall

PTBH

1 Not assigned · 2 Designation reused

Authority control

.