HOME
The Info List - List Of French Possessions And Colonies


--- Advertisement ---



This is an historical article. For current French possessions see French overseas departments and territories

This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (March 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

During the 19th and 20th centuries, the French colonial empire
French colonial empire
was the second largest colonial empire behind the British Empire ; it extended over 12,898,000 km2 (4,980,000 sq mi) of land at its height in the 1920s and 1930s. In terms of population however, on the eve of World War II, France
France
and her colonial possessions totaled only 110 million inhabitants, compared to 330 million for British India alone. France
France
began to establish colonies in North America, the Caribbean and India, following Spanish and Portuguese successes during the Age of Discovery, in rivalry with Britain. A series of wars with Britain during the 18th century and early 19th century, which France
France
finally lost, almost ended its colonial ambitions in these regions, and without it what some historian term the "first" French colonial empire. In the 19th century, starting with the conquest of Algier in 1830, France
France
began to establish a new empire in Africa and Southeast Asia. The following is a list of all the countries that were part of the French colonial empires in the last 500 years, either entirely or in part, either under French sovereignty or as mandate.

Contents

1 In the Americas 2 In Africa

2.1 French North Africa 2.2 French West Africa 2.3 French Equatorial Africa 2.4 French East Africa

3 In Asia 4 In Oceania 5 In Antarctica 6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 External links

In the Americas[edit] Further information: List of French forts in North America See also: Former colonies and territories in Canada
Former colonies and territories in Canada
and Timeline of the colonization of North America

This map shows the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
area, which corresponds approximately with colonial French Louisiana.

Map of New France

Taking up of the Louisiana by La Salle in the name of the Kingdom of France

Present-day Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(1795–1809) Canada

New France
New France
(1534–1763), and nearby lands:

Acadia
Acadia
(1604–1713) Newfoundland Hudson Bay Saint Lawrence River Great Lakes Lake Winnipeg Quebec

Present-day United States

The Fort Saint Louis (Texas) (1685–1689) Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
(1650–1733) Fort Caroline
Fort Caroline
in French Florida
French Florida
(occupation by Huguenots) (1562–1565) French Louisiana
French Louisiana
(23.3% of the current territory) (1764–1804) (sold by Napoleon
Napoleon
I)

Lower Louisiana Upper Louisiana

Louisiana (New France)
Louisiana (New France)
(1672–1764)

Present-day Brazil

France Équinoxiale
France Équinoxiale
(Bay of São Luis) (1610–1615) The island of Saint Alexis
Saint Alexis
(1531) The Territory of Amapá
Amapá
(1897) (disputed Franco-Brazilian territory resolved in favour of Brazil)[1] The city of Viçosa-Ceará (Territory of Ibiapaba) (1590–1604) France
France
Antarctique, to Fort Coligny
Fort Coligny
( Rio de Janeiro Bay) (1555–1567) Île Delphine's island (1736-1737)

Haiti
Haiti
(1627–1804) Present-day Suriname

Tapanahony
Tapanahony
(District of Sipaliwini) (Controversial Franco-Dutch in favour of the Netherlands) (25.8% of the current territory) (1814)

Îles des Saintes
Îles des Saintes
(1648–present) Marie-Galante
Marie-Galante
(1635–present) la Désirade (1635–present) Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
(1635–present) Martinique
Martinique
(1635–present) French Guyana
Guyana
(1604–present) Clipperton Island
Clipperton Island
(1711–present) Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
(1604-1713, 1763–present) Collectivity of Saint Martin
Collectivity of Saint Martin
(1624–present) Saint Barthélemy
Saint Barthélemy
(1648-1784, 1878–present) Dominica
Dominica
(1625–1663, 1778-1783) Nevis
Nevis
(1782–1784) Grenada
Grenada
(1650–1762, 1779–1783) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
(1719-1763, 1779–1783) Saint Christopher Island
Saint Christopher Island
(1628–1690, 1698–1702, 1706, 1782–1783) Antigua
Antigua
(briefly in 1666) Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
(1650–1723, 1756–1778, 1784–1803) Present-day Guyana
Guyana
(1782–1784) Tobago
Tobago
(1666–1667, 1781–1793, 1802–1803)

In Africa[edit]

Map of French colonies in Africa (in pink)

French North Africa[edit]

French Morocco
French Morocco
(1912–1956) (protectorate) (89% of the current territory) (now Morocco) French Algeria
French Algeria
(1832–1962) (Algeria)

French colony of El Kala
El Kala
(1560–1829)

French Tunisia
French Tunisia
(1881–1956) (protectorate) (Tunisia)

French West Africa[edit]

Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
(1843–1960) Dahomey
Dahomey
or French Dahomey
Dahomey
(now Benin) (1883–1960)

Independent of Dahomey, under French protectorate in 1889 Porto-Novo
Porto-Novo
(protectorate) (1863–1865, 1882) Cotonou
Cotonou
(protectorate) (1868)

French Sudan
French Sudan
(now Mali) (1883–1960)

Senegambia and Niger
Senegambia and Niger
(1902-1904)

Guinea
Guinea
or French Guinea
Guinea
(1891–1958) Mauritania
Mauritania
(1902–1960)

Adrar emirate (protectorate) (1909) The Taganit confederation's emirate (protectorate) (1905) Brakna
Brakna
confederation's emirate (protectorate) Emirate of Trarza
Emirate of Trarza
(protectorate) (1902)

Niger
Niger
(1890–1960)

Sultanate of Damagaram
Sultanate of Damagaram
(Zinder) (protectorate) (1899)

Senegal
Senegal
(1677–1960) French Upper Volta
French Upper Volta
(now Burkina Faso) (1896–1960) French Togoland
French Togoland
(1918–1960) (formerly a German colony, mandate became a French colony) (now Togo) Nigeria

The Enclaves of Forcados and Badjibo
Enclaves of Forcados and Badjibo
(territory under a lease of 30 years) (1900–1927) The Emirate of Muri (Northeast of Nigeria) (1892–1893)

Gambia

Albreda
Albreda
(1681–1857) Kunta Kinteh Island
Kunta Kinteh Island
(1695-1697-1702)

French Equatorial Africa[edit]

Chad
Chad
(1900–1960) Oubangui-Chari
Oubangui-Chari
(currently Central African Republic) (1905–1960)

Dar al-Kuti (protectorate) (1897) (in 1912 its sultanate was suppressed by the French) Sultanate of Bangassou
Bangassou
(protectorate) (1894)

Present-day The Republic of Congo, then French Congo
French Congo
(1875–1960) Gabon
Gabon
(1839–1960) French Cameroon
French Cameroon
(91% of current Cameroon) (1918–1960) (formerly a German colony, Mandate, Protectorate then French Colony) São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
(1709)

French East Africa[edit]

Madagascar
Madagascar
(1896–1960)

Kingdom of Imerina
Imerina
(protectorate) (1896)

Isle de France
France
(1715–1810) (now Mauritius) Djibouti
Djibouti
(French Somaliland) (the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas) (French Somalia) (1862–1977) Mayotte
Mayotte
(1841–present) Seychelles
Seychelles
(1756–1810) Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
(1721–1745)(1768–1814) The Scattered Islands
Scattered Islands
(Banc du Geyser, Bassas da India, Europa Island, Juan de Nova Island, Glorioso Islands, Tromelin Island) Comoros
Comoros
(1866–1975) Réunion
Réunion
(1710–present)

In Asia[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

French Indochina

French Indochinese Union
French Indochinese Union
(1887–1954)

Laos (protectorate) (1893–1954) Cambodia (protectorate) (1863–1953) Vietnam

Cochinchina (Southern Vietnam) (1858–1949) Annam (protectorate) (Central Vietnam) (1883–1949) Tonkin (protectorate) (Northern Vietnam) (1884–1949) State of Vietnam
State of Vietnam
(1949–1954) Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
(1933–1939) Paracel Islands
Paracel Islands
(1933–1939)

India and Sri Lanka

French India

French Establishments of India, composed of Pondichéry (1765–1954;

Karikal
Karikal
(1725–1954); Mahé (1721–1954) Yanaon (1723–1954; Chandernagor
Chandernagor
(1673–1952)

Taiwan

The city/port of Keelung
Keelung
(1884–1885) Pescadores Islands
Pescadores Islands
(1885)

Turkey Basilan
Basilan
(1845) China

The territory of Kouang-Tchéou-Wan, a dependency of French Indochina) (1898–1945) The foreign concessions : French Concession of Shanghai (1849–1946), Tianjin (1860–1946) and Hankou
Hankou
(1898–1946) The Spheres of French influence officially recognized by China
China
on the provinces of Yunnan, Guangxi, Hainan, Guangdong Shamian Island
Shamian Island
(1859-1949) (1/5 of Island)

Israel

The French Domains of Israel
Israel
(L'Eléona, crossed commanderie of Abou Gosh, Tombeau des Rois, Church of Sainte-Anne)[2]

Lebanon
Lebanon
or French Lebanon
Lebanon
(1920–1943) (French Mandate of Lebanon)

Mount Lebanon
Lebanon
(1860-1864) (An international protocol fixes the autonomy of the mount Lebanon
Lebanon
under the protection of France)[3]

Syria
Syria
(1920–1946) (French Mandate of Syria)

Alawite State
Alawite State
(1920–1936) State of Aleppo
State of Aleppo
(1920–1924) State of Jabal Druze
State of Jabal Druze
(1921–1936) State of Damascus
State of Damascus
(1920–1924) Sanjak of Alexandretta
Sanjak of Alexandretta
(now part of Turkey) State of Greater Lebanon
Lebanon
(now part of Lebanon) (1920–1946)

In Oceania[edit]

French Polynesia

Society Islands
Society Islands
(became a French protectorate in 1843 and a colony in 1880)

Otaheiti, known as Tahiti (protectorate) (1842–1880) Raiatea
Raiatea
and Tahaa
Tahaa
(protectorate) (1880)

Tuamotu Archipelago Marquesas Islands
Marquesas Islands
(under French control in 1870, and later incorporated into the territory of French Polynesia) Gambier Islands

Mangareva
Mangareva
(protectorate) (1844/1871)

Austral Islands

Rurutu (Austral Islands)
Rurutu (Austral Islands)
(protectorate) (1858–1889)[4]

Papua New Guinea

New Ireland (1880–1882) (attempt at colonization, unofficial)

New Caledonia

Chesterfield Islands Matthew and Hunter Islands Loyalty Islands Île des Pins

Hawaiian Islands (1837) (at the beginning of French presence there; however, the United States persuaded the local Queen to negotiate with them instead, by means of the strength of a company of U.S. Marines) The New Hebrides
New Hebrides
(Vanuatu)

in French Protectorate (1887–1906) in ( Condominium (international law)
Condominium (international law)
Fr/UK) (1906–1980)

Australia

Dirk Hartog Island
Dirk Hartog Island
(1772) (made an unofficial annexation for all Australia)[5][6][7]

Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna
(1887-)

Kingdom of Uvea (Wallis and Futuna)
Uvea (Wallis and Futuna)
(declared to be a protectorate by King of Uvea
Uvea
and Captain Mallet in 1842. Officially in a treaty becomes a French protectorate in 1887 until annexed in 1917) Kingdom of Sigave
Sigave
(signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate in 1888 until annexed in 1917) Kingdom of Alo (Wallis and Futuna)
Alo (Wallis and Futuna)
(signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate in 1888 until annexed in 1917)

In Antarctica[edit]

Territory claim by France
France
in Antarctic (Adélie Land)

French Southern and Antarctic Lands
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
(TAAF)

Crozet Islands
Crozet Islands
(24 January 1772[8] -present) Kerguelen Islands
Kerguelen Islands
(13 February 1772[9] -present) Île Amsterdam
Île Amsterdam
(in 1843 but abandoned) (1892-present) Île Saint-Paul
Île Saint-Paul
(in 1843 but abandoned) (1892-present) Adélie Land
Adélie Land
(1840–present) (sheltering one of two French Bases in Antarctica, the other one being Franco-Italian (that borders with the Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
on both sides and divides that in two)

See also[edit]

French Colonial Empire Overseas departments and territories of France CFA franc Francization Franco-Trarzan War of 1825 French colonial forces French colonisation of the Americas French Colonial Union French Equatorial Africa French West Africa Organisation internationale de la Francophonie Kouang-Tchéou-Wan, a small French territory in China French colonial flags List of North American cities by year of foundation Former colonies and territories in Canada Timeline of the colonization of North America

Notes and references[edit]

^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2011-02-12.  ^ "Domaines nationaux - Consulat Général de France
France
à Jérusalem". Consulfrance-Jerusalem.org. Archived from the original on 2010-09-11. Retrieved 2011-03-26.  ^ "BnF - Voyage en Orient". expositions.bnf.fr. Retrieved 23 September 2017.  ^ "Drapeau de Rurutu - Tahiti Heritage". www.tahitiheritage.pf. Retrieved 23 September 2017.  ^ "Consulter le sujet - L'Australie serait-elle française ?!... • [Forums". Francedownunder.com. Retrieved 2011-03-26.  ^ Godard, Philippe; Kerros, Tugdual de; Margot, Odette; Stanbury, Myra; Baxter, Sue; Western Australian Museum; Godard, Phillippe; De Kerros, Tugdual; Margot, Odette; Stanbury, Myra; Baxter, Sue (2008), 1772 : the French annexation of New Holland : the tale of Louis de Saint Aloürn, Western Australian Museum, ISBN 978-1-920843-98-4  ^ Philippe Godard, Tugdual de Kerros 2002, "Louis de Saint Aloüarn, un marin breton à la conquête des terres australes", Les Portes du large, Saint-Jacques-de-la-Lande, 331-336 ^ "TAAF". Taaf.fr. Archived from the original on 2012-01-20. Retrieved 2012-01-10.  ^ "Kerguelen – yves trémarec – james cook – asia – hillsborough – rhodes". Kerguelen-voyages.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-02. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to French colonial empire.

http://www.worldstatesmen.org/COLONIES.html Worldstatesmen.org: COLONIES (English)] http://www.stratisc.org/pub_mo2_NIEDCOLONI.html NIEDCOLONI (French)] Francedownunder.com: French Forum https://web.archive.org/web/20120320082134/http://www.maranhao.fr/index_0.php Maranhao.fr: (French)] http://www.herodote.net/histoire/evenement.php?jour=15551110 Herodote.net (French)] http://www.mgm.fr/PUB/Mappemonde/M488/m2_8.pdf Mappemonde (French)] https://web.archive.org/web/20110706154626/http://www.topdobrasil.com.br/histoire/france-antarctique/france-antarctique.php France-Antarctique history (French)] http://www.grandquebec.com/quebec-et-monde/france-antarctique/ France-Antarctique (French)] http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k109516t (French) http://fan2figs.blog4ever.com/blog/lire-article-226522-1184741-le_reve_de_la_france_antarctique.html (French)

v t e

French overseas empire

Former

v t e

Former French colonies in Africa and the Indian Ocean

French North Africa

Algeria Morocco Tunisia

French West Africa

Côte d'Ivoire Dahomey French Sudan Guinea Mauritania

Arguin
Arguin
Island

Niger Senegal Upper Volta

 

French Togoland James Island Albreda

French Equatorial Africa

Chad Gabon Middle Congo Ubangi-Shari French Cameroons

French Comoros

Anjouan Grande Comore Mohéli

 

French Somaliland
French Somaliland
(Djibouti) Madagascar Isle de France

v t e

Former French colonies in the Americas

New France

Acadia Louisiana Canada Terre Neuve

French Caribbean

Dominica Grenada The Grenadines Saint-Domingue

Haïti, Dominican Republic

Saint Kitts & Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent Tobago Virgin Islands

Equinoctial France

Berbice France
France
Antarctique Inini

French colonization of the Americas French West India Company

v t e

Former French colonies in Asia and Oceania

French India

Chandernagor Coromandel Coast Madras Mahé Pondichéry Karaikal Yanaon

Indochinese Union

Cambodia Laos Vietnam

Cochinchina Annam Tonkin

Kouang-Tchéou-Wan, China

French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon

State of Syria

Aleppo Damascus

Alawite State Greater Lebanon Jabal al-Druze Sanjak of Alexandretta

Oceania

New Hebrides

Vanuatu

Port Louis-Philippe (Akaroa)

France–Asia relations French East India Company

Present

v t e

Overseas France

Inhabited areas

Overseas departments1

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte2 Réunion

Overseas collectivities

French Polynesia St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Sui generis
Sui generis
collectivity

New Caledonia

Uninhabited areas

Pacific Ocean

Clipperton Island

Overseas territory (French Southern and Antarctic Lands)

Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Crozet Islands Kerguelen Islands Adélie Land

Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean

Bassas da India3 Europa Island3 Glorioso Islands2, 3 Juan de Nova Island3 Tromelin Island4

1 Also known as overseas regions 2 Claimed by Comoros 3 Claimed by Madagascar 4 Claimed by Mauritius

v t e

Overseas France

Inhabited areas

Overseas departments1

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte2 Réunion

Overseas collectivities

French Polynesia St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Sui generis
Sui generis
collectivity

New Caledonia

Uninhabited areas

Pacific Ocean

Clipperton Island

Overseas territory (French Southern and Antarctic Lands)

Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Crozet Islands Kerguelen Islands Adélie Land

Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean

Bassas da India3 Europa Island3 Glorioso Islands2, 3 Juan de Nova Island3 Tromelin Island4

1 Also known as overseas regions 2 Claimed by Comoros 3 Claimed by Madagascar 4 Claimed by Mauritius

Geography portal French language and French-spe

.