The Info List - Linnaean Taxonomy

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LINNAEAN TAXONOMY can mean either of two related concepts:

* the particular form of biological classification (taxonomy) set up by Carl Linnaeus , as set forth in his _ Systema Naturae _ (1735) and subsequent works. In the taxonomy of Linnaeus
there are three kingdoms, divided into _classes_, and they, in turn, into _orders_, _families_, _genera_ (singular: _genus_), and _species_ (singular: _species_), with an additional rank lower than species. * a term for rank-based classification of organisms, in general. That is, taxonomy in the traditional sense of the word: rank-based scientific classification . This term is especially used as opposed to cladistic systematics, which groups organisms into clades . It is attributed to Linnaeus, although he neither invented the concept of ranked classification (it goes back to Plato
and Aristotle
) nor gave it its present form. In fact, it does not have an exact present form, as "Linnaean taxonomy" as such does not really exist: it is a collective (abstracting) term for what actually are several separate fields, which use similar approaches.

LINNAEAN NAME also has two meanings: depending on the context, it may either refer to a formal name given by Linnaeus
(personally), such as _Giraffa camelopardalis_ Linnaeus, 1758 , or a formal name in the accepted nomenclature (as opposed to a modernistic clade name).


* 1 The taxonomy of Linnaeus

* 1.1 Classification for plants * 1.2 Classification for animals * 1.3 Classification for minerals

* 2 Rank-based scientific classification

* 2.1 Alternatives

* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links


In his _Imperium Naturae_, Linnaeus
established three kingdoms, namely _Regnum Animale_, _Regnum Vegetabile_ and _Regnum Lapideum_. This approach, the Animal, Vegetable and Mineral
Kingdoms, survives today in the popular mind, notably in the form of the parlour game question: "Is it animal, vegetable or mineral ?". The work of Linnaeus had a huge impact on science; it was indispensable as a foundation for biological nomenclature , now regulated by the nomenclature codes . Two of his works, the first edition of the _ Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
_ (1753) for plants and the tenth edition of the _Systema Naturae_ (1758), are accepted as part of the starting points of nomenclature; his binomials (names for species) and generic names take priority over those of others. However, the impact he had on science was not because of the value of his taxonomy.


His classes and orders of plants, according to his _Systema Sexuale_, were never intended to represent natural groups (as opposed to his _ordines naturales_ in his _ Philosophia Botanica
Philosophia Botanica
_) but only for use in identification. They were used for that purpose well into the nineteenth century. Within each class were several orders. _ Key to the Sexual System (from the 10th, 1758, edition of the Systema Naturae_) _ Kalmia _ is classified according to Linnaeus' sexual system in class Decandria, order Monogyna, because it has 10 stamens and one pistil

The Linnaean classes for plants, in the Sexual System, were:

* Classis 1. Monandria: flowers with 1 stamen * Classis 2. Diandria: flowers with 2 stamens * Classis 3. Triandria: flowers with 3 stamens * Classis 4. Tetrandria: flowers with 4 stamens * Classis 5. Pentandria: flowers with 5 stamens

* Classis 6. Hexandria: flowers with 6 stamens

* Hexandria monogynia pp. 285–352 * Hexandria polygynia pp. 342–343

* Classis 7. Heptandria: flowers with 7 stamens * Classis 8. Octandria: flowers with 8 stamens * Classis 9. Enneandria: flowers with 9 stamens * Classis 10. Decandria: flowers with 10 stamens * Classis 11. Dodecandria: flowers with 12 stamens * Classis 12. Icosandria: flowers with 20 (or more) stamens, perigynous * Classis 13. Polyandria: flowers with many stamens, inserted on the receptacle * Classis 14. Didynamia: flowers with 4 stamens, 2 long and 2 short * Classis 15. Tetradynamia: flowers with 6 stamens, 4 long and 2 short * Classis 16. Monadelphia; flowers with the anthers separate, but the filaments united, at least at the base * Classis 17. Diadelphia; flowers with the stamens united in two separate groups * Classis 18. Polyadelphia; flowers with the stamens united in several separate groups * Classis 19. Syngenesia; flowers with 5 stamens, the anthers united at their edges * Classis 20. Gynandria; flowers with the stamens united to the pistils * Classis 21. Monoecia: monoecious plants * Classis 22. Dioecia: dioecious plants * Classis 23. Polygamia: polygamodioecious plants * Classis 24. Cryptogamia: the "flowerless" plants, including ferns , fungi , algae , and bryophytes

The classes based on the number of stamens were then subdivided by the number of pistils, e.g. _Hexandria monogynia_ with six stamens and one pistil.

Index to genera p. 1201


The 1735 classification of animals

Only in the Animal
Kingdom is the higher taxonomy of Linnaeus
still more or less recognizable and some of these names are still in use, but usually not quite for the same groups. He divided the Animal Kingdom into six classes, in the tenth edition, of 1758, these were:

* Classis 1. Mammalia * Classis 2. Aves * Classis 3. Amphibia * Classis 4. Pisces * Classis 5. Insecta * Classis 6. Vermes


His taxonomy of minerals has long since dropped from use. In the tenth edition, 1758, of the _Systema Naturae_, the Linnaean classes were:

* Classis 1. Petræ * Classis 2. Mineræ * Classis 3. Fossilia * Classis 4. Vitamentra


Main article: Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (biology)

This rank-based method of classifying living organisms was originally popularized by (and much later named for) Linnaeus, although it has changed considerably since his time. The greatest innovation of Linnaeus, and still the most important aspect of this system, is the general use of binomial nomenclature , the combination of a genus name and a second term, which together uniquely identify each species of organism within a kingdom. For example, the human species is uniquely identified within the animal kingdom by the name _ Homo
sapiens_. No other species of animal can have this same binomen (the technical term for a binomial in the case of animals). Prior to Linnaean taxonomy, animals were classified according to their mode of movement.

Linnaeus's use of binomial nomenclature was anticipated by the theory of definition used in Scholasticism
. Scholastic logicians and philosophers of nature defined the species man, for example, as _ Animal
rationalis_, where _animal_ was considered a genus and _rationalis_ (Latin for "rational") the characteristic distinguishing man from all other animals. Treating _animal_ as the immediate genus of the species man, horse, etc. is of little practical use to the biological taxonomist, however. Accordingly, Linnaeus's classification treats _animal_ as a class including many genera (subordinated to the animal "kingdom" via intermediary classes such as "orders"), and treats _homo_ as the genus of a species _ Homo
sapiens_, with _sapiens_ (Latin for "knowing" or "understanding") playing a differentiating role analogous to that played, in the Scholastic system, by _rationalis_ (the word _homo_, Latin for "human being", was used by the Scholastics to denote a species, not a genus).

A strength of Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
is that it can be used to organize the different kinds of living organisms , simply and practically. Every species can be given a unique (and, one hopes, stable) name, as compared with common names that are often neither unique nor consistent from place to place and language to language. This uniqueness and stability are, of course, a result of the acceptance by working systematists (biologists specializing in taxonomy), not merely of the binomial names themselves, but of the rules governing the use of these names, which are laid down in formal nomenclature codes .

can be placed in a ranked hierarchy , starting with either _domains _ or _kingdoms_. Domains are divided into kingdoms . Kingdoms are divided into _phyla _ (singular: _phylum_) — for animals ; the term _division_, used for plants and fungi , is equivalent to the rank of phylum (and the current International Code of Botanical Nomenclature allows the use of either term). Phyla (or divisions) are divided into _classes _, and they, in turn, into _orders _, _families _, _genera _ (singular: _genus_), and _species _ (singular: _species_). There are ranks below species: in zoology, _subspecies_ (but see _form _ or _morph _); in botany, _variety_ (varietas) and _form_ (forma), etc.

Groups of organisms at any of these ranks are called _taxa_ (singular: _taxon _) or _taxonomic groups_.

The Linnaean system has proven robust and it remains the only extant working classification system at present that enjoys universal scientific acceptance. However, although the number of ranks is unlimited, in practice any classification becomes more cumbersome the more ranks are added. Among the later subdivisions that have arisen are such entities as phyla, families, and tribes, as well as any number of ranks with prefixes (superfamilies, subfamilies, etc.). The use of newer taxonomic tools such as cladistics and phylogenetic nomenclature has led to a different way of looking at evolution (expressed in many nested clades ) and this sometimes leads to a desire for more ranks. An example of such complexity is the scheme for mammals proposed by McKenna and Bell.


Over time, the understanding of the relationships between living things has changed. Linnaeus
could only base his scheme on the structural similarities of the different organisms. The greatest change was the widespread acceptance of evolution as the mechanism of biological diversity and species formation, following the 1859 publication of Charles Darwin's _On the Origin of Species
_. It then became generally understood that classifications ought to reflect the phylogeny of organisms, their descent by evolution. This led to evolutionary taxonomy , where the various extant and extinct are linked together to construct a phylogeny. This is largely what is meant by the term 'Linnaean taxonomy' when used in a modern context.

In cladistics , originating in the work of Willi Hennig , 1950 onwards, each taxon is grouped so as to include the common ancestor of the group's members (and thus to avoid polyphyly ). Such taxa may be either monophyletic (including all descendants) such as genus _ Homo
_, or paraphyletic (excluding some descendants), such as genus _ Australopithecus

Originally, Linnaeus
established three kingdoms in his scheme, namely for Plants , Animals and an additional group for minerals , which has long since been abandoned. Since then, various life forms have been moved into three new kingdoms: Monera , for prokaryotes (i.e., bacteria); Protista , for protozoans and most algae; and Fungi
. This five kingdom scheme is still far from the phylogenetic ideal and has largely been supplanted in modern taxonomic work by a division into three domains: Bacteria and Archaea
, which contain the prokaryotes, and Eukaryota , comprising the remaining forms. These arrangements should not be seen as definitive. They are based on the genomes of the organisms; as knowledge on this increases, classifications will change.

Representing presumptive evolutionary relationships, especially given the wide acceptance of cladistic methodology and numerous molecular phylogenies that have challenged long-accepted classifications, within the framework of Linnaean taxonomy, is sometimes seen as problematic. Therefore, some systematists have proposed a PhyloCode to replace it.


* History of plant systematics * Phylogenetic tree
Phylogenetic tree
– a way to express insights into evolutionary relationships * Zoology mnemonic for a list of mnemonic sentences used to help people remember the list of Linnaean ranks.


* ^ Comstock, J.L. (1837). _An introduction to the study of botany: including a treatise on vegetable physiology, and descriptions of the most common plants in the middle and northern states_. Robinson, Pratt & Co. * ^ Linnaeus
1753 , Hexandria monogynia pp. 285–352. * ^ Linnaeus
1753 , Hexandria polyynia pp. 342–343. * ^ " Linnaeus
Sexual System". _CronkLab_. Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia. Retrieved 26 January 2015. * ^ Linnaeus
1753 , Index generum p. 1201. * ^ Embley, T. A. & Martin, W. (2006). "Eukaryotic evolution, changes and challenges.". _Nature_. 440. pp. 623–630. doi :10.1038/nature04546 .


* Linnaeus, C. (1753). _ Species
Plantarum_. Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii. Retrieved 18 April 2015. * Dawkins, Richard . 2004. _The Ancestor\'s Tale : A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life_. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-00583-8 * Ereshefsky, Marc. 2000. _The Poverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy: A Philosophical Study of Biological Taxonomy_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Fara, Patricia (2003). _Sex, Botany and Empire: The Story of Carl Linnaeus
and Joseph Banks_. Cambridge: Icon Books. ISBN 9781840464443 . Retrieved 22 February 2015. * George, Sam (June 2005). "‘Not Strictly Proper For A Female Pen’: Eighteenth-Century Poetry and the Sexuality of Botany". _Comparative Critical Studies_. 2 (2): 191–210. doi :10.3366/ccs.2005.2.2.191 . Retrieved 23 February 2015. * Gould, Stephen Jay . 1989. _Wonderful Life : The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History_. W. W. Norton ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

_ List of systems of plant taxonomy
List of systems of plant taxonomy


JOHN RAY SYSTEM (1686–1704)

* A discourse on the seeds of plants_ * _Methodus plantarum nova_ * _De Variis Plantarum Methodis Dissertatio Brevis_ * _Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta_



* _ Systema Naturae _ * _ Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
_ * _ Genera Plantarum
Genera Plantarum
_ * _ Philosophia Botanica
Philosophia Botanica

ADANSON SYSTEM (1763) _Familles naturelles des plantes_

DE JUSSIEU SYSTEM (1789) _Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam_


* _Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l'art de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux_ * _Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta_

Berchtold and Presl system (1820–1823) _ O Prirozenosti Rostlin _

AGARDH SYSTEM (1825) _Classes Plantarum_

GRAY SYSTEM (1821) _The Natural Arrangement of British Plants_

DUMORTIER SYSTEM (1829) _Analyse des familles des plantes_


* _An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany_ * _The Vegetable Kingdom_

DON SYSTEM (1834) _General History of Dichlamydious Plants_.

Bentham border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">


EICHLER SYSTEM (1875–1886)

* _Blüthendiagramme: construirt und erläutert_ * _Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde_

ENGLER SYSTEM (1886–1924)

* _Führer durch den Königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau_ * _ Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien _ * _ Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien _ * _Das Pflanzenreich_

VAN TIEGHEM SYSTEM (1891) _Traité de botanique_


Dalla Torre border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* _A system and phylogeny of the flowering plants_ * _Flowering plants: origin and dispersal_ * _Diversity and classification of flowering plants_


* _The evolution and classification of flowering plants_ * _An integrated system of classification of flowering plants_

GOLDBERG SYSTEM (1986–89 _Classification, Evolution
and Phylogeny
of the Families of Dicotyledons_

DAHLGREN SYSTEM (1975–85) _The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy_

THORNE SYSTEM (1968–2000) _An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants_

KUBITZKI SYSTEM (1990–) _The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants_

REVEAL SYSTEM (1999) _Reveal System of Angiosperm Classification_

Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group System (1998–2009)

* _An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants (APG I) _ * _An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II _ * _An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III _ * _An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV _ * _Angiosperm Phylogeny
Website _

SEE ALSO _Plantae_ at Wikispecies

_Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli , Batsch and Grisebach ._

* v * t * e

Carl Linnaeus


* Linnaeus
bibliography * _ The Study of Instinct _ (book) * _ Systema Naturae _ (1735) * _ Fundamenta Botanica _ (1736) * _ Bibliotheca Botanica _ (1736) * _Musa Cliffortiania _ (1736) * _ Critica Botanica _ (1737) * _ Flora Lapponica
Flora Lapponica
_ (1737) * _ Genera Plantarum
Genera Plantarum
_ (1737)


* Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (biology)
* Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
( Linnaean classification
Linnaean classification
) * Botanical nomenclature * Zoological nomenclature * Binomial nomenclature * Taxa named by Linnaeus‎ * Natural history
Natural history
* History of biology * History of botany * Historical race concepts


* Carl Linnaeus the Younger * Elisabeth Christina von Linné * Apostles of Linnaeus
* Students of Linnaeus
* Pre-Linnaean botanists * Gaspard Bauhin
Gaspard Bauhin
* Johann Bauhin * Peter Artedi * Herman Boerhaave
Herman Boerhaave


* Commemoration of Carl Linnaeus * Expedition Linné * Linnaea * Linnaean Garden * Linnaeite * Linnaemya * Linnaemyini * 7412 Linnaeus
* Linnaeus
Arboretum * The Linnaeus
Museum * Linnaeus
University * Linnaeus\' Hammarby * Linné (crater) * Linnéa * Linnean Medal * Linnean Society of London
Linnean Society of London
* Swedish Linnaeus
Society * Linnean Society of New South Wales * Linnean Tercentenary Medal * Linneus, Maine * Linneus, Missouri


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