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In computing, linked data (often capitalized as Linked Data) is structured data which is interlinked with other data so it becomes more useful through semantic queries. It builds upon standard Web technologies such as HTTP, RDF and URIs, but rather than using them to serve web pages only for human readers, it extends them to share information in a way that can be read automatically by computers. Part of the vision of linked data is for the Internet to become a global database.

Tim Berners-Lee, director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), coined the term in a 2006 design note about the Semantic Web project.[1]

Linked data may also be open data, in which case it is usually described as linked open data (LOD).[2]

Principles

In his 2006 "Linked Data" note, Tim Berners-Lee outlined four principles of linked data, paraphrased along the following lines:[1]

  1. Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) should be used to name and identify individual things.
  2. HTTP URIs should be used to allow these things to be looked up, interpreted, and subsequently "dereferenced".
  3. Useful information about what a name identifies should be provided through open standards such as RDF, SPARQL, etc.
  4. When publishing data on the Web, other things should be referred to using their HTTP URI-based names.

Tim Berners-Lee later restated these principles at a 2009 TED conference, again paraphrased along the following:[3]

  1. All conceptual things should have a name starting with HTTP.
  2. Looking up an HTTP name should return useful data about the thing in question in a standard format.
  3. Anything else that said thing has a relationship with through its data should also be given a name beginning with HTTP.

Components

Linked open data

Linked open data is linked data that is open data.[4][5][6] Tim Berners-Lee gives the clearest definition of linked open data in differentiation with linked data.

Linked Open Data (LOD) is Linked Data which is released under an open license, which does not impede its reuse for free.

— Tim Berners-Lee, Linked Data[1][7]

Large linked open data sets include DBpedia and Wikidata.

History

The term "linked open data" has been in use since at least February 2007, when the "Linking Open Data" mailing list[8] was created.[9] The mailing list was initially hosted by the SIMILE project[10] at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Linking Open Data community project[Linked Open Data (LOD) is Linked Data which is released under an open license, which does not impede its reuse for free.

— Tim Berners-Lee, Linked Data[1][7]
Large linked open data sets include DBpedia and Wikidata.

HistoryThe term "linked open data" has been in use since at least February 2007, when the "Linking Open Data" mailing list[8] was created.[9] The mailing list was initially hosted by the SIMILE project[10] at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Linking Open Data community project

There are a number of European Union projects[when defined as?] involving linked data. These include the linked open data around the clock (LATC) project,[15] the PlanetData project,[16] the DaPaaS (Data-and-Platform-as-a-Service) project,[17] and the Linked Open Data 2 (LOD2) project.[18][19][20] Data linking is one of the main goals of the EU Open Data Portal, which makes available thousands of datasets for anyone to reuse and link.

Ontologies

Ontologies are formal descriptions of data structures. Some of the better known ontologies are:

  • FOAF – an ontology descri

    There are a number of European Union projects[when defined as?] involving linked data. These include the linked open data around the clock (LATC) project,[15] the PlanetData project,[16] the DaPaaS (Data-and-Platform-as-a-Service) project,[17] and the Linked Open Data 2 (LOD2) project.[18][19][20] Data linking is one of the main goals of the EU Open Data Portal, which makes available thousands of datasets for anyone to reuse and link.

    Ontologies

    Ontologies are formal descriptions of data structures. Some of the better known ontologies are:

    • FOAF – an ontology describing persons, their properties and relationships
    • UMBEL – a lightweight reference structure of 20,000 subject concept classes and their relationships derived from

      Clickable diagrams that show the individual datasets and their relationships within the DBpedia-spawned LOD cloud (as shown by the figures to the right) are available.[23][24]

      See also

      References

      1. ^ a b c Tim Berners-Lee (2006-07-27). "Linked Data". Design Issues. W3C. Retrieved 2010-12-18.