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Nepal Sikkim, India

Language codes

ISO 639-3 lif

Glottolog limb1266[3]

Limbu
Limbu
(Limbu: ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ ᤐᤠᤴ, yakthung pān) is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by the Limbu people
Limbu people
of eastern Nepal
Nepal
and India
India
(particularly Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Sikkim, Assam
Assam
and Nagaland) as well as expatriate communities in Bhutan, Burma, Thailand, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Canada and the US. The Limbu
Limbu
refer to themselves as Yakthung and their language as Yakthungpan. Yakthungpan has four main dialects: Phedape, Chhathare, Tambarkhole and Panthare dialects.[4] Among four dialects and/or many dialects, the Phedape dialect is widely spoken and well understood by most Yakthungpan speakers. However, as there are some dominant Panthare scholars who have role to create knowledge and control knowledge in the Limbu
Limbu
communities, Panthare dialect is being popularised as a "standard" Limbu
Limbu
language. As Panthare Yakthungs are much more engaged in central political position and administrative positions, they are trying to introduce Panthare dialect as a Standard Yakthungpan. Yakthungpan ( Limbu
Limbu
language) is one of the major languages spoken and written in Nepal, Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Sikkim, Bhutan, Burma, and Thailand. Today, linguists have reached the conclusion that Yakthungpan resembles Tibetan and Lepcha. Before the introduction of the Sirijanga script among Limbu
Limbu
Kirats, the Róng script
Róng script
was popular in east Nepal, especially in the early Maurong state. The Sirijanga script had almost disappeared for 800 years and it was brought back into use by Te-ongsi Sirijunga Xin Thebe of Tellok Sinam Limbuwan
Limbuwan
present day Nepal. The Limbu script
Limbu script
is called 'Sirijanga' after the Limbu
Limbu
culture- hero Te-ongsi Sirijunga Xin Thebe, who is credited with its invention.[5]

Contents

1 Geographical distribution 2 Dialects 3 Sirijanga Script 4 Writing 5 Publications 6 Teaching 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Geographical distribution[edit] Limbu
Limbu
is spoken east of the Arun River in the following districts of Nepal
Nepal
(Ethnologue).

Kosi Zone

Sunsari Dhankuta District Sankhuwasabha District Terhathum District Morang District

Mechi Zone

Taplejung District Panchthar District Ilam District Jhapa District

Dialects[edit] The Limbu
Limbu
languages are divided into four dialects :[6]

Phedappe Pachthare Chathare Taplejunge or Tamarkhole

Ethnologue
Ethnologue
lists the following dialects of Limbu.

Dialect cluster 1

Panthare Chaubise (Charkhole) Yanggrokke (Yanggruppe)

Dialect cluster 2

Phedappe Tamorkhole (Taplejunge)

Dialect cluster 3

Chhatthare (Chatthare, Chhathar)

Yanggrokke, Chaubise, and Charkhole are minor variants of the Panthare dialect. Phedappe and Tamorkhole are similar. Chattare is less well understood by other dialect speakers. The Limbu
Limbu
dialect spoken in Sikkim, India
India
is the same as Panthare. Sirijanga Script[edit]

The Limbu
Limbu
script. Grey letters are obsolete.

Limbu
Limbu
language is one of the few Sino-Tibetan languages
Sino-Tibetan languages
of the central Himalayas
Himalayas
with their own scripts.[7] The Limbu script
Limbu script
or Sirijanga script was devised during the period of Buddhist expansion in Sikkim in the early 18th century when Limbuwan
Limbuwan
still constituted part of Sikkimese territory.[8] The Limbu script
Limbu script
was probably designed roughly at the same time as the Lepcha script
Lepcha script
(during the reign of the third King of Sikkim, Phyag-dor Nam-gyal (ca. 1700-1717)). However, it is widely believed that the Limbu script
Limbu script
(Sirijanga) had been designed by the King Sirijanga in the 9th century. The Sirijanga script was later redesigned and re-introduced by Te-ongsi Sirijunga Xin Thebe . As Te-ongsi Sirijunga Xin Thebe spent most of his time in the development of Yakthungpan, Yatkhung culture, and Limbu
Limbu
script; he is considered as the reincarnation of the 9th century King Sirijanga. As Te-ongsi Sirijunga Xin Thebe was astoundingly influential person to spread Limbu
Limbu
script, culture, and language, Tasang monks feared him. Tasang monks feared that Te-ongsi Sirijunga Xin Thebe might transform the social, cultural, and linguistic structure of Sikkim. Therefore, Tasang monks captured Sirijunga, bound him to a tree, and shot him to death with poisonous arrows. Both Limbu
Limbu
and Lepcha were ostensibly devised with the intent of furthering the spread Buddhism. However, Sirijanga was a Limbu Buddhist who had studied under Sikkimese high Lamas. Sirijanga was given the title 'the Dorje
Dorje
Lama
Lama
of Yangrup'. The language and script's influential structure are mixture of Tibetan and Devanagari. Unlike most other Brahmic scripts, it does not have separate independent vowel characters, instead of using a vowel carrier letter with the appropriate dependent vowel attached. The Limbu
Limbu
language and literature have been less practiced in Nepal since the last eighteenth century. The cultural identity of any community was taken as a threat to the national unification by ruling elites until the recent years. The use of Limbu
Limbu
alphabet was banned and the possession of Limbu
Limbu
writings outlawed. There were no specific laws about it, but the Security Act was enforced for such cases under the strong directives of Kathmandu. Writing[edit] Limbu
Limbu
has its own unique writing system, which is similar to Tibetan and Sikkimese scripts. The Limbu script
Limbu script
or Sirijunga script is unique and scientifically designed by King Sirijanga in the 9th century; it was later re-designed and popularized by Te-ongsi Sirijunga Xin Thebe and his followers in the 18th century. Since teaching of Limbu/Yakthung language and writing was banned by the Khas-Hindus in Nepal
Nepal
after the "Noon Pani Sandhi" between the Limbuwan
Limbuwan
and Gorkha Kingdom (Prithvi Narayan Shah), far more Limbus are literate in Nepali than in Limbu
Limbu
in Nepal. Although many Limbu
Limbu
books were written in Devanagari
Devanagari
and Roman (English), now Limbus/Yakthungs have well developed computerized writing system and many books are published in Limbu script
Limbu script
or Sirijunga script. History of Kirat-Yakthung writing can be divided into the following ways: 1. Classical Kirat-Yakthung period: King Sirijanga (9th century AD) 2. The 18th century Kirat-Yakthunghang period: Te-ongsi Sirijunga Xin Thebe and his cronies movement 3. The 19th century Kirat-Yakthung writers and rhetors: Period of Jobhansing Limbu, Chyangresing Phedangba, Ranadwaj, and Jit Mohan (Brian Hudgson procured books and requested them to write histories, stories, narratives, culture, and so on) 4. The 20th Century Kirat-Yakthung writers and rhetors: i. After the establishment of "Yakthunghang Chumlung" (1925); thereafter, several books were published. ii. Limbu script
Limbu script
was much more influenced by Devnagari script at this period. iii. At the same time, both national and international linguists, researchers, and writers addressed the issued in this period. This period is period of inquiry, communication, discovery, and re/construction. 5. Late 20th and 21st century Kirat-Yakthung writers and rhetors: This period denotes after the restoration of democracy in Nepal
Nepal
in 1990. Introduction of "Anipan" at school; many research and writing such as MA/MPhil theses and research reports; establishment of Limbu organization at the local and global level; period of delinking, relinking, and linking epistemologies. Publications[edit] The Limbu
Limbu
language has many papers and publications in circulation. Tanchoppa (Morning Star), a monthly newspaper/magazine which has been published since 1995. There are many other literary publications. The oldest known Limbu
Limbu
writings were collected from the Darjeeling district in the 1850s. They are the ancestors of the modern Limbu script. The writings are now a part of a collection in the India Library in London. Teaching[edit] In Nepal, the Limbu
Limbu
language is taught on private initiative. The Government of Nepal
Nepal
has published " Ani Paan" text books in Limbu
Limbu
for Primary education from grades 1 to 5. Kirant Yakthung Chumlung teaches Limbu
Limbu
language and script in its own initiative. In Sikkim, since late 1970s Limbu, in Limbu script
Limbu script
has been offered in English medium schools as a vernacular language subject in areas populated by Limbus. Over 4000 students study Limbu
Limbu
for one hour daily taught by some 300 teachers. Course books are available in Limbu
Limbu
from grades 1 to 12. See also[edit]

History of Limbuwan Limbuwan
Limbuwan
Gorkha War Languages of Nepal

References[edit]

^ World infopaedia: India
India
By Parmil Mittal, M. H.. Syed Pragun, 2007 ^ Limbu, ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Limbu". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ A Grammar of Limbu
Limbu
By George van Driem 1987 ^ The Unicode Standard 5.0, Front Cover By Unicode Consortium, Addison-Wesley, 2007- Computers 1417 pages, Page 360 ^ A Grammar of Limbu
Limbu
By George van Driem 1987 ^ (Sprigg 1959: 590) ^ (Sprigg 1959: 591-592 & MS: 1-4)

Driem, George van (1987). A grammar of Limbu. (Mouton grammar library; 4). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-011282-5 Limbu, Marohang (2017). Politics in Rhetoric and Writing in Paracolonial Context: A Glimpse of Limbu
Limbu
Language, Writing, and Literacy
Literacy
in Yakthung Laje. Journal of Global Literacies, Technologies, and Emerging Pedagogies, 4(1), 550-591. Limbu, Marohang (2016). Politics of Rhetoric and Writing in the Non-Western World: Delinking, Relinking, and Linking Yakthung Epistemologies. Mikphulla Laje Inghang,10(10) 36-41.

External links[edit]

Limbu
Limbu
language test of at Wikimedia Incubator

Omniglot modern Limbu
Limbu
writing system Limbu-English Dictionary of the Mewa Khola dialect (PDF introduction) Kaipuleohone's LDTC collection includes open access recordings in Limbu

v t e

Kiranti languages

Western "Pro-"

Thulung (Pro-cü) Wambule (Raɗu/Raᶑu) Jerung (Raru) Khaling (R/Daːdu) Dumi (Roʔdu) Koi Bahing (Proː-ca) Sunwar Vayu Tilung

Central "Ro-"

Kulung (Rodu) Nachhiring Sampang (Rodung) Saam Bantawa Puma Chamling (Rodong) Dungmali

Eastern "Yak-"

Yakkha (Yakkha-ba/Rakdong) Lumba-Yakkha Lambichhong Belhare Athpare Chintang Chulung Yamphu Lohorung Mewahang Waling? Limbu
Limbu
(Yakthung-ba)

v t e

Languages of Northeast India

Arunachal Pradesh

Sal

Deori Nocte Singpho Tangsa Tutsa Wancho

Tani

Adi Apatani Bori Gallong Nishi Tangam Yano

Other

Assamese Hajong Karbi Milang Nefamese Puimei

Assam

Indo-Aryan

Assamese‎ Bengali Bishnupriya Manipuri Haflong Hindi

Sino-Tibetan

Kukish

Amri Bawm Biete Chiru Gangte Hmar Hrangkhol Karbi Khelma Paite Ranglong Saihriem Vaiphei

Sal

Bodo Deori Dimasa Garo Kachari Koch Kokborok Moran Nocte Rabha Singpho Tangsa Tiwa Tutsa Wancho

Tani

Adi Bangni-Tagin Bokar Hill Miri Mishing Na Nishi

Zeme

Inpui Khoirao Maram Zeme

Other

Hajong Meithei

Tai-Kadai

Ahom Khamti Khamyang Tai Aiton Tai Phake Turung

Manipur

Kukish

Northern

Anal Biete Chiru Chothe Gangte Hrangkhol Kom Lamkang Moyon Paite Purum Ralte Simte Thadou Vaiphei Zou

Other

Hmar Khelma Mizo Monsang Sorbung Tarao

Zeme

Inpui Khoirao Maram Puimei Zeme

Other

Chairel Maring Meithei Sopvoma Tangkhul

Meghalaya

Kukish

Amri Biete Gangte Karbi Khelma Mizo Vaiphei

Khasic

Khasi Lyngngam Pnar War

Other

Atong Garo Hajong Koch

Mizoram

Biete Falam Hakha Chin Hmar Khelma Kokborok Mara Mizo Nga La Ranglong Paite Ralte Tedim Zyphe

Nagaland

Sino- Tibetan

Angami- Pochuri

Angami Chokri Kheza Moyon Ntenyi Pochuri Rengma Sema Sopvoma

Ao

Lotha Mongsen Ao Sangtam Yimchungrü

Sal

Chang Dimasa Khiamniungan Konyak Lamkang Nocte Phom Wancho

Zeme

Inpui Mzieme Puiron Zeme

Other

Chiru Chothe Khelma Makury Tangkhul

Other

Assamese Nagamese Creole

Sikkim

Gurung Lepcha‎ Limbu‎ Magar Nepali Newar‎ Sherpa Sikkimese Sunwar‎ Tamang Yakkha Yolmo

Tripura

Indo-Aryan

Bengali Bishnupriya Manipuri

Sino-Tibetan

Bawm Darlong Koch Kokborok Meithei Mizo Paite Ralte Ranglong Tangkhul Thadou Vaiphei Zeme

v t e

Languages of Bhutan

Sino-Tibetan

Bodish

Tibetic

Dzongkha

Ngalong Laya

Brokkat Brokpa Chocangacakha Khams Tibetan Lakha Sikkimese

East Bodish

Bumthang

Kheng Kurtöp Nupbikha

Chali Dakpa Dzala Nyenkha

Tshangla (Sharchop)

Gurung Kiranti

including Chamling Limbu

Lepcha Newar Tamang

Unclassified

Gongduk Lhokpu 'Ole

Indo-Aryan

Nepali

Isolate

Bhutanese Sign Language

v t e

Languages of Nepal

Official language

Nepali

Indigenous languages

Sino-Tibetan

Kiranti

Bahing Bantawa Belhare Chamling Limbu Sampang Sunwar Thulung Vayu Waling Yakkha

Magaric

Bhujel Chepang Dura Kham Magar

Tamangic

Chantyal Gurung Manang Tamang

Tibetic

Jirel Kyirong-Kagate Mugomt Naapa Sherpa Sikkimese Yolmo

Other

Baram Dhimal Kaike Lepcha Newar Raji Raute Thangmi

Indo-Aryan

Angika Awadhi Bhojpuri Danwar Doteli Jumli Maithili Rangpuri Tharu Marwari

Other

Ghandruk Sign Language Jhankot Sign Language Jumla Sign Language Kusunda Majhwar Mundari Ne

.