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The Info List - Limacodidae


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Chrysopolominae Limacodinae For full list of genera, see Taxonomy of Limacodidae.

Diversity

About 400 genera, 1000 species

Synonyms

Euclidae

The Limacodidae
Limacodidae
or Euclidae are a family of moths in the superfamily Zygaenoidea
Zygaenoidea
or the Cossoidea;[1] the placement is in dispute. They are often called slug moths because their caterpillars bear a distinct resemblance to slugs.[2] They are also called cup moths because of the shape of their cocoons.[2] The larvae are often liberally covered in protective stinging hairs, and are mostly tropical, but occur worldwide, with about 1000 described species and probably many more as yet undescribed species.

Contents

1 Description

1.1 Moths 1.2 Pupae 1.3 Caterpillars 1.4 Eggs

2 Ecological importance 3 Notable species 4 References 5 External links

Description[edit] Moths[edit] They are small, hairy moths, with reduced or absent mouthparts and fringed wings. They often perch with their abdomens sticking out at 90° from their thoraces and wings. North American moths are mostly cryptic browns, sometimes marked with white or green, but the hag moth mimics bees.[3] Pupae[edit] The final instar constructs a silk cocoon and hardens it with calcium oxalate excreted from its Malpighian tubules. Cocoons have a circular escape hatch, formed from a line of weakness in the silk matrix. It is forced open just prior to emergence of the adult.[4] Caterpillars[edit] The larvae are typically very flattened, and instead of prolegs, they have suckers.[3] The thoracic legs are reduced, but always present, and they move by rolling waves rather than walking with individual prolegs. They even use a lubricant, a kind of liquefied silk, to move.[4] Larvae might be confused with the similarly flattened larvae of lycaenid butterflies, but those caterpillars have prolegs, are always longer than they are wide, and are always densely covered in short or long setae (hair-like bristles). The head is extended during feeding in the lycaenids, but remains covered in the Limacodidae. Many limacodid larvae are green and fairly smooth (e.g. yellow-shouldered slug), but others have tubercles with urticating hairs and may have bright warning colours. The sting can be quite potent,[5] causing severe pain. The larval head is concealed under folds.[1] First-instars skeletonise the leaf (avoiding small veins and eating mostly one surface), but later instars eat the whole leaf, usually from the underside.[3] Many species seem to feed on several genera of host plants.[1] Limacodidae
Limacodidae
larvae in temperate forests of eastern North America prefer glabrous leaves, presumably because the trichomes of pubescent leaves interfere with their movement.[6]

Underside of a monkey slug, showing the slimy pad in place of prolegs

Larva of the yellow-shouldered slug, showing typical body shape

Limacodid larva, showing bright colours and presumably stinging setae

Sibine stimulea
Sibine stimulea
(saddleback caterpillar) larva

Larva of Parasa pastoralis

Stinging rose caterpillars (Parasa indetermina)

Limacodid larva

Limacodid (slug moth) caterpillar

Slug
Slug
moth caterpillar, Sabah, Borneo

Eggs[edit] Eggs are flattened and thin. They are highly transparent and the larva can be seen developing inside.[3] They may be laid singly or in clusters on leaves. Ecological importance[edit] Limacodidae
Limacodidae
(e.g. Latoia viridissima, Parasa lepida, Penthocrates meyrick, Aarodia nana) have caused serious defoliation of palms.[1] Notable species[edit]

Hag moth
Hag moth
or monkey slug (Phobetron pithecium) Ochre-winged hag moth or yellow-shouldered slug (Lithacodes fasciola) Spiny oak slug (Euclea delphinii) Crowned slug (Isa textula) Skiff moth (Prolimacodes badia) Nettle caterpillar (Latoia viridissima) Saddleback caterpillar
Saddleback caterpillar
(Sibine stimulea)

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Limacodidae

References[edit]

^ a b c d Scoble, MJ. (1992). The Lepidoptera: Form, Function and Diversity. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198540311 ^ a b "New Species of Yellow Slug
Slug
Moth
Moth
Found in China". Scientific Computing. Advantage Business Media. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.  ^ a b c d Wagner, DL. (2005). Caterpillars of Eastern North America. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691121437 ^ a b Epstein, ME. (1996). "Revision and phylogeny of the limacodid-group families, with evolutionary studies on slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. No. 582. ISSN 0081-0282 ^ Marshall, SA. (2006). Insects: Their natural history and diversity. Firefly Books. ISBN 9781552979006 ^ Lill, JT, Marquis, RJ, Forkner, RE, Le Corff, J, Holmberg, N, & Barber, NA. (2006). "Leaf pubescent affects distribution and abundance of generalist slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae)." Environmental Entomology 35(3): 797-806. ISSN 0046-225X

External links[edit]

[1] Brisbane Limacodids, with photo of cocoon. [2] Moths of Borneo

v t e

Extant Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Zeugloptera

Micropterigoidea

Micropterigidae
Micropterigidae
(mandibulate archaic moths)

Suborder Aglossata

Agathiphagoidea

Agathiphagidae (kauri moths)

Suborder Heterobathmiina

Heterobathmioidea

Heterobathmiidae

Suborder Glossata

Dacnonypha

Eriocranioidea

Eriocraniidae

Acanthoctesia

Acanthopteroctetoidea

Acanthopteroctetidae (archaic sun moths)

Lophocoronina

Lophocoronoidea

Lophocoronidae

Neopseustina

Neopseustoidea

Neopseustidae (archaic bell moths)

Exoporia

Hepialoidea

Anomosetidae Hepialidae
Hepialidae
(swift moths, ghost moths) Neotheoridae (Amazonian primitive ghost moths) Palaeosetidae (miniature ghost moths) Prototheoridae (African primitive ghost moths)

Mnesarchaeoidea

Mnesarchaeidae (New Zealand primitive moths)

H e t e r o n e u r a

M o n o t r y s i a

Incurvarioidea

Adelidae
Adelidae
(fairy longhorn moths) Cecidosidae Crinopterygidae Heliozelidae Incurvariidae Prodoxidae
Prodoxidae
(yucca moths)

Andesianoidea

Andesianidae (Andean endemic moths)

Nepticuloidea

Nepticulidae
Nepticulidae
(pigmy, or midget moths) Opostegidae
Opostegidae
(white eyecap moths)

Palaephatoidea

Palaephatidae (Gondwanaland moths)

Tischerioidea

Tischeriidae (trumpet leaf miner moths)

D i t r y s i a

Simaethistoidea

Simaethistidae

Tineoidea

Acrolophidae
Acrolophidae
(burrowing webworm moths) Arrhenophanidae Eriocottidae (Old World spiny-winged moths) Lypusidae Psychidae (bagworm moths) Tineidae
Tineidae
(fungus moths)

Gracillarioidea

Bucculatricidae
Bucculatricidae
(ribbed cocoon makers) Douglasiidae (Douglas moths) Gracillariidae Roeslerstammiidae

Yponomeutoidea

Acrolepiidae
Acrolepiidae
(false diamondback moths) Bedelliidae Glyphipterigidae
Glyphipterigidae
(sedge moths) Heliodinidae Lyonetiidae Plutellidae Yponomeutidae (ermine moths) Ypsolophidae

Gelechioidea

Autostichidae Batrachedridae Blastobasidae Coleophoridae
Coleophoridae
(case-bearers, case moths) Cosmopterigidae
Cosmopterigidae
(cosmet moths) Elachistidae
Elachistidae
(grass-miner moths) Gelechiidae
Gelechiidae
(twirler moths) Lecithoceridae
Lecithoceridae
(long-horned moths) Metachandidae Momphidae
Momphidae
(mompha moths) Oecophoridae
Oecophoridae
(concealer moths) Pterolonchidae Scythrididae
Scythrididae
(flower moths) Xyloryctidae
Xyloryctidae
(timber moths)

Galacticoidea

Galacticidae

Zygaenoidea

Heterogynidae Zygaenidae
Zygaenidae
(burnet, forester, or smoky moths) Himantopteridae Lacturidae Somabrachyidae Megalopygidae (flannel moths) Aididae Anomoeotidae Cyclotornidae Epipyropidae
Epipyropidae
(planthopper parasite moths) Dalceridae
Dalceridae
(slug caterpillars) Limacodidae
Limacodidae
(slug, or cup moths)

Cossoidea

Cossidae
Cossidae
(carpenter millers, or goat moths) Dudgeoneidae (dudgeon carpenter moths)

Sesioidea

Brachodidae (little bear moths) Castniidae
Castniidae
(castniid moths: giant butterfly-moths, sun moths) Sesiidae
Sesiidae
(clearwing moths)

Choreutoidea

Choreutidae
Choreutidae
(metalmark moths)

Tortricoidea

Tortricidae
Tortricidae
(tortrix moths)

Urodoidea

Urodidae
Urodidae
(false burnet moths)

Schreckensteinioidea

Schreckensteiniidae
Schreckensteiniidae
(bristle-legged moths)

Epermenioidea

Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
(fringe-tufted moths)

Alucitoidea

Alucitidae (many-plumed moths) Tineodidae (false plume moths)

Pterophoroidea

Pterophoridae
Pterophoridae
(plume moths)

Whalleyanoidea

Whalleyanidae

Immoidea

Immidae

Copromorphoidea

Copromorphidae (tropical fruitworm moths) Carposinidae
Carposinidae
(fruitworm moths)

Hyblaeoidea

Hyblaeidae
Hyblaeidae
(teak moths)

Pyraloidea

Pyralidae
Pyralidae
(snout moths) Crambidae
Crambidae
(grass moth)

Thyridoidea

Thyrididae
Thyrididae
(picture-winged leaf moths)

Mimallonoidea

Mimallonidae (sack bearer moths)

Lasiocampoidea

Lasiocampidae
Lasiocampidae
(eggars, snout moths, or lappet moths)

Bombycoidea

Anthelidae
Anthelidae
(Australian lappet moth) Bombycidae
Bombycidae
(silk moths) Brahmaeidae
Brahmaeidae
(Brahmin moths) Carthaeidae (Dryandra moth) Endromidae
Endromidae
(Kentish glory and relatives) Eupterotidae Lemoniidae Saturniidae
Saturniidae
(saturniids) Sphingidae
Sphingidae
(hawk moths, sphinx moths and hornworms) Phiditiidae

Noctuoidea

Doidae Erebidae
Erebidae
(underwing, tiger, tussock, litter, snout, owlet moths) Euteliidae Noctuidae
Noctuidae
(daggers, sallows, owlet moths, quakers, cutworms, darts) Nolidae
Nolidae
(tuft moths) Notodontidae
Notodontidae
(prominents, kittens) Oenosandridae

Drepanoidea

Epicopeiidae
Epicopeiidae
(oriental swallowtail moths) Drepanidae
Drepanidae
(hook-tips)

Geometroidea

Sematuridae Uraniidae Geometridae (geometer moths)

Cimelioidea

Cimeliidae (gold moths)

Calliduloidea

Callidulidae
Callidulidae
(Old World butterfly-moths)

Superfamily unassigned

Millieriidae

Rhopalocera (butterflies)

Hedyloidea

Hedylidae
Hedylidae
(American moth-butterflies)

Hesperioidea

Hesperiidae (skippers)

Papilionoidea (true butterflies)

Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
(gossamer-winged butterflies: blues, coppers and relatives) Nymphalidae
Nymphalidae
(brush-footed, or four-footed butterflies) Papilionidae (swallowtail butterflies) Pieridae
Pieridae
(whites, yellows, orangetips, sulphurs) Riodinidae
Riodinidae
(metalmarks)

Note: division Monotrysia
Monotrysia
is not a clade.

Taxonomy of the Lepidoptera Lists by region

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q28912 BAMONA: Limacodidae BugGuide: 131 EoL: 851 EPPO: 1LIMCF Fauna Europaea: 3911 GBIF: 5474 ITIS: 1

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