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List of Lilium species

SYNONYMS

* _Lirium_ Scop. * _Martagon_ Wolf 1776 not Opiz 1852 * _Martagon_ Opiz 1852,illegitimate homonym not Wolf 1776

_LILIUM_ (members of which are true lilies) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much of the world. Most species are native to the temperate northern hemisphere , though their range extends into the northern subtropics. Many other plants have "lily" in their common name but are not related to true lilies.

CONTENTS

* 1 Description

* 2 Taxonomy

* 2.1 Etymology

* 3 Distribution and habitat * 4 Ecology

* 5 Cultivation

* 5.1 Awards

* 5.2 Classification of garden forms

* 5.2.1 Asiatic hybrids (Division I) * 5.2.2 Martagon hybrids (Division II) * 5.2.3 Candidum (Euro-Caucasian) hybrids (Division III) * 5.2.4 American hybrids (Division IV) * 5.2.5 Longiflorum hybrids (Division V) * 5.2.6 Trumpet lilies (Division VI), including Aurelian hybrids (with _L. henryi_) * 5.2.7 Oriental hybrids (Division VII) * 5.2.8 Other hybrids (Division VIII) * 5.2.9 Species (Division IX)

* 5.3 Pests and diseases * 5.4 Propagation and growth

* 6 Toxicity

* 7 Culinary and herb uses

* 7.1 China * 7.2 Japan * 7.3 Taiwan * 7.4 South Korea * 7.5 Not _Lilium_

* 8 Gallery * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Bibliography

* 12 External links

* 12.1 Flora

DESCRIPTION

_ Lilium longiflorum _ flower – 1. Stigma , 2. Style , 3. Stamens , 4. Filament, 5. Tepal

Lilies are tall perennials ranging in height from 2–6 ft (60–180 cm). They form naked or tunicless scaly underground bulbs which are their overwintering organs. In some North American species the base of the bulb develops into rhizomes , on which numerous small bulbs are found. Some species develop stolons . Most bulbs are deeply buried, but a few species form bulbs near the soil surface. Many species form stem-roots. With these, the bulb grows naturally at some depth in the soil, and each year the new stem puts out adventitious roots above the bulb as it emerges from the soil. These roots are in addition to the basal roots that develop at the base of the bulb.

The flowers are large, often fragrant, and come in a range of colors including whites, yellows, oranges, pinks, reds and purples. Markings include spots and brush strokes. The plants are late spring- or summer-flowering. Flowers are borne in racemes or umbels at the tip of the stem, with six tepals spreading or reflexed, to give flowers varying from funnel shape to a "Turk's cap". The tepals are free from each other, and bear a nectary at the base of each flower. The ovary is 'superior', borne above the point of attachment of the anthers . The fruit is a three-celled capsule.

Seeds ripen in late summer. They exhibit varying and sometimes complex germination patterns, many adapted to cool temperate climates.

Naturally most cool temperate species are deciduous and dormant in winter in their native environment. But a few species which distribute in hot summer and mild winter area (_ Lilium candidum _, _Lilium catesbaei _, _ Lilium longiflorum _) lose leaves and remain relatively short dormant in Summer or Autumn, sprout from Autumn to winter, forming dwarf stem bearing a basal rosette of leaves until, after they have received sufficent chilling, the stem begins to elongate in warming weather.

The basic chromosome number is twelve (n=12).

TAXONOMY

Taxonomical division in sections follows the classical division of Comber, species acceptance follows the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families , the taxonomy of section _Pseudolirium_ is from the Flora of North America, the taxonomy of Section _Liriotypus_ is given in consideration of Resetnik et al. 2007, the taxonomy of Chinese species (various sections) follows the Flora of China and the taxonomy of Section _Sinomartagon_ follows Nishikawa et al. as does the taxonomy of Section _Archelirion_.

The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, as of January 2014 , considers _ Nomocharis _ a separate genus in its own right, however some authorities consider _Nomocharis_ to be embedded within _Lilium_, rather than treat it as a separate genus.

There are seven sections:

* _Martagon_ * _Pseudolirium_ * _Liriotypus_ * _Archelirion_ * _Sinomartagon_ * _Leucolirion_ * _Daurolirion_

For a full list of accepted species with their native ranges, see List of Lilium species

PICTURE SECTION SUB SECTION BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME

_ Martagon

Lilium distichum _

_ Martagon

Lilium hansonii _

_ Martagon

Lilium martagon _ Martagon or Turk's cap lily

_ Martagon

Lilium medeoloides _

_ Martagon

Lilium tsingtauense _

_ Pseudolirium 2a Lilium bolanderi _ Bolander's Lily

_ Pseudolirium 2a Lilium puberulum _

_ Pseudolirium 2a Lilium kelloggii _

_ Pseudolirium 2a Lilium rubescens _

_ Pseudolirium 2a Lilium washingtonianum _ Washington Lily, Shasta Lily, or Mt. Hood Lily

_ Pseudolirium 2b Lilium kelleyanum _

_ Pseudolirium 2b Lilium maritimum _

_ Pseudolirium 2b Lilium occidentale _

_ Pseudolirium 2b Lilium pardalinum _ Panther or Leopard lily

_ Pseudolirium 2b Lilium parryi _

_ Pseudolirium 2b Lilium parvum _ Sierra tiger lily or Alpine lily

_ Pseudolirium 2c Lilium canadense _ Canada Lily or Meadow Lily

_ Pseudolirium 2c Lilium grayi _

_ Pseudolirium 2c Lilium iridollae _

_ Pseudolirium 2c Lilium michiganense _ Michigan Lily

_ Pseudolirium 2c Lilium michauxii _ Carolina Lily

_ Pseudolirium 2c Lilium superbum _ Swamp lily or American tiger lily

_ Pseudolirium 2c Lilium pyrophilum _ Sandhills Lily

_ Pseudolirium 2d Lilium catesbaei _

_ Pseudolirium 2d Lilium philadelphicum _ Wood lily, Philadelphia lily or prairie lily

_ Liriotypus 3a Lilium candidum _ Madonna lily

_ Liriotypus 3b Lilium albanicum _

_ Liriotypus 3b Lilium bosniacum _ (_ Lilium carniolicum var. bosniacum_)

_ Liriotypus 3b Lilium chalcedonicum _

_ Liriotypus 3b Lilium carniolicum _

_ Liriotypus 3b Lilium ciliatum _

Liriotypus 3b _ Lilium heldreichii _

_ Liriotypus 3b Lilium jankae _

_ Liriotypus 3b Lilium pomponium _ Turban lily

_ Liriotypus 3b Lilium ponticum _

_ Liriotypus 3b Lilium pyrenaicum _

_ Liriotypus 3c Lilium akkusianum _

_ Liriotypus 3c Lilium kesselringianum _

_ Liriotypus 3c Lilium monadelphum _

_ Liriotypus 3c Lilium rhodopeum _

_ Liriotypus 3c Lilium szovitsianum _ Polish Lily

_ Liriotypus 3c Lilium polyphyllum _

_ Liriotypus 3c Lilium ledebourii _

_ Liriotypus 3d Lilium bulbiferum _ Orange Lily or Fire Lily

_ Archelirion 4a Lilium speciosum _ Japanese lily

_ Archelirion 4b Lilium auratum _ Golden rayed lily of Japan, or Goldband lily

_ Archelirion 4c Lilium alexandrae _

_ Archelirion 4c Lilium japonicum _

_ Archelirion 4c Lilium nobilissimum _

_ Archelirion 4d Lilium brownii _

_ Archelirion 4d Lilium rubellum _

_ Archelirion 4d Lilium platyphyllum _

_ Sinomartagon 5a Lilium davidii _

_ Sinomartagon 5a Lilium duchartrei _

_ Sinomartagon 5a Lilium henryi _ Tiger Lily or Henry's lily

_ Sinomartagon 5a Lilium lancifolium _ Tiger Lily (often known as _L. tigrinum_)

_ Sinomartagon 5a Lilium lankongense _

_ Sinomartagon 5a Lilium leichtlinii _

_ Sinomartagon 5a Lilium papilliferum _

_ Sinomartagon 5a Lilium rosthornii _

_ Sinomartagon 5b Lilium amabile _

_ Sinomartagon 5b Lilium callosum _

_ Sinomartagon 5b Lilium cernuum _

_ Sinomartagon 5b Lilium concolor _ Morning Star Lily

_ Sinomartagon 5b Lilium fargesii _

_ Sinomartagon 5b Lilium pumilum _ Coral Lily, Low Lily, or Siberian Lily

Sinomartagon 5b _ Lilium xanthellum _

_ Sinomartagon 5c Lilium amoenum _

Sinomartagon 5c _ Lilium arboricola _

_ Sinomartagon 5c Lilium bakerianum _

_ Sinomartagon 5c Lilium euxanthum _

Sinomartagon 5c _ Lilium henrici _

_ Sinomartagon 5c Lilium lophophorum _

_ Sinomartagon 5c Lilium mackliniae _ Siroi Lily

_ Sinomartagon 5c Lilium majoense _

_ Sinomartagon 5c Lilium nanum _

_ Sinomartagon 5c Lilium nepalense _

_ Sinomartagon 5c Lilium oxypetalum _

Sinomartagon 5c _ Lilium paradoxum _

_ Sinomartagon 5c Lilium poilanei _

_ Sinomartagon 5c Lilium primulinum _

Sinomartagon 5c _ Lilium sempervivoideum _

Sinomartagon 5c _ Lilium sherriffiae _

_ Sinomartagon 5c Lilium souliei _

Sinomartagon 5c _ Lilium stewartianum _

_ Sinomartagon 5c Lilium taliense _

_ Sinomartagon 5c Lilium wardii _

Sinomartagon 5? _ Lilium brevistylum _

_ Sinomartagon 5? Lilium lijiangense _

Sinomartagon 5? _ Lilium anhuiense _

Sinomartagon 5? _ Lilium eupetes _

_ Sinomartagon 5? Lilium habaense _

Sinomartagon 5? _ Lilium huidongense _

Sinomartagon 5? _ Lilium jinfushanense _

Sinomartagon 5? _ Lilium matangense _

Sinomartagon 5? _ Lilium medogense _

Sinomartagon 5? _ Lilium pinifolium _

Sinomartagon 5? _ Lilium pyi _

Sinomartagon 5? _ Lilium saccatum _

Sinomartagon 5? _ Lilium tianschanicum _

Sinomartagon 5? _ Lilium floridum _

_ Leucolirion 6a Lilium leucanthum _

_ Leucolirion 6a Lilium regale _

_ Leucolirion 6a Lilium sargentiae _

_ Leucolirion 6a Lilium sulphureum _

_ Leucolirion 6a Lilium wenshanense _

Leucolirion 6b _ Lilium anhuiense _

_ Leucolirion 6b Lilium formosanum _

_ Leucolirion 6b Lilium longiflorum _ Easter Lily

Leucolirion 6b _ Lilium neilgherrense _

_ Leucolirion 6b Lilium philippinense _ Benguet lily

_ Leucolirion 6b Lilium wallichianum _

Leucolirion 6b _ Lilium zairii _

_ Leucolirion 6b Lilium puerense _

_ Daurolirion

Lilium dauricum _

_ Daurolirion

Lilium maculatum _

_ Daurolirion

Lilium pensylvanicum _

_ Lilium eupetes _

_

Lilium armenum _

_

Lilium bosniacum _

_

Lilium columbianum _

_

Lilium debile _

_

Lilium humboldtii _

_ Lilium rockii _

Some species formerly included within this genus have now been placed in other genera. These genera include _ Cardiocrinum _, _ Notholirion _, _ Nomocharis _ and _ Fritillaria _.

ETYMOLOGY

The botanic name _Lilium_ is the Latin form and is a Linnaean name. The Latin name is derived from the Greek λείριον, _leírion_, generally assumed to refer to true, white lilies as exemplified by the Madonna lily . The word was borrowed from Coptic (dial. Fayyumic) _hleri_, from standard _hreri_, from Demotic _hrry_, from Egyptian _hrṛt_ "flower". Meillet maintains that both the Egyptian and the Greek word are possible loans from an extinct, substratum language of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Greeks also used the word κρῖνον, _krīnon_, albeit for non-white lilies.

The term "lily" has in the past been applied to numerous flowering plants, often with only superficial resemblance to the true lily, including water lily , fire lily , lily of the Nile , calla lily , trout lily , kaffir lily , cobra lily , lily of the valley , daylily , ginger lily , Amazon lily , leek lily , Peruvian lily , and others. All English translations of the Bible render the Hebrew _shūshan_, _shōshan_, _shōshannā_ as "lily", but the "lily among the thorns" of _Song of Solomon _, for instance, may be the honeysuckle.

For a list of other species described as lilies, see Lily (other) .

DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT

The range of lilies in the Old World extends across much of Europe, across most of Asia to Japan, south to India, and east to Indochina and the Philippines. In the New World they extend from southern Canada through much of the United States. They are commonly adapted to either woodland habitats, often montane , or sometimes to grassland habitats. A few can survive in marshland and epiphytes are known in tropical southeast Asia. In general they prefer moderately acidic or lime-free soils.

ECOLOGY

Lilies are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Dun-bar .

CULTIVATION

Many species are widely grown in the garden in temperate and sub-tropical regions. They may also be grown as potted plants. Numerous ornamental hybrids have been developed. They can be used in herbaceous borders, woodland and shrub plantings, and as patio plants. Some lilies, especially _ Lilium longiflorum _, form important cut flower crops. These may be forced for particular markets; for instance, _ Lilium longiflorum _ for the Easter trade, when it may be called the Easter lily .

Lilies are usually planted as bulbs in the dormant season. They are best planted in a south-facing (northern hemisphere), slightly sloping aspect, in sun or part shade, at a depth 2½ times the height of the bulb (except _ Lilium candidum _ which should be planted at the surface). Most prefer a porous, loamy soil, and good drainage is essential. Most species bloom in July or August (northern hemisphere). The flowering periods of certain lily species begin in late spring, while others bloom in late summer or early autumn. They have contractile roots which pull the plant down to the correct depth, therefore it is better to plant them too shallowly than too deep. A soil pH of around 6.5 is generally safe. The soil should be well-drained, and plants must be kept watered during the growing season. Some plants have strong wiry stems, but those with heavy flower heads may need staking.

AWARDS

Below is a list of lily species and cultivars that have gained the Royal Horticultural Society 's Award of Garden Merit : -

* _Lilium_ African Queen Group (VI-/a) 2002 H6 Reconfirmed 2013 * _Lilium_ \'Casa Blanca\' (VIIb/b-c) 1993 H6 Reconfirmed 2013 * _Lilium_ \'Fata Morgana\' (Ia/b) 2002 H6 Reconfirmed 2013 * _Lilium_ \'Garden Party\' (VIIb/b) 2002 H6 Reconfirmed 2013 * _Lilium_ Golden Splendor Group (VIb-c/a) 2002 H6 Reconfirmed 2013 * _ Lilium henryi _ (IXc/d) 1993 H6 Reconfirmed 2013 * _ Lilium mackliniae _ (IXc/a) 2012 H5 * _ Lilium martagon _ (IXc/d) 2002 H7 Reconfirmed 2013 * _ Lilium pardalinum _ (IXc/d) 2002 H6 * _Lilium_ Pink Perfection Group (VIb/a) 1993 H6 Reconfirmed 2013 * _ Lilium regale _ (IXb/a) 1993 H6 Reconfirmed 2013

CLASSIFICATION OF GARDEN FORMS

Numerous forms, mostly hybrids, are grown for the garden. They vary according to the species and interspecific hybrids that they derived from, and are classified in the following broad groups:

Asiatic Hybrids (Division I)

* _ * * * * *

These are derived from hybrids between species in Lilium_ section _Sinomartagon_. They are derived from central and East Asian species and interspecific hybrids, including _ Lilium amabile _, _Lilium bulbiferum _, _ Lilium callosum _, _ Lilium cernuum _, _ Lilium concolor _, _ Lilium dauricum _, _ Lilium davidii _, _ Lilium × hollandicum _, _ Lilium lancifolium _ (syn. _ Lilium tigrinum _), _ Lilium lankongense _, _ Lilium leichtlinii _, _ Lilium × maculatum _, _ Lilium pumilum _, _ Lilium × scottiae _, _ Lilium wardii _ and _ Lilium wilsonii _. These are plants with medium-sized, upright or outward facing flowers, mostly unscented. There are various cultivars such as Lilium 'Cappuccino', Lilium 'Dimension', Lilium 'Little Kiss' and Lilium \'Navona\' .

* Dwarf (Patio, Border) varieties are much shorter, c.36–61 cm in height and were designed for containers. They often bear the cultivar name 'Tiny', such as the 'Lily Looks' series, e.g. 'Tiny Padhye', 'Tiny Dessert'.

Martagon Hybrids (Division II)

* _ * * * * *

These are based on Lilium dalhansonii _, _ Lilium hansonii _, _Lilium martagon _, _ Lilium medeoloides _, and _ Lilium tsingtauense _. The flowers are nodding, Turk's cap style (with the petals strongly recurved).

Candidum (Euro-Caucasian) Hybrids (Division III)

* _

This includes mostly European species: Lilium candidum _, _Lilium chalcedonicum _, _ Lilium kesselringianum _, _ Lilium monadelphum _, _ Lilium pomponium _, _ Lilium pyrenaicum _ and _ Lilium × testaceum _.

American Hybrids (Division IV)

These are mostly taller growing forms, originally derived from _ Lilium bolanderi _, _ Lilium × burbankii _, _ Lilium canadense _, _ Lilium columbianum _, _ Lilium grayi _, _ Lilium humboldtii _, _Lilium kelleyanum _, _ Lilium kelloggii _, _ Lilium maritimum _, _Lilium michauxii _, _ Lilium michiganense _, _ Lilium occidentale _, _ Lilium × pardaboldtii _, _ Lilium pardalinum _, _ Lilium parryi _, _ Lilium parvum _, _ Lilium philadelphicum _, _ Lilium pitkinense _, _ Lilium superbum _, _ Lilium ollmeri _, _ Lilium washingtonianum _, and _ Lilium wigginsii _. Many are clump-forming perennials with rhizomatous rootstocks.

Longiflorum Hybrids (Division V)

These are cultivated forms of this species and its subspecies. They are most important as plants for cut flowers , and are less often grown in the garden than other hybrids.

Trumpet Lilies (Division VI), Including Aurelian Hybrids (with _L. Henryi_)

* _ * * * *

This group includes hybrids of many Asiatic species and their interspecific hybrids, including Lilium × aurelianense _, _Lilium brownii _, _ Lilium × centigale _, _ Lilium henryi _, _ Lilium × imperiale _, _ Lilium × kewense _, _ Lilium leucanthum _, _Lilium regale _, _ Lilium rosthornii _, _ Lilium sargentiae _, _Lilium sulphureum _ and _ Lilium × sulphurgale _. The flowers are trumpet shaped, facing outward or somewhat downward, and tend to be strongly fragrant, often especially night-fragrant.

Oriental Hybrids (Division VII)

* _ * * * * *

These are based on hybrids within Lilium_ section _Archelirion_, specifically _ Lilium auratum _ and _ Lilium speciosum _, together with crossbreeds from several species native to Japan, including _Lilium nobilissimum _, _ Lilium rubellum _, _ Lilium alexandrae _, and _Lilium japonicum _. They are fragrant, and the flowers tend to be outward facing. Plants tend to be tall, and the flowers may be quite large. The whole group are sometimes referred to as "stargazers" because many of them appear to look upwards. (For the specific cultivar, see _Lilium_ \'Stargazer\' .)

Other Hybrids (Division VIII)

* * * * * *

Includes all other garden hybrids.

Species (Division IX)

All natural species and naturally occurring forms are included in this group.

The flowers can be classified by flower aspect and form:

* Flower aspect:

* a up-facing * b out-facing * c down-facing

* Flower form:

* a trumpet-shaped * b bowl-shaped * c flat (or with tepal tips recurved) * d tepals strongly recurved (with the Turk's cap form as the ultimate state)

Many newer commercial varieties are developed by using new technologies such as ovary culture and embryo rescue.

PESTS AND DISEASES

Scarlet lily beetles, Oxfordshire , UK

Aphids may infest plants. Leatherjackets feed on the roots. Larvae of the Scarlet lily beetle can cause serious damage to the stems and leaves. The scarlet beetle lays its eggs and completes its life cycle only on true lilies (_Lilium_) and fritillaries (_ Fritillaria _). Oriental, rubrum, tiger and trumpet lilies as well as Oriental trumpets (orienpets) and Turk's cap lilies and native North American _Lilium_ species are all vulnerable, but the beetle prefers some types over others. The beetle could also be having an effect on native Canadian species and some rare and endangered species found in northeastern North America. Daylilies (_Hemerocallis_, not true lilies) are excluded from this category. Plants can suffer from damage caused by mice, deer and squirrels. Slugs, snails and millipedes attack seedlings, leaves and flowers. Brown spots on damp leaves may signal botrytis (also known as lily disease). Various fungal and viral diseases can cause mottling of leaves and stunting of growth.

PROPAGATION AND GROWTH

Lilies can be propagated in several ways;

* by division of the bulbs * by growing-on bulbils which are adventitious bulbs formed on the stem * by scaling, for which whole scales are detached from the bulb and planted to form a new bulb * by seed; there are many seed germination patterns , which can be complex * by micropropagation techniques (which include tissue culture ); commercial quantities of lilies are often propagated in vitro and then planted out to grow into plants large enough to sell.

According to a study done by Anna Pobudkiewicz and Jadwiga the use of flurprimidol foliar spray helps aid in the limitation of stem elongation in oriental lilies. (1)

TOXICITY

Some _Lilium_ species are toxic to cats . This is known to be so especially for _ Lilium longiflorum _ though other _Lilium_ and the unrelated _ Hemerocallis _ can also cause the same symptoms. The true mechanism of toxicity is undetermined, but it involves damage to the renal tubular epithelium (composing the substance of the kidney and secreting, collecting, and conducting urine), which can cause acute renal failure . Veterinary help should be sought, as a matter of urgency, for any cat that is suspected of eating any part of a lily – including licking pollen that may have brushed onto its coat.

CULINARY AND HERB USES

CHINA

_Lilium_ bulbs are starchy and edible as root vegetables , although bulbs of some species may be very bitter. The non-bitter bulbs of _ Lilium lancifolium _, _ Lilium pumilum _, and especially _Lilium brownii _ (Chinese: 百合; pinyin: _bǎihé_) and _ Lilium davidii _ var. _unicolor_ are grown on a large scale in China as a luxury or health food, and are most often sold in dry form for herb, the fresh form often appears with other vegetables. The dried bulbs are commonly used in the south to flavor soup. Lily flowers are also said to be efficacious in pulmonary affections, and to have tonic properties. Lily flowers and bulbs are eaten especially in the summer, for their perceived ability to reduce internal heat. They may be reconstituted and stir-fried , grated and used to thicken soup , or processed to extract starch. Their texture and taste draw comparisons with the potato , although the individual bulb scales are much smaller. There are also species which are meant to be suitable for culinary and/or herb uses. There are five traditional lily species whose bulbs are certified and classified as "vegetable and non-staple foodstuffs" on the National geographical indication product list of China.

* Culinary use:

野百合_ Lilium brownii _, 百合 _ Lilium brownii_ var. _viridulum_, 渥丹 _ Lilium concolor _, 毛百合 _ Lilium dauricum _, 川百合 _ Lilium davidii _, 东北百合 _ Lilium distichum _, 卷丹 _ Lilium lancifolium _, 新疆百合 _ Lilium martagon _ var. _pilosiusculum_, 山丹 _ Lilium pumilum _, 南川百合_Lilium rosthornii _, 药百合_ Lilium speciosum _ var. _gloriosoides_.

* Herb use:

野百合 _ Lilium brownii _, 百合 _ Lilium brownii_ var. _viridulum_, 渥丹 _ Lilium concolor _, 毛百合 _ Lilium dauricum _, 卷丹 _ Lilium lancifolium _, 山丹 _ Lilium pumilum _, 南川百合 _ Lilium rosthornii _, 药百合_ Lilium speciosum _ var. _gloriosoides_, 淡黄花百合 _ Lilium sulphureum _. And there are researches about the selection of new varieties of edible lilies from the horticultural cultivars, such as 'Batistero' and 'California' among 15 lilies in Beijing, and 'Prato' and 'Small foreigners' among 13 lilies in Ningbo.

JAPAN

* Culinary use:

_Yuri-ne_ (lily-root) is also common in Japanese cuisine, especially as an ingredient of chawan-mushi (savoury egg custard). The major lilium species cultivated as vegetable are _ Lilium leichtlinii_ var. _maximowiczii_ , _ Lilium lancifolium _, and _ Lilium auratum _.

* Herb use:

_ Lilium lancifolium _, _ Lilium brownii_ var. _viridulum_ , _Lilium brownii_ var. _colchesteri_ , _ Lilium pumilum _

TAIWAN

* Culinary use:

The parts of lilium species which are officially listed as food material are the flower and bulbs of _ Lilium lancifolium _ Thunb., _ Lilium brownii_ var. _viridulum_ Baker, _ Lilium pumilum _ DC., _ Lilium candidum _ Loureiro. Most edible lily bulbs which can be purchased in a market are mostly imported from mainland China (only in the scale form, and most marked as 蘭州百合 _ Lilium davidii_ var. _unicolor_ ) and Japan (whole bulbs, should mostly be _Lilium leichtlinii_ var. _maximowiczii_ ). There are already commercially available organic growing and normal growing edible lily bulbs. The varieties are selected by the Taiwanese Department of Agriculture from the Asiatic lily cultivars that are imported from the Netherlands; the seedling bulbs must be imported from the Netherlands every year.

* Herb use:

_ Lilium lancifolium _ Thunb., _ Lilium brownii_ var. _viridulum_ Baker, _ Lilium pumilum _ DC.

SOUTH KOREA

* Herb use:

The lilium species which are officially listed as herbs are 참나리 _ Lilium lancifolium _ Thunberg; 당나리 _ Lilium brownii_ var. _viridulun_ Baker;

NOT _LILIUM_

The "lily" flower buds known as _jīnzhēn_ (金针, "golden needles") in Chinese cuisine are actually from _ Hemerocallis citrina _.

GALLERY

*

_ Lilium regale _ : bud formation *

Orange lily showing stamens with pollen-covered anthers, Ontario, Canada *

Recently open and still unopened flowers of white Asiatic hybrid variety *

Pollen of _ Lilium auratum _ (oriental lily); back-scattered electron microscope image *

Microscopic view of lily pollen 100X *

_Lilium_ 'Centerfold'

SEE ALSO

* Lily seed germination types

REFERENCES

* ^ lectotype designated by N. L. Britton et A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2. 1: 502 (1913) * ^ _A_ _B_ "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Retrieved June 13, 2014. * ^ European Garden Flora; Volume 1 * ^ Pekkonen, Veli-Pekka; Pirttillä, Anna-Maria (2012). "Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Genus Lilium" (PDF). _Floriculture and Ornamental Biotechnology_. 6 ( Special Issue 2): 1–8. Retrieved 2016-07-29. * ^ Harold Comber, 1949. "A new classification of the genus _Lilium_". Lily Yearbook, Royal Hortic. Soc., London. 15:86–105. * ^ Govaerts, R. (ed.). "_Lilium_". _World Checklist of Selected Plant Families_. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2013-02-03. * ^ Flora of North America, Vol. 26, Online * ^ Resetnik I.; Liber Z.; Satovic Z.; Cigic P.; Nikolic T. (2007). 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