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List of Lilium
Lilium
species

Synonyms[2]

Lirium Scop., nom. illeg. Martagon Wolf Martagon (Rchb.) Opiz, nom. illeg. Nomocharis
Nomocharis
Franch.

Lilium
Lilium
(members of which are true lilies) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much of the world. Most species are native to the temperate northern hemisphere, though their range extends into the northern subtropics. Many other plants have "lily" in their common name but are not related to true lilies.

Contents

1 Description 2 Taxonomy

2.1 Etymology

3 Distribution and habitat 4 Ecology 5 Cultivation

5.1 Awards 5.2 Classification of garden forms

5.2.1 Asiatic hybrids (Division I) 5.2.2 Martagon hybrids (Division II) 5.2.3 Candidum (Euro-Caucasian) hybrids (Division III) 5.2.4 American hybrids (Division IV) 5.2.5 Longiflorum hybrids (Division V) 5.2.6 Trumpet lilies (Division VI), including Aurelian hybrids (with L. henryi) 5.2.7 Oriental hybrids (Division VII) 5.2.8 Other hybrids (Division VIII) 5.2.9 Species (Division IX)

5.3 Pests and diseases 5.4 Propagation and growth

6 Toxicity 7 Culinary and herb uses

7.1 China 7.2 Japan 7.3 North America 7.4 Taiwan 7.5 South Korea 7.6 Not Lilium

8 In culture

8.1 Symbolism 8.2 Heraldry

9 Gallery 10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

13.1 Flora

Description[edit]

Lilium longiflorum
Lilium longiflorum
flower – 1. Stigma, 2. Style, 3. Stamens, 4. Filament, 5. Tepal

Lilies are tall perennials ranging in height from 2–6 ft (60–180 cm). They form naked or tunicless scaly underground bulbs which are their organs of perennation. In some North American species the base of the bulb develops into rhizomes, on which numerous small bulbs are found. Some species develop stolons. Most bulbs are buried deep in the ground, but a few species form bulbs near the soil surface. Many species form stem-roots. With these, the bulb grows naturally at some depth in the soil, and each year the new stem puts out adventitious roots above the bulb as it emerges from the soil. These roots are in addition to the basal roots that develop at the base of the bulb.

Lily, petal

The flowers are large, often fragrant, and come in a wide range of colors including whites, yellows, oranges, pinks, reds and purples. Markings include spots and brush strokes. The plants are late spring- or summer-flowering. Flowers are borne in racemes or umbels at the tip of the stem, with six tepals spreading or reflexed, to give flowers varying from funnel shape to a "Turk's cap". The tepals are free from each other, and bear a nectary at the base of each flower. The ovary is 'superior', borne above the point of attachment of the anthers. The fruit is a three-celled capsule.[3]

stamen of lilium

Seeds ripen in late summer. They exhibit varying and sometimes complex germination patterns, many adapted to cool temperate climates. Naturally most cool temperate species are deciduous and dormant in winter in their native environment. But a few species which distribute in hot summer and mild winter area ( Lilium
Lilium
candidum, Lilium
Lilium
catesbaei, Lilium
Lilium
longiflorum) lose leaves and remain relatively short dormant in Summer or Autumn, sprout from Autumn to winter, forming dwarf stem bearing a basal rosette of leaves until, after they have received sufficient chilling, the stem begins to elongate in warming weather.

Lilium candidum
Lilium candidum
seeds

The basic chromosome number is twelve (n=12).[4] Taxonomy[edit] Taxonomical division in sections follows the classical division of Comber,[5] species acceptance follows the World Checklist of Selected Plant
Plant
Families,[6] the taxonomy of section Pseudolirium is from the Flora of North America,[7] the taxonomy of Section Liriotypus is given in consideration of Resetnik et al. 2007,[8] the taxonomy of Chinese species (various sections) follows the Flora of China[9] and the taxonomy of Section Sinomartagon follows Nishikawa et al.[10] as does the taxonomy of Section Archelirion.[11] The World Checklist of Selected Plant
Plant
Families, as of January 2014[update], considers Nomocharis
Nomocharis
a separate genus in its own right,[12] however some authorities consider Nomocharis
Nomocharis
to be embedded within Lilium, rather than treat it as a separate genus.[13][14] There are seven sections:

Martagon Pseudolirium Liriotypus Archelirion Sinomartagon Leucolirion Daurolirion

For a full list of accepted species[2] with their native ranges, see List of Lilium
Lilium
species

Picture Section Sub Section Botanical name common name

Martagon

Lilium
Lilium
distichum

Martagon

Lilium
Lilium
hansonii

Martagon

Lilium
Lilium
martagon Martagon or Turk's cap lily

Martagon

Lilium
Lilium
medeoloides

Martagon

Lilium
Lilium
tsingtauense

Pseudolirium 2a Lilium
Lilium
bolanderi Bolander's Lily

Pseudolirium 2a Lilium
Lilium
puberulum

Pseudolirium 2a Lilium
Lilium
kelloggii

Pseudolirium 2a Lilium
Lilium
rubescens

Pseudolirium 2a Lilium
Lilium
washingtonianum Washington Lily, Shasta Lily, or Mt. Hood Lily

Pseudolirium 2b Lilium
Lilium
kelleyanum

Pseudolirium 2b Lilium
Lilium
maritimum

Pseudolirium 2b Lilium
Lilium
occidentale

Pseudolirium 2b Lilium
Lilium
pardalinum Panther or Leopard lily

Pseudolirium 2b Lilium
Lilium
parryi

Pseudolirium 2b Lilium
Lilium
parvum Sierra tiger lily or Alpine lily

Pseudolirium 2c Lilium
Lilium
canadense Canada Lily or Meadow Lily

Pseudolirium 2c Lilium
Lilium
grayi

Pseudolirium 2c Lilium
Lilium
iridollae

Pseudolirium 2c Lilium
Lilium
michiganense Michigan Lily

Pseudolirium 2c Lilium
Lilium
michauxii Carolina Lily

Pseudolirium 2c Lilium
Lilium
superbum Swamp lily or American tiger lily

Pseudolirium 2c Lilium
Lilium
pyrophilum Sandhills Lily[15]

Pseudolirium 2d Lilium
Lilium
catesbaei

Pseudolirium 2d Lilium
Lilium
philadelphicum Wood lily, Philadelphia lily or prairie lily

Liriotypus 3a Lilium
Lilium
candidum Madonna lily

Liriotypus 3b Lilium
Lilium
albanicum

Liriotypus 3b Lilium bosniacum
Lilium bosniacum
( Lilium carniolicum
Lilium carniolicum
var. bosniacum)

Liriotypus 3b Lilium
Lilium
chalcedonicum

Liriotypus 3b Lilium
Lilium
carniolicum

Liriotypus 3b Lilium
Lilium
ciliatum

Liriotypus 3b Lilium
Lilium
heldreichii

Liriotypus 3b Lilium
Lilium
jankae

Liriotypus 3b Lilium
Lilium
pomponium Turban lily

Liriotypus 3b Lilium
Lilium
ponticum

Liriotypus 3b Lilium
Lilium
pyrenaicum

Liriotypus 3c Lilium
Lilium
akkusianum

Liriotypus 3c Lilium
Lilium
kesselringianum

Liriotypus 3c Lilium
Lilium
monadelphum

Liriotypus 3c Lilium
Lilium
rhodopeum

Liriotypus 3c Lilium
Lilium
szovitsianum Polish Lily

Liriotypus 3c Lilium
Lilium
polyphyllum

Liriotypus 3c Lilium
Lilium
ledebourii

Liriotypus 3d Lilium
Lilium
bulbiferum Orange Lily or Fire Lily

Archelirion 4a Lilium
Lilium
speciosum Japanese lily

Archelirion 4b Lilium
Lilium
auratum Golden rayed lily of Japan, or Goldband lily

Archelirion 4c Lilium
Lilium
alexandrae

Archelirion 4c Lilium
Lilium
japonicum

Archelirion 4c Lilium
Lilium
nobilissimum

Archelirion 4d Lilium
Lilium
brownii

Archelirion 4d Lilium
Lilium
rubellum

Archelirion 4d Lilium
Lilium
platyphyllum

Sinomartagon 5a Lilium
Lilium
davidii

Sinomartagon 5a Lilium
Lilium
duchartrei

Sinomartagon 5a Lilium
Lilium
henryi Tiger Lily or Henry's lily

Sinomartagon 5a Lilium
Lilium
lancifolium Tiger Lily (often known as L. tigrinum)

Sinomartagon 5a Lilium
Lilium
lankongense

Sinomartagon 5a Lilium
Lilium
leichtlinii

Sinomartagon 5a Lilium
Lilium
papilliferum

Sinomartagon 5a Lilium
Lilium
rosthornii

Sinomartagon 5b Lilium
Lilium
amabile

Sinomartagon 5b Lilium
Lilium
callosum

Sinomartagon 5b Lilium
Lilium
cernuum

Sinomartagon 5b Lilium
Lilium
concolor Morning Star Lily

Sinomartagon 5b Lilium
Lilium
fargesii

Sinomartagon 5b Lilium
Lilium
pumilum Coral Lily, Low Lily, or Siberian Lily

Sinomartagon 5b Lilium
Lilium
xanthellum

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
amoenum

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
arboricola

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
bakerianum

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
euxanthum

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
henrici

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
lophophorum

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
mackliniae Siroi Lily

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
majoense

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
nanum

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
nepalense

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
oxypetalum

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
paradoxum

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
poilanei

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
primulinum

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
sempervivoideum

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
sherriffiae

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
souliei

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
stewartianum

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
taliense

Sinomartagon 5c Lilium
Lilium
wardii

Sinomartagon 5? Lilium
Lilium
brevistylum

Sinomartagon 5? Lilium
Lilium
lijiangense

Sinomartagon 5? Lilium
Lilium
anhuiense

Sinomartagon 5? Lilium
Lilium
eupetes

Sinomartagon 5? Lilium
Lilium
habaense

Sinomartagon 5? Lilium
Lilium
huidongense

Sinomartagon 5? Lilium
Lilium
jinfushanense

Sinomartagon 5? Lilium
Lilium
matangense

Sinomartagon 5? Lilium
Lilium
medogense

Sinomartagon 5? Lilium
Lilium
pinifolium

Sinomartagon 5? Lilium
Lilium
pyi

Sinomartagon 5? Lilium
Lilium
saccatum

Sinomartagon 5? Lilium
Lilium
tianschanicum

Sinomartagon 5? Lilium
Lilium
floridum

Leucolirion 6a Lilium
Lilium
leucanthum

Leucolirion 6a Lilium
Lilium
regale

Leucolirion 6a Lilium
Lilium
sargentiae

Leucolirion 6a Lilium
Lilium
sulphureum

Leucolirion 6a Lilium
Lilium
wenshanense

Leucolirion 6b Lilium
Lilium
anhuiense

Leucolirion 6b Lilium
Lilium
formosanum

Leucolirion 6b Lilium
Lilium
longiflorum Easter Lily

Leucolirion 6b Lilium
Lilium
neilgherrense

Leucolirion 6b Lilium
Lilium
philippinense Benguet lily[16][17]

Leucolirion 6b Lilium
Lilium
wallichianum

Leucolirion 6b Lilium
Lilium
zairii

Leucolirion 6b Lilium
Lilium
puerense

Daurolirion

Lilium
Lilium
dauricum

Daurolirion

Lilium
Lilium
maculatum

Daurolirion

Lilium
Lilium
pensylvanicum

Lilium
Lilium
eupetes

Lilium
Lilium
armenum

Lilium
Lilium
bosniacum

Lilium
Lilium
columbianum

Lilium
Lilium
debile

Lilium
Lilium
humboldtii

Lilium
Lilium
rockii

Some species formerly included within this genus have now been placed in other genera. These genera include Cardiocrinum, Notholirion, Nomocharis
Nomocharis
and Fritillaria. Etymology[edit] The botanic name Lilium
Lilium
is the Latin
Latin
form and is a Linnaean name. The Latin
Latin
name is derived from the Greek λείριον, leírion, generally assumed to refer to true, white lilies as exemplified by the Madonna lily.[18][19] The word was borrowed from Coptic (dial. Fayyumic) hleri, from standard hreri, from Demotic hrry, from Egyptian hrṛt "flower".[citation needed] Meillet
Meillet
maintains that both the Egyptian and the Greek word are possible loans from an extinct, substratum language of the Eastern Mediterranean.[citation needed] The Greeks also used the word κρῖνον, krīnon, albeit for non-white lilies.[citation needed] The term "lily" has in the past been applied to numerous flowering plants, often with only superficial resemblance to the true lily, including water lily, fire lily, lily of the Nile, calla lily, trout lily, kaffir lily, cobra lily, lily of the valley, daylily, ginger lily, Amazon lily, leek lily, Peruvian lily, and others. All English translations of the Bible render the Hebrew shūshan, shōshan, shōshannā as "lily", but the "lily among the thorns" of Song of Solomon, for instance, may be the honeysuckle.[20] For a list of other species described as lilies, see Lily (other). Distribution and habitat[edit] The range of lilies in the Old World extends across much of Europe, across most of Asia to Japan, south to India, and east to Indochina and the Philippines. In the New World they extend from southern Canada through much of the United States. They are commonly adapted to either woodland habitats, often montane, or sometimes to grassland habitats. A few can survive in marshland and epiphytes are known in tropical southeast Asia. In general they prefer moderately acidic or lime-free soils. Ecology[edit] Lilies are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Dun-bar. Cultivation[edit] Many species are widely grown in the garden in temperate and sub-tropical regions. They may also be grown as potted plants. Numerous ornamental hybrids have been developed. They can be used in herbaceous borders, woodland and shrub plantings, and as patio plants. Some lilies, especially Lilium
Lilium
longiflorum, form important cut flower crops. These may be forced for particular markets; for instance, Lilium longiflorum
Lilium longiflorum
for the Easter trade, when it may be called the Easter lily. Lilies are usually planted as bulbs in the dormant season. They are best planted in a south-facing (northern hemisphere), slightly sloping aspect, in sun or part shade, at a depth 2½ times the height of the bulb (except Lilium candidum
Lilium candidum
which should be planted at the surface). Most prefer a porous, loamy soil, and good drainage is essential. Most species bloom in July or August (northern hemisphere). The flowering periods of certain lily species begin in late spring, while others bloom in late summer or early autumn.[21] They have contractile roots which pull the plant down to the correct depth, therefore it is better to plant them too shallowly than too deep. A soil pH of around 6.5 is generally safe. The soil should be well-drained, and plants must be kept watered during the growing season. Some plants have strong wiry stems, but those with heavy flower heads may need staking.[22][23] Awards[edit] The following lily species and cultivars currently hold the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit
Award of Garden Merit
(confirmed 2017):[24]

'Golden Splendor’

African Queen Group (VI-/a) 2002 H6 'Casa Blanca' (VIIb/b-c) 1993 H6 'Fata Morgana' (Ia/b) 2002 H6 'Garden Party' (VIIb/b) 2002 H6 Golden Splendor Group (VIb-c/a)[25] Lilium henryi
Lilium henryi
(IXc/d) 1993 H6 Lilium mackliniae
Lilium mackliniae
(IXc/a) 2012 H5 Lilium martagon
Lilium martagon
- Turk’s cap lily (IXc/d)[26] Lilium pardalinum
Lilium pardalinum
- leopard lily (IXc/d)[27] Pink Perfection Group (VIb/a)[28] Lilium regale
Lilium regale
- regal lily, king’s lily (IXb/a)[29]

Classification of garden forms[edit] Numerous forms, mostly hybrids, are grown for the garden. They vary according to the species and interspecific hybrids that they derived from, and are classified in the following broad groups:[30][31][32] Asiatic hybrids (Division I)[edit]

These are derived from hybrids between species in Lilium
Lilium
section Sinomartagon.[33][34] They are derived from central and East Asian species and interspecific hybrids, including Lilium
Lilium
amabile, Lilium
Lilium
bulbiferum, Lilium
Lilium
callosum, Lilium
Lilium
cernuum, Lilium
Lilium
concolor, Lilium
Lilium
dauricum, Lilium
Lilium
davidii, Lilium
Lilium
× hollandicum, Lilium lancifolium
Lilium lancifolium
(syn. Lilium
Lilium
tigrinum), Lilium
Lilium
lankongense, Lilium
Lilium
leichtlinii, Lilium
Lilium
× maculatum, Lilium pumilum, Lilium
Lilium
× scottiae, Lilium
Lilium
wardii and Lilium
Lilium
wilsonii. These are plants with medium-sized, upright or outward facing flowers, mostly unscented. There are various cultivars such as Lilium 'Cappuccino', Lilium
Lilium
'Dimension', Lilium
Lilium
'Little Kiss' and Lilium 'Navona'.[35]

Dwarf (Patio, Border) varieties are much shorter, c.36–61 cm in height and were designed for containers.[36] They often bear the cultivar name 'Tiny', such as the 'Lily Looks' series, e.g. 'Tiny Padhye',[37] 'Tiny Dessert'.[38]

Martagon hybrids (Division II)[edit]

These are based on Lilium
Lilium
dalhansonii, Lilium
Lilium
hansonii, Lilium martagon, Lilium
Lilium
medeoloides, and Lilium
Lilium
tsingtauense. The flowers are nodding, Turk's cap style (with the petals strongly recurved).

Candidum (Euro-Caucasian) hybrids (Division III)[edit]

This includes mostly European species: Lilium
Lilium
candidum, Lilium chalcedonicum, Lilium
Lilium
kesselringianum, Lilium
Lilium
monadelphum, Lilium pomponium, Lilium pyrenaicum
Lilium pyrenaicum
and Lilium
Lilium
× testaceum.

American hybrids (Division IV)[edit]

These are mostly taller growing forms, originally derived from Lilium bolanderi, Lilium
Lilium
× burbankii, Lilium
Lilium
canadense, Lilium
Lilium
columbianum, Lilium
Lilium
grayi, Lilium
Lilium
humboldtii, Lilium
Lilium
kelleyanum, Lilium
Lilium
kelloggii, Lilium
Lilium
maritimum, Lilium
Lilium
michauxii, Lilium
Lilium
michiganense, Lilium occidentale, Lilium
Lilium
× pardaboldtii, Lilium
Lilium
pardalinum, Lilium
Lilium
parryi, Lilium
Lilium
parvum, Lilium
Lilium
philadelphicum, Lilium
Lilium
pitkinense, Lilium superbum, Lilium
Lilium
ollmeri, Lilium
Lilium
washingtonianum, and Lilium wigginsii. Many are clump-forming perennials with rhizomatous rootstocks.

Longiflorum hybrids (Division V)[edit]

These are cultivated forms of this species and its subspecies. They are most important as plants for cut flowers, and are less often grown in the garden than other hybrids.

Trumpet lilies (Division VI), including Aurelian hybrids (with L. henryi)[edit]

This group includes hybrids of many Asiatic species and their interspecific hybrids, including Lilium
Lilium
× aurelianense, Lilium brownii, Lilium
Lilium
× centigale, Lilium
Lilium
henryi, Lilium
Lilium
× imperiale, Lilium
Lilium
× kewense, Lilium
Lilium
leucanthum, Lilium
Lilium
regale, Lilium rosthornii, Lilium
Lilium
sargentiae, Lilium
Lilium
sulphureum and Lilium
Lilium
× sulphurgale. The flowers are trumpet shaped, facing outward or somewhat downward, and tend to be strongly fragrant, often especially night-fragrant.

Oriental hybrids (Division VII)[edit]

These are based on hybrids within Lilium
Lilium
section Archelirion,[33][34] specifically Lilium auratum
Lilium auratum
and Lilium
Lilium
speciosum, together with crossbreeds from several species native to Japan, including Lilium nobilissimum, Lilium
Lilium
rubellum, Lilium
Lilium
alexandrae, and Lilium japonicum. They are fragrant, and the flowers tend to be outward facing. Plants tend to be tall, and the flowers may be quite large. The whole group are sometimes referred to as "stargazers" because many of them appear to look upwards. (For the specific cultivar, see Lilium
Lilium
'Stargazer'.)

Other hybrids (Division VIII)[edit]

Includes all other garden hybrids.

Species (Division IX)[edit]

All natural species and naturally occurring forms are included in this group.

The flowers can be classified by flower aspect and form:[39]

Flower aspect:

a up-facing b out-facing c down-facing

Flower form:

a trumpet-shaped b bowl-shaped c flat (or with tepal tips recurved) d tepals strongly recurved (with the Turk's cap form as the ultimate state)

Many newer commercial varieties are developed by using new technologies such as ovary culture and embryo rescue.[40] Pests and diseases[edit]

Scarlet lily beetles, Oxfordshire, UK

Aphids
Aphids
may infest plants. Leatherjackets feed on the roots. Larvae of the Scarlet lily beetle
Scarlet lily beetle
can cause serious damage to the stems and leaves. The scarlet beetle lays its eggs and completes its life cycle only on true lilies (Lilium) and fritillaries (Fritillaria).[41] Oriental, rubrum, tiger and trumpet lilies as well as Oriental trumpets (orienpets) and Turk's cap lilies and native North American Lilium
Lilium
species are all vulnerable, but the beetle prefers some types over others. The beetle could also be having an effect on native Canadian species and some rare and endangered species found in northeastern North America.[42] Daylilies (Hemerocallis, not true lilies) are excluded from this category. Plants can suffer from damage caused by mice, deer and squirrels. Slugs, snails and millipedes attack seedlings, leaves and flowers. Brown spots on damp leaves may signal botrytis (also known as lily disease). Various fungal and viral diseases can cause mottling of leaves and stunting of growth. Propagation and growth[edit] Lilies can be propagated in several ways;

by division of the bulbs by growing-on bulbils which are adventitious bulbs formed on the stem by scaling, for which whole scales are detached from the bulb and planted to form a new bulb by seed; there are many seed germination patterns, which can be complex by micropropagation techniques (which include tissue culture);[43] commercial quantities of lilies are often propagated in vitro and then planted out to grow into plants large enough to sell.

According to a study done by Anna Pobudkiewicz and Jadwiga the use of flurprimidol foliar spray helps aid in the limitation of stem elongation in oriental lilies. (1) Toxicity[edit] Some Lilium
Lilium
species are toxic to cats. This is known to be so especially for Lilium longiflorum
Lilium longiflorum
though other Lilium
Lilium
and the unrelated Hemerocallis
Hemerocallis
can also cause the same symptoms.[44][45][46][47] The true mechanism of toxicity is undetermined, but it involves damage to the renal tubular epithelium (composing the substance of the kidney and secreting, collecting, and conducting urine), which can cause acute renal failure.[47] Veterinary help should be sought, as a matter of urgency, for any cat that is suspected of eating any part of a lily – including licking pollen that may have brushed onto its coat.[48] Culinary and herb uses[edit] China[edit] Lilium
Lilium
bulbs are starchy and edible as root vegetables, although bulbs of some species may be very bitter. The non-bitter bulbs of Lilium lancifolium, Lilium
Lilium
pumilum, and especially Lilium
Lilium
brownii (Chinese: 百合; pinyin: bǎihé) and Lilium davidii
Lilium davidii
var. unicolor are grown on a large scale in China as a luxury or health food, and are most often sold in dry form for herb, the fresh form often appears with other vegetables. The dried bulbs are commonly used in the south to flavor soup. Lily flowers are also said to be efficacious in pulmonary affections, and to have tonic properties.[49] Lily flowers and bulbs are eaten especially in the summer, for their perceived ability to reduce internal heat.[50] They may be reconstituted and stir-fried, grated and used to thicken soup, or processed to extract starch. Their texture and taste draw comparisons with the potato, although the individual bulb scales are much smaller. There are also species which are meant to be suitable for culinary and/or herb uses. There are five traditional lily species whose bulbs are certified and classified as "vegetable and non-staple foodstuffs" on the National geographical indication product list of China.[51]

Culinary use:[52]

野百合 Lilium
Lilium
brownii, 百合 Lilium
Lilium
brownii var. viridulum, 渥丹 Lilium
Lilium
concolor, 毛百合 Lilium
Lilium
dauricum, 川百合 Lilium
Lilium
davidii, 东北百合 Lilium
Lilium
distichum, 卷丹 Lilium
Lilium
lancifolium, 新疆百合 Lilium martagon
Lilium martagon
var. pilosiusculum, 山丹 Lilium
Lilium
pumilum, 南川百合 Lilium
Lilium
rosthornii, 药百合 Lilium speciosum
Lilium speciosum
var. gloriosoides.

Herb use:[53][54]

野百合 Lilium
Lilium
brownii, 百合 Lilium
Lilium
brownii var. viridulum, 渥丹 Lilium
Lilium
concolor, 毛百合 Lilium
Lilium
dauricum, 卷丹 Lilium
Lilium
lancifolium, 山丹 Lilium
Lilium
pumilum, 南川百合 Lilium
Lilium
rosthornii, 药百合Lilium speciosum var. gloriosoides, 淡黄花百合 Lilium
Lilium
sulphureum.

And there are researches about the selection of new varieties of edible lilies from the horticultural cultivars, such as 'Batistero' and 'California' among 15 lilies in Beijing,[55] and 'Prato' and 'Small foreigners' among 13 lilies in Ningbo.[56]

Japan[edit]

Culinary use:

Yuri-ne (lily-root) is also common in Japanese cuisine, especially as an ingredient of chawan-mushi (savoury egg custard). The major lilium species cultivated as vegetable are Lilium
Lilium
leichtlinii var. maximowiczii, Lilium
Lilium
lancifolium, and Lilium
Lilium
auratum.[57][58]

Herb use:

Lilium
Lilium
lancifolium, Lilium
Lilium
brownii var. viridulum, Lilium
Lilium
brownii var. colchesteri, Lilium
Lilium
pumilum[59]

North America[edit] The flower buds and roots of Lilium canadense
Lilium canadense
are traditionally gathered and eaten by North American indigenous peoples.[60] Taiwan[edit]

Culinary use:

The parts of lilium species which are officially listed as food material are the flower and bulbs of Lilium lancifolium
Lilium lancifolium
Thunb., Lilium brownii var. viridulum Baker, Lilium pumilum
Lilium pumilum
DC., Lilium
Lilium
candidum Loureiro.[61] Most edible lily bulbs which can be purchased in a market are mostly imported from mainland China (only in the scale form, and most marked as 蘭州百合 Lilium davidii
Lilium davidii
var. unicolor) and Japan (whole bulbs, should mostly be Lilium
Lilium
leichtlinii var. maximowiczii). There are already commercially available organic growing and normal growing edible lily bulbs. The varieties are selected by the Taiwanese Department of Agriculture from the Asiatic lily cultivars that are imported from the Netherlands; the seedling bulbs must be imported from the Netherlands every year.[62][63][64]

Herb use:

Lilium lancifolium
Lilium lancifolium
Thunb., Lilium
Lilium
brownii var. viridulum Baker, Lilium pumilum DC.[65]

South Korea[edit]

Herb use:

The lilium species which are officially listed as herbs are 참나리 Lilium lancifolium
Lilium lancifolium
Thunberg; 당나리 Lilium
Lilium
brownii var. viridulun Baker;[66][67]

Not Lilium[edit] The "lily" flower buds known as jīnzhēn (金针, "golden needles") in Chinese cuisine
Chinese cuisine
are actually from Hemerocallis
Hemerocallis
citrina.[68] In culture[edit] Symbolism[edit] In the Victorian language of flowers, lilies portray love, ardor, and affection for your loved ones, while orange lilies stand for happiness, love, and warmth.[69] Lilium
Lilium
longiflorum, the Easter lily, is a symbol of Easter, and Lilium candidum, the Madonna lily, carries a great deal of symbolic value in many cultures. See the articles for more information. Lilies are the flowers most commonly used at funerals, where they symbolically signify that the soul of the deceased has been restored to the state of innocence.[70] Lilium
Lilium
formosanum, or Taiwanese lily, is called "the flower of broken bowl" (打碗花) by the elderly members of the Hakka
Hakka
ethnic group. They believe that because this lily grows near bodies of clean water, harming the lily may damage the environment, just like breaking the bowls that people rely on.[71] An alternative explanation is that parents convince children into not taking the lily by convincing the children that their dinner bowls may break if they destroy this flower. Heraldry[edit] Lilium bulbiferum
Lilium bulbiferum
has long been recognised as a symbol of the Orange Order in Northern Ireland.[72] Lilium mackliniae
Lilium mackliniae
is the state flower of Manipur. Lilium
Lilium
michauxii, the Carolina lily, is the official state flower of North Carolina. Idyllwild, California, hosts the Lemon Lily Festival, which celebrates Lilium
Lilium
parryi.[73] Lilium philadelphicum
Lilium philadelphicum
is the floral emblem of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
province in Canada, and is on the flag of Saskatchewan.[74][75][76] Gallery[edit]

Lilium
Lilium
regale : bud formation

white Lilium
Lilium
hanging in garden

Orange lily showing stamens with pollen-covered anthers, Ontario, Canada

Recently open and still unopened flowers of white Asiatic hybrid variety

Lilium maculatum
Lilium maculatum
in fields

Pollen
Pollen
of Lilium auratum
Lilium auratum
(oriental lily); back-scattered electron microscope image

Microscopic view of lily pollen 100X

Lilium pomponium
Lilium pomponium
(Flower)

Lilium
Lilium
'Centerfold'

See also[edit]

Lily seed germination types

References[edit]

^ lectotype designated by N. L. Britton et A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2. 1: 502 (1913) ^ a b "Lilium". World Checklist of Selected Plant
Plant
Families. Retrieved June 13, 2014.  ^ European Garden Flora; Volume 1 ^ Pelkonen, Veli-Pekka; Pirttilä, Anna-Maria (2012). "Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Genus
Genus
Lilium" (PDF). Floriculture and Ornamental Biotechnology. 6 ( Special
Special
Issue 2): 1–8. Retrieved 2016-07-29.  ^ Harold Comber, 1949. "A new classification of the genus Lilium". Lily Yearbook, Royal Hortic. Soc., London. 15:86–105. ^ Govaerts, R. (ed.). "Lilium". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2013-02-03.  ^ Flora of North America, Vol. 26, Online ^ Resetnik I.; Liber Z.; Satovic Z.; Cigic P.; Nikolic T. (2007). "Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the Lilium carniolicum
Lilium carniolicum
group (Liliaceae) based on nuclear ITS sequences". Plant
Plant
Systematics and Evolution. 265: 45–58. doi:10.1007/s00606-006-0513-y.  ^ Flora of China, Vol. 24, eFloras.org ^ Nishikawa Tomotaro; Okazaki Keiichi; Arakawa Katsuro; Nagamine Tsukasa (2001). "Phylogenetic Analysis of Section Sinomartagon in Genus
Genus
Lilium
Lilium
Using Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Region in Nuclear Ribosomal DNA". 育種学雑誌 Breeding science. 51 (1): 39–46. doi:10.1270/jsbbs.51.39.  ^ Nishikawa Tomotaro; Okazaki Keiichi; Nagamine Tsukasa (2002). "Phylogenetic Relationships among Lilium auratum
Lilium auratum
Lindley, L. auratum var. platyphyllum Baker and L. rubellum Baker Based on Three Spacer Regions in Chloroplast DNA". 育種学雑誌 Breeding science. 52 (3): 207–213. doi:10.1270/jsbbs.52.207.  ^ WCLSPF 2014. ^ Gao et al 2011. ^ Rønsted et al 2005. ^ " Lilium pyrophilum
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Lilium
Golden Splendor Group". Retrieved 22 March 2018.  ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Lilium
Lilium
martagon". Retrieved 22 March 2018.  ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Lilium
Lilium
pardalinum". Retrieved 22 March 2018.  ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Lilium
Lilium
Pink Perfection Group". Retrieved 22 March 2018.  ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Lilium
Lilium
regale". Retrieved 2 March 2018.  ^ "North American Lily Society: Types of Lilies". Lilies.org. Retrieved 2013-02-03.  ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1-4053-3296-4.  ^ "The RHS is the International Registration Authority for lilies".  ^ a b Barba-Gonzalez, R.; Lokker, A.C.; Lim, K.B.; Ramanna, M.S.; Van Tuyl, J.M. (2004). "Use of 2n gametes for the production of sexual polyploids from sterile Oriental × Asiatic hybrids of lilies (Lilium)". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 109 (6): 1125–1132. doi:10.1007/s00122-004-1739-0. PMID 15290047.  ^ a b J.M. van Tuyl; P. Arens (2011). "Lilium: Breeding History of the Modern Cultivar Assortment" (PDF). Acta Horticulturae. 900: 223–230.  ^ " Lilium
Lilium
Asiatic Navona - Lily". brentandbeckysbulbs.com. Retrieved 27 January 2017.  ^ "Tina M. Smith. Production of Hybrid Lilies as Pot Plants. University of Massachusetts, Amherst". Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment.  ^ " Plant
Plant
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Plant
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Lilium
'Tiny Dessert' - Dwarf Asiatic Lily Perennial".  ^ The RHS International Lily Registrar. "Application For Registration Of A Lily Name". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 6 June 2014.  ^ J.m. Van Tuyl, A.; Binoa, R.J.; Vancreij, M; Vankleinwee, T; Franken, J; Bino, R (1991). "Application of in vitro pollination, ovary culture, ovule culture and embryo rescue for overcoming incongruity barriers in interspecific Lilium
Lilium
crosses". Plant
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Science. 74 (1): 115–126. doi:10.1016/0168-9452(91)90262-7.  ^ "Lily beetle". RHS Gardening. Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 2014-08-21.  ^ Whitman, Ann. "Controlling Lily Leaf Beetles". Gardener's Supply Company. Retrieved 2014-02-18.  ^ Duong Tan Nhut, Nguyen Thi Doan Tam, Vu Quoc Luan, Nguyen Tri Minh. 2006. Standardization of in vitro Lily ( Lilium
Lilium
spp.) plantlets for propagation and bulb formation. Proceedings of International Workshop on Biotechnology in Agriculture, Nong Lam University (NLU), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, page 134-137. accessdate=January 25, 2014 ^ Langston CE (January 2002). "Acute renal failure caused by lily ingestion in six cats". J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 220 (1): 49–52, 36. doi:10.2460/javma.2002.220.49. PMID 12680447.  ^ Hall J (1992). "Nephrotoxicity of Easter Lily ( Lilium
Lilium
longiflorum) when ingested by the cat". Proc Annu Meet Am Vet Int Med. 6: 121.  ^ Volmer P (April 1999). "Easter lily toxicosis in cats" (PDF). Vet Med: 331. [permanent dead link] ^ a b Fitzgerald, Kevin T. (2010). "Lily Toxicity in the Cat". Topics in Companion Animal Medicine. 25 (4): 213–217. doi:10.1053/j.tcam.2010.09.006. ISSN 1938-9736. PMID 21147474.  ^ "Lily poisoning in cats – Vet Help Direct Blog".  ^ "Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Gardens, Kew)". No. 29 (1889). 1889: 116–118.  ^ "《按照传统既是食品又是中药材的物质目录(2013版)》(征求意见稿).doc".  ^ "地标产品数据库 蔬菜副食 百合". [permanent dead link] ^ "中国食用(淀粉)植物 (据《中国植物志》全书记载分析而得)".  ^ "中国药用植物 (据《中国植物志》全书记载分析而得)".  ^ "中国药用植物 (据《中国植物志》全书记载分析而得)".  ^ "15个百合种和品种的食用性比较研究".  ^ "不同食用百合品种在宁波地区引种品比试验". Archived from the original on 2014-02-01.  ^ "食用にするユリネ(ゆり根)について教えてください。". Archived from the original on 2013-03-07.  ^ "ユリネ (百合根 lily bulb)". KNU ダイエット 食材百科事典.  ^ "第十六改正日本薬局方(英文版) – The Japanese Pharmacopoeia 16th edition".  ^ Boreal Forest, Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, Lilium
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Bibliography[edit]

Gao, Yun-Dong; Hohenegger, Markus; Harris, AJ; Zhou, Song-Dong; He, Xing-Jin; Wan, Juan (2012). "A new species in the genus Nomocharis Franchet (Liliaceae): evidence that brings the genus Nomocharis
Nomocharis
into Lilium". Plant
Plant
Systematics and Evolution. 298 (1): 69–85. doi:10.1007/s00606-011-0524-1. ISSN 0378-2697.  Rønsted, N.; Law, S.; Thornton, H.; Fay, M. F.; Chase, M. W. (2005). "Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the monophyly of Fritillaria
Fritillaria
and Lilium
Lilium
(Liliaceae; Liliales) and the infrageneric classification of Fritillaria". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 35 (3): 509–527. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.12.023. PMID 15878122.  "Nomocharis", World Checklist of Selected Plant
Plant
Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 

External links[edit]

Look up lilium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Lilies

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lilium.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Lilium

The Plant
Plant
List Online Lily Register, over 9400 entries Lilium de Florum: Lilium
Lilium
species North American Lily Society Royal Horticultural Society
Royal Horticultural Society
Lily Group 1 2 3 Time-lapse videos THE GENUS LILIUM Lilium
Lilium
at the Encyclopedia of Life
Encyclopedia of Life
Lily perenialization, Flower Bulb
Bulb
Research Program, Department of Horticulture, Cornell University Crossing polygon of the genus Lilium. Bulb
Bulb
flower production » Lilies, International Flower Bulb Centre Lily Picture Book, International Flower Bulb
Bulb
Centre

Flora[edit]

Flora Europaea: Lilium Flora of China: Lilium Flora of Nepal: Lilium
Lilium
species list Flora of North America: Lilium

v t e

Genera of the Liliaceae
Liliaceae
family

Lilioideae

Medeoleae

Clintonia Medeola

Lilieae

Cardiocrinum Erythronium Fritillaria Gagea Lilium Nomocharis Notholirion Tulipa

Calochortoideae

Calochortus Tricyrtis

Streptopoideae

Prosartes Scoliopus Streptopus

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q5194627 APDB: 192148 EoL: 32531 EPPO: 1LILG FloraBase: 44570 FNA: 118558 FoC: 118558 GBIF: 2752977 GRIN: 6829 iNaturalist: 48928 ITIS: 42722 NCBI: 4688 PLANTS: LILIU Tropicos: 40006767 VASCAN:

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