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Demographics of Libya
Libya
include population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libyan population. No complete population or vital statistics registration exists in Libya.[citation needed] Of the over 6,000,000 Libyans that lived in Libya
Libya
prior to the Libyan Crisis, more than a million were immigrants.[citation needed] The estimates in this article are from the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[7] which was prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, unless otherwise indicated.[8]

Demographics of Libya, Data of FAO, year 2006; Number of inhabitants in thousands. to see the latest information, please visit this official site: http://www.gait.gov.ly/info/info2.htm

The Libyan population resides in the country of Libya, a territory located on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast of North Africa, to the west of and adjacent to Egypt. Most Libyans live in Tripoli. It is the capital of the country and first in terms of urban population, as well as Benghazi, Libya's second largest city.

Contents

1 History 2 Population

2.1 Population census

3 Vital statistics

3.1 Births and deaths 3.2 Life expectancy at birth

4 CIA World Factbook
CIA World Factbook
demographic statistics

4.1 Vital statistics

5 Ethnic and tribal groups

5.1 Ethnic groups 5.2 Tribal groups 5.3 Foreign population

6 Genetics

6.1 Y-chromosome

7 Religions 8 Culture

8.1 Cuisine 8.2 Music 8.3 Language

9 See also 10 References

History[edit] Main article: History of Libya

Cave art at the Germa Museum

Over the centuries, Libya
Libya
has been occupied by the Phoenicians, Greeks, Italians, Arabs
Arabs
and Egyptians. The Phoenicians
Phoenicians
had a big impact on Libya. Many of the coastal towns and cities of Libya
Libya
were founded by the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
as trade outposts within the southern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast in order to facilitate the Phoenician business activities in the area. Starting in the 8th century BCE, Libya
Libya
was under the rule of the Phoenician Carthage.[clarification needed] After the Romans defeated Carthage
Carthage
in the Third Punic War, Libya
Libya
became a Roman province under the name of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
until the 7th century CE when Libya
Libya
was conquered by the Arab
Arab
Muslims
Muslims
as part of the Arab conquest of North Africa. Centuries after that, the Ottoman Empire conquered Libya
Libya
in 1551. It remained in control of its territory until 1911 when the country was conquered by Italy. In the 18th century Libya
Libya
was used as the base for various pirates. In the Second World War
Second World War
Libya
Libya
was one of the main battlegrounds of North Africa. During the war, the territory was under an Anglo-French military government until it was overrun by the Axis Powers, who, in turn, were defeated by the Allies in 1943. In 1951, the country was granted independence by the United Nations, being governed by King Idris. In 1969, a military coup led by Muammar Gaddafi resulted in the overthrow of King Idris
King Idris
I. Gaddafi then established an anti-Western dictatorship. In 1970, Gaddafi ordered all British and American military bases closed. The Libyan population has increased rapidly after 1969. They were only 523,176 humans in 1911, 2 million in 1968, and 5 million in 1969.[citation needed] That population growth was due in large part to King Idris
King Idris
and Gaddafi granting citizenship to many Tunisians, Egyptians
Egyptians
and other immigrants.[citation needed] Many migrant workers came to Libya
Libya
since 1969. Among the workers were construction workers and laborers from Tunisia, teachers and laborers from Egypt, teachers from Palestine, and doctors and nurses from Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and Bulgaria. 1,000,000 workers, mainly from other neighboring African countries like Sudan, Niger, Chad
Chad
and Mali, migrated to Libya
Libya
in the 1990s, after changes were made to Libya's Pan-African policies.[9] Gaddafi used money from the sale of oil to improve the living conditions of the population and to assist Palestinian guerrillas in their fight against the Israelis. In 1979, Libya
Libya
fought in Uganda
Uganda
to assist the government of Idi Amin
Idi Amin
in the Ugandan Civil War, and in 1981, fought in the Libyan-Chadian War. Libya
Libya
had occupied the Aozou Strip; however, in 1990 the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
submitted the case and allowed the full recuperation of territory to Chad. In September 2008, Italy
Italy
and Libya
Libya
signed a memorandum by which Italy would pay $5 billion over the next 20 years to compensate Libya
Libya
for its dominion over Libya
Libya
for its reign of 30 years.[10] Since 2011, the country is swept by Libyan Civil War, which broke out between the Anti-Gaddafi rebels and the Pro-Gaddafi government in 2011, culminating in the death and overthrow of Gaddafi. Nevertheless, even today Libya
Libya
still continues to generate problems within the area and beyond, greatly affecting its population and the migrant route to Europe. Population[edit]

Population pyramid for Libya
Libya
in 2011

Libyan young men in Bayda. In 2010, about 30 % of the population was under the age of 15.1.

Libya
Libya
has a small population residing in a large land area. Population density is about 50 persons per km² (130/sq. mi.) in the two northern regions of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
and Cyrenaica, but falls to less than one person per km² (2.7/sq. mi.) elsewhere. Ninety percent of the people live in less than 10% of the area, primarily along the coast. About 90%[11] of the population is urban, mostly concentrated in the four largest cities, Tripoli, Benghazi, Misrata
Misrata
and Bayda. Thirty percent of the population is estimated to be under the age of 15[citation needed], but this proportion has decreased considerably during the past decades.

Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)

1801 ~ 3 000 -- -- --

1825 ~ 3 059 -- -- --

1850 ~ 2 700 -- -- --

1870 ~ 2 400 -- -- --

1910 ~ 1 600 -- -- --

1950 1 029 41.9 53.4 4.7

1955 1 126 43.0 52.7 4.3

1960 1 349 43.3 52.7 4.0

1965 1 623 43.4 53.0 3.6

1970 1 994 45.2 52.1 2.7

1975 2 466 46.5 51.3 2.2

1980 3 063 47.0 50.7 2.2

1985 3 850 47.3 50.5 2.3

1990 4 334 43.5 53.9 2.6

1995 4 775 38.3 58.8 2.9

2000 5 231 32.4 64.2 3.4

2005 5 770 30.6 65.6 3.8

2010 6 355 30.4 65.3 4.3

[citation needed] Population census[edit] Eight population censuses have been carried out in Libya, the first in 1931 and the most recent one in 2006.[12][13] The population sixfolded between 1931 and 2006.

Year Males (thousands) Females (thousands) Total population (thousands) Average annual growth rate (%)

1931

704

1936 463 386 849 3.8

1954 564 524 1,089 1.4

1964 (July 31) 813 751 1,564 3.7

1973 (July 31) 1,192 1,057 2,249 4.1

1984 (July 31) 1,954 1,689 3,643 4.5

1995 (August 11) 2,237 2,168 4,405 1.7

2006 (April 15) 2,934 2,723 5,658 2.3

Vital statistics[edit] During the past 60 years the demographic situation of Libya
Libya
changed considerably. Since the 1950s, life expectancy increased steadily and the infant mortality rates decreased. As the fertility rates remained high until the 1980s (the number of births tripled between 1950–55 and 1980–85), population growth was very high for three decades. However, after 1985 a fast decrease in fertility was observed from over 7 children per woman in the beginning of the 1980s to less than 3 in 2005-2010.[citation needed] Because of this decrease in fertility the population growth slowed down and also the proportion of Libyans under the age of 15 decreased from 47% in 1985 to 30% in 2010.[citation needed] Births and deaths[edit]

Period Births Deaths Difference CBR* CDR* NC* IMR* TFR*

1950–1955 52.000 24.000 28.000 48,0 22,5 25,5 185 6,87

1955–1960 60.000 25.000 35.000 48,5 19,9 28,6 170 6,97

1960–1965 73.000 27.000 46.000 49,0 18,3 30,7 150 7,18

1965–1970 90.000 30.000 60.000 49,5 16,8 32,7 125 7,48

1970–1975 109.000 33.000 76.000 49,0 14,8 34,2 105 7,59

1975–1980 131.000 35.000 96.000 47,3 12,7 34,6 68 7,38

1980–1985 158.000 38.000 120.000 45,6 10,9 34,7 50 7,18

1985–1990 123.000 22.000 101.000 29,9 5,3 24,6 38,0 5,65

1990–1995 113.000 20.000 93.000 24,7 4,5 20,2 28,3 4,10

1995–2000 115.000 20.000 95.000 23,0 4,0 19,0 20,5 3,25

2000–2005 134.000 22.000 112.000 24,3 4,0 20,3 17,7 3,00

2005–2010 145.000 24.000 121.000 24,0 4,0 20,0 15,0 2,72

Births and deaths[14]

Year Population (x1000) Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR

2009

134 682 22 859 111 823

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

1950-1955: 42.85 years 1955-1960: 45.4 years 1960-1965: 48.1 years 1965-1970: 50.5 years 1970-1975: 52.8 years 1975-1980: 56.45 years 1980-1985: 60.2 years 1985-1990: 63.5 years 1990-1995: 65.85 years 1995-2000: 67.2 years 2000-2005: 68.8 years 2005-2010: 69.9 years

CIA World Factbook
CIA World Factbook
demographic statistics[edit] The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[15] Vital statistics[edit] Population

5,613,380 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 27.7% (male 795,748/ female 759,806) 15-64 years: 68.4% (male 2,006,059/ female 1,834,119) 65 years and over: 3.9% (male 111,144/ female 106,504) (2012 est.)

Median age

total: 24.8 years male: 24.8 years female: 24.7 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

1.26% (2012 est.)

Birth rate

17.5 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate

4.9 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate

3.71 children born/woman (2000 est.) 3.01 children born/woman (2010 est.) 2.12 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 78% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2012 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 12.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 13.7 deaths/1,000 live births female: 11.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 77.83 years male: 75.5 years female: 80.27 years (2012 data)

Ethnic and tribal groups[edit]

Ethnic composition of the Libyan population in 1974 (CIA map)   Arab, Arab-Berber   Berber   Tuareg   Toubou   Uninhabited

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic groups of Libya
Libya
[16]

Ethnic groups

percent

Berber, Arab

97%

Other

3%

The population of Libya
Libya
is primarily of Berber ancestral origin (>60%).[17] Among the non-Arabized Berber groups are the nomadic Tuareg, who inhabit the southern areas as well as parts of Algeria, Mali, Niger
Niger
and Burkina Faso. A few other tribal groups that still speak the native Berber languages
Berber languages
are concentrated in the northwestern portion of Tripolitania. In the southeast, there are small populations of Toubou (Tibbu). They occupy between a quarter and a third of the country and also inhabit Niger
Niger
and Chad. Among foreign residents, the largest groups are from other African nations, including citizens of other North African nations (primarily Egyptians) and West Africans. Tribal groups[edit] Libyan society is to a large extent structured along tribal lines, with more than 20 major tribal groups.[18] The major tribal groups of Libya
Libya
in 2011 were listed:[18]

Tripolitania: Warfalla, Tarhona, Al-Zintan, Al-Rijban Cyrenaica: Al-Awagir, Al-Abaydat, Drasa, Al-Barasa, Al-Fawakhir, Al-Zuwayya, Al-Majabra Sirte: Qadhadhfa, Al-Magarha, Al-Magharba, Al-Riyyah, Al-Haraba, Al-Zuwaid, Al-Guwaid Fezzan: Al-Hutman, Al-Hassawna; Toubou, Tuareg Kufra: Al-Zuwayya; Toubou

Some of the ancient Berber tribes include: Adyrmachidae, Auschisae, Es'bet, Temeh’u, Teh’nu, Rebu, Kehek, KeyKesh, Imukehek, Meshwesh, Macetae, Macatutae, Nasamones, Nitriotae, and Tautamaei.[9] As of 2012[update] the major tribal groups of Libya, by region, were as follows:[19]

Tripolitania: alawana-Souk El Joma'a, AL-Mahameed, Warfalla, Tarhona, Misurata tribes, Al-Jawary, Siyan Tribe, The Warshfana tribes, Zawia Groups, Ghryan Tribes, AL-Asabea, Al-Fwatir, Awlad Busayf, Zintan, Al-jbalya, Zwara, Alajelat, Al-Nawael tribe, Alalqa tribe, Al-Rijban, al Mashashi, Amaym. Cyrenaica: AJ-JWAZY, Al-Awagir, Magharba, Al-Abaydat, Drasa, Al-Barasa, Al-Fawakhir, Zuwayya, Majabra, Awama, Minfa, Taraki, alawana, Shwa'ir and in Kufra Zuwayya; Toubou. Sirte: Awlad-Suleiman, Qadhadhfa, Magharba, Al-Hosoon, Ferrjan Fezzan: Awlad Suleiman, Al-Riyyah, Magarha, Al-Zuwaid, Al-Hutman, Al-Hassawna; Toubou, Tuareg. Kufra: Zuwayya; Toubou.

Foreign population[edit]

Migrant workers from Subsaharan Africa.

Foreign population is estimated at 3%, mostly migrant workers in the oil industry from Tunisia
Tunisia
and Egypt, but also including small numbers of Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Pakistanis, Palestinians, Turks, Indians and people from former Yugoslavia. Due to the Libyan Civil War, most of these migrant workers have returned to their homelands or simply left the country for a different one. However, according to news accounts in Allafrica.com, and the Libya Herald, between 1 million and 2 million Egyptians
Egyptians
are resident in Libya
Libya
and Sudanese number in the hundreds of thousands. If this is correct, the foreign population could be as high as 30% of the country, as simultaneously at least two million Libyans have fled since the NATO intervention of 2011, toppling the previous Libyan government. Genetics[edit] Y-chromosome[edit] Analysis of Y-chromosome have found three Y-chromosome lineages (E1b1b-M81, J-M267 and E1b1b-M78) at high frequency in Libya
Libya
like in other North African populations. Some studies suggest a Paleolithic component for E-M81 and E-M78, while other studies point to a Neolithic
Neolithic
origin. E1b1b-M78 has probably emerged in the Egypt/Libya area and is today widely distributed in North Africa, East Africa, and West Asia. E1b1b-M81 show high frequencies in Northwestern Africa
Africa
and a high prevalence among Berbers
Berbers
(it is sometimes referred to as a genetic "Berber marker"). Its frequency declines towards Egypt
Egypt
and the Levant. On the other hand, E-M78 and E-M123 are frequent in the Levant and Egypt
Egypt
and decline towards Northwest Africa. Another common paternal lineage in Libya
Libya
and North Africa
North Africa
is haplogroup J through its subtypes J1 (M267) and J2 (M172). J1 is prevalent in all North African and Levantine groups and found at high frequencies in the Arabian Peninsula. It has been previously associated with the Islamic expansion. J2 is sporadically detected in North Africa
North Africa
and Iberia and is very frequent in the Levant/Anatolia/ Iran
Iran
region. Its spread in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
is believed to have been facilitated by the maritime trading culture of the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
(1550 BC- 300 BC). E-M2 is the predominant lineage in Western Africa. Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in Libya.[20]

Hg Libya
Libya
(n=215)

E-M81 35.88%

J-M267 30.53%

E-M78 11.07%

E-M2 8.78%

G-M201 4.20%

J-M172 3.44%

R* 3.43%

E-M123 1.53%

E* 0.76%

R-M17 0.38%

Religions[edit]

Religions of Libya
Libya
[16]

Religions

percent

Islam (Sunni; Official)

96.6%

Christian

2.7%

Hindu

0.1%

Jewish

0.1%

Folk religion

0.1%

Unspecified

0.2%

Other

0.1%

Almost all Libyans are Sunni
Sunni
Muslim. Foreigners contribute very little Christian
Christian
presence, but there are some local Christian
Christian
church adherents in Eastern Libya
Libya
- the Copts. A small Jewish community historically lived in Libya
Libya
since antiquity (see History of the Jews in Libya), but the entire Jewish community in Libya
Libya
eventually fled the country for Italy, Israel, or the United States, particularly after anti-Jewish riots in the wake of the 1967 Six-Day War
Six-Day War
between Arab
Arab
countries and Israel. Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Libya Cuisine[edit] Libyan cuisine is heavily influenced by Mediterranean, North African (Berber cuisine) and the Middle Eastern (Egyptian cuisine) traditions. Notable dishes include Shorba Arabiya, or Arabian soup, which is a thick, highly spiced soup.[21] Bazeen
Bazeen
is a traditional Libyan food, made from a mix of barley flour and a small amount of plain flour. Music[edit] Libyan origin instruments are the zokra (a bagpipe), a flute (made of bamboo), the tambourine, the oud (a fretless lute) and the darbuka (a goblet drum held sideways and played with the fingers). Bedouin poet-singers had a great influence on the musical folklore of Libya, particularly the style of huda, the camel driver's song. Language[edit] Main article: Languages of Libya The official language of Libya
Libya
is Standard Arabic, while the prevalent spoken language is Libyan Arabic, Berber, is spoken by about 300,000 Libyans. The Arabic dialects are partly spoken by immigrant workers and partly by local Libyan populations. These dialects include Egyptian Arabic, Tunisian Arabic, Sudanese Arabic, Moroccan Arabic, Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic, South Levantine Arabic
South Levantine Arabic
and Hassaniyya Arabic. Berber languages
Berber languages
are primarily still spoken by the Tuareg, a rural Berber population inhabiting Libya's south.[22] Indigenous minority languages in Libya:[23]

Berber languages
Berber languages
In Libya: ~300.000 speakers

Nafusi: 100.000 speakers Tamahaq: 200.000 speakers Ghadamès: 10.000 speakers Sawknah: 20.000 speakers Awjilah: ~100.000 speakers

Domari: ~20.000 speakers Tripoli: ~50.000 speakers

Non-Arabic languages had largely been spoken by foreign workers (who had been massively employed in Libya
Libya
in various infrastructure projects prior to the 2011 civil war), and those languages with more than 10,000 speakers included Punjabi, Urdu, Mandarin, Cantonese, Korean, Sinhala, Bengal, Tamil, Tagalog, French, Italian, Ukrainian, Serbian, and English. See also[edit]

Health in Libya List of Ashraf tribes in Libya

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Demographics of Libya.

^ "Libya". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 September 2015.  ^ a b c EU Migration Policy Centre. "Migration Facts Libya
Libya
April 2013" (PDF). Retrieved 26 December 2016.  ^ Statistics Canada. "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Retrieved 11 February 2014.  ^ "Libyan Canadians cast ballots in first post-Gadhafi election - iPolitics". ipolitics.ca. 3 July 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ Serbian Government. "MMIGRATION PROFILE OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA FOR 2014" (PDF). Retrieved 11 April 2016.  ^ https://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/ancestry/ancestry_q_by_DAC_2000.xls ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b http://www.temehu.com/Libyan-People.htm Temehu. Libyan people and Ethnic tribes. Retrieved 4 January 2011. ^ http://www.hejleh.com/countries/libya.html The Country & People of Libya. Posted 2003. Retrieved January 4, 2012, to 23:53 pm. ^ "Save BIG with $9.99 .COMs from GoDaddy!". Go Daddy. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ B.R. Mitchell. International historical statistics: Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000. ^ "United nations. Demographic Yearbooks 1948-2008". un.org. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". un.org. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ a b "Africa :: LIBYA". CIA The World Factbook.  ^ Tej K. Bhatia, William C. Ritchie (2006). The Handbook of Bilingualism. John Wiley & Sons. p. 860. ISBN 0631227350. Retrieved 14 October 2017. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b Editorial, Reuters. "UPDATE 1-FACTBOX-Tribal ties key to Gaddafi rule". reuters.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ Souhail Karam, Jon Hemming, Tribal ties key to Gaddafi rule, Reuters (2011)[1] ^ Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2013) Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa. PLoS One. 2013; 8(11): e80293. See Table S2 ^ Served as "starter", the soup is mentioned in the New York Times ^ "Libyan People". www.libyaweb.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ (in English) Ethnologue report for Libya, Languages of Libya

CIA World Factbook
CIA World Factbook
2008 Looklex Encyclopedia

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Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde (Cabo Verde) Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire) Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

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