HOME
The Info List - Liège


--- Advertisement ---



Liège
Liège
(French: [ljɛʒ] ( listen) locally [li.eʃ]; Walloon: Lidje [liːtʃ]; Dutch: Luik, [lœyk] ( listen); German: Lüttich), is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. The city is situated in the valley of the Meuse River, in the east of Belgium, not far from borders with the Netherlands
Netherlands
( Maastricht
Maastricht
is about 33 km (20.5 mi) to the north) and with Germany
Germany
(Aachen is about 53 km (32.9 mi) north-east). At Liège
Liège
the Meuse river meets the river Ourthe. The city is part of the sillon industriel, the former industrial backbone of Wallonia. It still is the principal economic and cultural centre of the region. The Liège
Liège
municipality (i.e. the city proper) includes the former communes of Angleur, Bressoux, Chênée, Glain, Grivegnée, Jupille-sur-Meuse, Rocourt, and Wandre. In November 2012, Liège
Liège
had 198,280 inhabitants. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,879 km2 (725 sq mi) and had a total population of 749,110 on 1 January 2008.[2][3] This includes a total of 52 municipalities, among others, Herstal
Herstal
and Seraing. Liège ranks as the third most populous urban area in Belgium, after Brussels and Antwerp, and the fourth municipality after Antwerp, Ghent
Ghent
and Charleroi.[3]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early Middle Ages 2.2 Late Medieval and Early Modern Period 2.3 18th century to World War I 2.4 World War II to the present

3 Climate 4 Demographics 5 Main sights 6 Folklore 7 Culture

7.1 Sports

8 Economy

8.1 1812 mine accident

9 Transport

9.1 Air 9.2 Maritime 9.3 Rail 9.4 Road

10 Famous inhabitants 11 International relations

11.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links

Etymology[edit]

This section needs expansion with: Needs attestations of older forms, particularly Old French and Old/Middle High German. You can help by adding to it. (July 2012)

The name is Germanic in origin and is reconstructible as *liudik-, from the Germanic word *liudiz "people", which is found in for example Dutch lui(den), lieden, German Leute, Old English
Old English
lēod (English lede) and Icelandic lýður ("people"). It is found in Lithuanian as liaudis ("people"), in Russian as liudi ("people"), in Latin as Leodicum or Leodium, in Middle Dutch as ludic or ludeke.[4] Until 17 September 1946 the city's name was written Liége, with the acute accent instead of a grave accent.[5][6][7] In French the city has the epithet la cité ardente (the fervent city). History[edit] See also: Timeline of Liège Early Middle Ages[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Although settlements already existed in Roman times, the first references to Liège
Liège
are from 558, when it was known as Vicus Leudicus. Around 705, Saint Lambert of Maastricht
Maastricht
is credited with completing the Christianization
Christianization
of the region, indicating that up to the early 8th century the religious practices of antiquity had survived in some form. Christian conversion may still not have been quite universal, since Lambert was murdered in Liège
Liège
and thereafter regarded as a martyr for his faith. To enshrine St. Lambert's relics, his successor, Hubertus
Hubertus
(later to become St. Hubert), built a basilica near the bishop's residence which became the true nucleus of the city. A few centuries later, the city became the capital of a prince-bishopric, which lasted from 985 till 1794. The first prince-bishop, Notger, transformed the city into a major intellectual and ecclesiastical centre, which maintained its cultural importance during the Middle Ages. Pope Clement VI
Clement VI
recruited several musicians from Liège
Liège
to perform in the Papal court at Avignon, thereby sanctioning the practice of polyphony in the religious realm. The city was renowned for its many churches, the oldest of which, St Martin's, dates from 682. Although nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire, in practice it possessed a large degree of independence. Late Medieval and Early Modern Period[edit]

Liège
Liège
in 1650

See also: Prince-Bishopric of Liège The strategic position of Liège
Liège
has made it a frequent target of armies and insurgencies over the centuries. It was fortified early on with a castle on the steep hill that overlooks the city's western side. During this medieval period, three women from the Liège
Liège
region made significant contributions to Christian spirituality: Elizabeth Spaakbeek, Christina the Astonishing, and Marie of Oignies.[8] In 1345, the citizens of Liège
Liège
rebelled against Prince-Bishop Engelbert III de la Marck, their ruler at the time, and defeated him in battle near the city. Shortly after, a unique political system formed in Liège, whereby the city's 32 guilds shared sole political control of the municipal government. Each person on the register of each guild was eligible to participate, and each guild's voice was equal, making it the most democratic system that the Low Countries
Low Countries
had ever known. The system spread to Utrecht, and left a democratic spirit in Liège
Liège
that survived the Middle Ages.[9] At the end of the Liège
Liège
Wars, a rebellion against rule from Burgundy that figured prominently in the plot of Sir Walter Scott's 1823 novel Quentin Durward, Duke Charles the Bold
Charles the Bold
of Burgundy, witnessed by King Louis XI of France, captured and largely destroyed the city in 1468, after a bitter siege which was ended with a successful surprise attack. The Prince-Bishopric of Liège
Prince-Bishopric of Liège
was technically part of the Holy Roman Empire which, after 1477, came under the rule of the Habsburgs. The reign of prince-bishop Erard de la Marck
Erard de la Marck
(1506–1538) coincides with the dawn of the Renaissance. During the Counter-Reformation, the diocese of Liège
Liège
was split and progressively lost its role as a regional power. In the 17th century, many prince-bishops came from the royal house of Wittelsbach. They ruled over Cologne
Cologne
and other bishoprics in the northwest of the Holy Roman Empire as well. In 1636, during the Thirty Years' War, the city was besieged by Imperial forces under Johann von Werth
Johann von Werth
from April to July. The army, mainly consisting of mercenaries, extensively and viciously plundered the surrounding bishopric during the siege.[10] 18th century to World War I[edit]

Liège
Liège
in 1627

The Duke of Marlborough captured the city from the Bavarian prince-bishop and his French allies in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession. In the middle of the eighteenth century the ideas of the French Encyclopédistes began to gain popularity in the region. Bishop de Velbruck (1772–84), encouraged their propagation, thus prepared the way for the Liège Revolution
Liège Revolution
which started in the episcopal city on 18 August 1789 and led to the creation of the Republic of Liège before it was invaded by counter-revolutionary forces of the Habsburg Monarchy in 1791. In the course of the 1794 campaigns of the French Revolution, the French army took the city and imposed strongly anticlerical regime, destroying St. Lambert's Cathedral. The overthrow of the prince-bishopric was confirmed in 1801 by the Concordat co-signed by Napoléon Bonaparte
Napoléon Bonaparte
and Pope Pius VII. France
France
lost the city in 1815 when the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
awarded it to the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Dutch rule lasted only until 1830, when the Belgian Revolution led to the establishment of an independent, Catholic and neutral Belgium
Belgium
which incorporated Liège. After this, Liège developed rapidly into a major industrial city which became one of continental Europe's first large-scale steel making centres. The Walloon Jacquerie of 1886
Walloon Jacquerie of 1886
saw a large-scale working class revolt.[11] No less than 6,000 regular troops were called into the city to quell the unrest,[12] while strike spread through the whole sillon industriel.

St. Lambert's Cathedral and the palace of the Prince-Bishops in 1770

Quai de la Goffe

Liège's fortifications were redesigned by Henri Alexis Brialmont
Henri Alexis Brialmont
in the 1880s and a chain of twelve forts was constructed around the city to provide defence in depth. This presented a major obstacle to Germany's army in 1914, whose Schlieffen Plan
Schlieffen Plan
relied on being able to quickly pass through the Meuse valley and the Ardennes
Ardennes
en route to France. The German invasion on August 5, 1914 soon reached Liège, which was defended by 30,000 troops under General Gérard Leman
Gérard Leman
(see Battle of Liège). The forts initially held off an attacking force of about 100,000 men but were pulverised into submission by a five-day bombardment by heavy artillery, including thirty-two 21 cm mortars and two German 42 cm Big Bertha howitzers. Due to faulty planning of the protection of the underground defense tunnels beneath the main citadel, one direct artillery hit caused a huge explosion, which eventually led to the surrender of the Belgian forces. The Belgian resistance was shorter than had been intended, but the twelve days of delay caused by the siege nonetheless contributed to the eventual failure of the German invasion of France. The city was subsequently occupied by the Germans until the end of the war. Liège received the Légion d'Honneur
Légion d'Honneur
for its resistance in 1914. World War II to the present[edit]

Inauguration of the statue of Charlemagne, 26 July 1868

The Germans returned in 1940, this time taking the forts in only three days. Most Jews were saved, with the help of the sympathetic population, as many Jewish children and refugees were hidden in the numerous monasteries. The German occupiers were expelled by the Allies of World War II in September 1944 but Liège
Liège
was subsequently subjected to intense aerial bombardment, with more than 1,500 V-1 and V-2
V-2
missiles landing in the city between its liberation and the end of the war.[citation needed] After the war ended, the Royal Question
Royal Question
came to the fore, since many saw King Leopold III as collaborating with the Germans during the war. In July 1950, André Renard, leader of the Liégeois FGTB launched the General strike against Leopold III of Belgium
Belgium
and "seized control over the city of Liège".[13] The strike ultimately led to Leopold's abdication. Liège
Liège
began to suffer from a relative decline of its industry, particularly the coal industry, and later the steel industry, producing high levels of unemployment and stoking social tension. During the 1960-1961 Winter General Strike, disgruntled workers went on a rampage and severely damaged the central railway station Guillemins. The unrest was so intense that "army troops had to wade through caltrops, trees, concrete blocks, car and crane wrecks to advance. Streets were dug up. Liège
Liège
saw the worst fighting on 6 January 1961. In all, 75 people were injured during seven hours of street battles."[14] Liège
Liège
is also known as a traditionally socialist city. In 1991, powerful Socialist André Cools, a former Deputy Prime Minister, was gunned down in front of his girlfriend's apartment. Many suspected that the assassination was related to a corruption scandal which swept the Socialist Party, and the national government in general, after Cools' death. Two men were sentenced to twenty years in jail in 2004, for involvement in Cools' murder. Liège
Liège
has shown some signs of economic recovery in recent years with the opening up of borders within the European Union, surging steel prices, and improved administration. Several new shopping centres have been built, and numerous repairs carried out. On 13 December 2011, there was a grenade and gun attack at Place Saint-Lambert. An attacker, later identified as Nordine Amrani, aged 33, armed with grenades and an assault rifle, attacked people waiting at a bus stop. There were six fatalities, including the attacker (who shot himself), and 123 people were injured.[15] Climate[edit]

Climate data for Liège

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 3 (38) 6 (42) 9 (48) 14 (57) 18 (64) 21 (69) 22 (71) 22 (71) 19 (66) 13 (55) 9 (48) 5 (41) 13 (56)

Average low °C (°F) −2 (29) −1 (31) 2 (35) 5 (41) 8 (47) 12 (53) 13 (56) 13 (56) 11 (51) 7 (44) 3 (38) 1 (33) 6 (43)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 36 (1.4) 41 (1.6) 46 (1.8) 36 (1.4) 41 (1.6) 66 (2.6) 74 (2.9) 64 (2.5) 61 (2.4) 64 (2.5) 43 (1.7) 58 (2.3) 627 (24.7)

Source: Weatherbase [16]

Demographics[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2017)

On 1 January 2013, the municipality of Liège
Liège
had a total population of 197,013. The metropolitan area has about 750,000 inhabitants. Its inhabitants are predominantly French-speaking, with German and Dutch-speaking minorities. Like the rest of Belgium, the population of minorities has grown significantly since the 1990s. The city has become the home to large numbers of Moroccan, Algerian and Turkish immigrants. The city is a major educational hub in Belgium. There are 42,000 pupils attending more than 24 schools. The University of Liège, founded in 1817, has 20,000 students. Main sights[edit]

Panorama of the city of Liège. Photo taken from the heights of the Citadel (left bank of the River Meuse).

See also: List of protected heritage sites in Liège

The stairway of the Montagne de Bueren.

The vast palace of the Prince-Bishops of Liège
Prince-Bishops of Liège
is built on the Place St Lambert, where the old St. Lambert's Cathedral used to stand before the French Revolution. The oldest rooms date from the 16th century. An archeological display, the Archeoforum, can be visited under the Place St Lambert. The perron on the nearby Place du Marché was once the symbol of justice in the Prince-Bishopric and is now the symbol of the city. It stands in front of the 17th century city hall. The present Liège
Liège
Cathedral, dedicated to Saint Paul, contains a treasury and Saint Lambert’s tomb. It is one of the original seven collegiate churches, which include the German-Romanesque St Bartholomew's Church (Saint Barthélémy) and the church of St Martin. The church of Saint-James (Saint-Jacques) is probably the most beautiful medieval church in Liège. It is built in the so-called Flamboyant-Gothic style, while the porch is early Renaissance. The statues are by Liège
Liège
sculptor Jean Del Cour. Saint-Jacques also contains 29 spectacular 14th century misericords. The main museums in Liège
Liège
are: MAMAC
MAMAC
(Museum of Modern & Contemporary Art), Museum of Walloon Life, and Museum of Walloon Art & Religious Art (Mosan art). The Grand Curtius Museum
Curtius Museum
is an elegantly furnished mansion from the 17th century along the Meuse River, housing collections of Egyptology, weaponry, archaeology, fine arts, religious art and Mosan art. Other sites of interest include the historical city centre (the Carré), the Hors-Château area, the Outremeuse area, the parks and boulevards along the River Meuse, the Citadel, the 374[17] steps stairway "Montagne de Bueren", leading from Hors-Château to the Citadel, 'Médiacité' shopping mall designed by Ron Arad Architects and the Liège-Guillemins railway station
Liège-Guillemins railway station
designed by Santiago Calatrava. Liège's pedestrian zone is the biggest pedestrian zone of the Walloon Region and the Meuse-Rhine Euroregion;[18] it is also the oldest in Belgium. The pedestrian zone progressively has grown since 1965 to contain the majority of the hypercentre of Liège. It continues to grow today with the addition of the Rue de la Casquette on the 12th of December 2014.[19]

Folklore[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Traditional Liégeois puppets

The "Le Quinze Août" celebration takes place annually on 15 August in Outremeuse and celebrates the Virgin Mary. It is one of the biggest folkloric displays in the city, with a religious procession, a flea market, dances, concerts, and a series of popular games. Nowadays these celebrations start a few days earlier and last until the 16th. Some citizens open their doors to party goers, and serve "peket", the traditional local alcohol. This tradition is linked to the important folkloric character Tchantchès (Walloon for François), a hard-headed but resourceful Walloon boy who lived during Charlemagne's times. Tchantchès is remembered with a statue, a museum, and a number of puppets found all over the city. Liège
Liège
hosts one of the oldest and biggest Christmas Markets in Belgium.

Culture[edit]

Liège, the Sunday "Batte" market

The city is well known for its very crowded folk festivals. The 15 August festival ("Le 15 août") is maybe the best known. The population gathers in a quarter named Outre-Meuse with plenty of tiny pedestrian streets and old yards. Many people come to see the procession but also to drink alcohol (mostly peket) and beer, eat cooked pears, boûkètes or sausages or simply enjoy the atmosphere until the early hours.[20] The Saint Nicholas
Saint Nicholas
festival around the 6 December is organized by and for the students of the University; for a few days before the event, students (wearing very dirty lab-coats) beg for money, mostly for drinking.[21][22][23] Liège
Liège
is renowned for its significant nightlife.[24] Within the pedestrian zone behind the Opera House, there is a square city block known locally as Le Carré (the Square) with many lively pubs which are reputed to remain open until the last customer leaves (typically around 6 am). Another active area is the Place du Marché. The "Batte" market is where most locals visit on Sundays.[citation needed] The outdoor market goes along the Meuse River
Meuse River
and also attracts many visitors to Liège. The market typically runs from early morning to 2 o'clock in the afternoon every Sunday year long. Produce, clothing, and snack vendors are the main concentration of the market. Liège
Liège
is home to the Opéra Royal de Wallonie (English: Royal Opera of Wallonia) and the Orchestre Philharmonique Royal de Liège
Liège
(OPRL) (English: Liège
Liège
Royal Philharmonic Orchestra). The city annually hosts a significant electro-rock festival Les Ardentes and jazz festival Jazz à Liège. Liège
Liège
has active alternative cinemas, Le Churchill, Le Parc and Le Sauvenière. There are also 2 mainstream cinemas, the Kinepolis multiplexes. Liège
Liège
also has a particular Walloon dialect, sometimes said to be one of Belgium's most distinctive. There is a large Italian community, and Italian can be heard in many places.

Sports[edit]

Stade Maurice Dufrasne, home to football club Standard Liège.

The city has a number of football teams, most notably Standard Liège, who have won several championships and which was previously owned by Roland Duchâtelet, and R.F.C. de Liège, one of the oldest football clubs in Belgium. It is also known for being the club who refused to release Jean-Marc Bosman, a case which led to the Bosman ruling. In spring, Liège
Liège
hosts the start and finish of the annual Liège–Bastogne–Liège
Liège–Bastogne–Liège
cycling race, one of the spring classics and the oldest of the five monuments of cycling. The race starts in the centre of Liège, before heading south to Bastogne
Bastogne
and returning north to finish in the industrial suburb of Ans. Traveling through the hilly Ardennes, it is one of the longest and most arduous races of the season.[25] Liège
Liège
is the only city that has hosted stages of all three cycling Grand Tours. It staged the start of the 1973 and 2006 Giro d'Italia; as well as the Grand Départ of the 2004 and 2012 Tour de France,[26][27][28] making it the first city outside France
France
to host the Grand Départ twice.[29] In 2009, the Vuelta a España visited Liège
Liège
after four stages in the Netherlands, making Liège
Liège
the first city that has hosted stages of all three cycling Grand Tours.[30] It will also host the finish of stage 2 of the 2017 Tour de France.[31] Liège
Liège
is also home to boxer Ermano Fegatilli, the current European Boxing Union Super Featherweight champion.[32] Economy[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Pont de Fragnée

Liège
Liège
at night, photography taken from the ISS
ISS
on December 2012[33]

Liège
Liège
is the most important city of the Wallon region from an economic perspective. In the past, Liège
Liège
was one of the most important industrial centres in Europe, particularly in steel-making. Starting in 1817, John Cockerill extensively developed the iron and steel industry. The industrial complex of Seraing
Seraing
was the largest in the world. It once boasted numerous blast furnaces and mills. Liège has also been an important centre for gunsmithing since the Middle ages and the arms industry is still strong today, with the headquarters of FN Herstal
Herstal
and CMI Defence being located in Liège. Although from 1960 on the secondary sector is going down and now is a mere shadow of its former self, the manufacture of steel goods remain important. The economy of the region is now diversified; the most important centres are: Mechanical industries ( Aircraft engine
Aircraft engine
and Spacecraft propulsion), space technology, information technology, biotechnology and the production of water, beer or chocolate. Liège
Liège
has an important group of headquarters dedicated to high-technology, such as Techspace Aero, which manufactures pieces for the Airbus A380
Airbus A380
or the rocket Ariane 5. Other stand-out sectors include Amós which manufactures optical components for telescopes and Drytec, fabric of compressed air dryers. Liège
Liège
also has many other electronic companies such as SAP, EVS, Gillam, AnB, Balteau, IP Trade. Other prominent businesses are the global leader in light armament FN Herstal, the beer company Jupiler, the chocolate company Galler, and the water and soda companies Spa
Spa
and Chaudfontaine. A science park south east of the city, near the University of Liège
University of Liège
campus, houses spin-offs and high technology businesses. 1812 mine accident[edit] In 1812 there were three coal pits (Bure) in close proximity just outside the city gates: Bure Triquenotte, Bure de Beaujone and Bure Mamonster. The first two shafts were joined underground, but the last one was a separate colliery. The shafts were 120 fathoms (720 ft; 220 m) deep. Water
Water
was led to a sump (serrement) from which it could be pumped to the surface. At 11:00 on 28 February 1812 the sump in the Beaujone mine failed and flooded the entire colliery. Of the 127 men down the mine at the time 35 escaped by the main shaft, but 74 were trapped. [These numbers are taken from the report, the 18 miner discrepancy is unexplained.] The trapped men attempted to dig a passageway into Mamonster. After 23 feet (7.0 m) there was a firedamp explosion and they realised that they had penetrated some old workings belonging to an abandoned mine, Martin Wery. The overseer, Monsieur Goffin, led the men to the point in Martin Wery which he judged closest to Mamonster and they commence to dig. By the second day they had run out of candles and dug the remainder of a 36 feet (11 m) gallery in darkness. On the surface the only possible rescue was held to be via Mamonster. A heading was driven towards Beaujone with all possible speed, including blasting. The trapped miners heard the rescuers, the rescuers heard the trapped miners. Five days after the accident communication was possible and the rescuers worked in darkness to avoid the risk of a firedamp explosion. By 7pm that evening an opening was made, 511 feet (156 m) of tunnel had been dug by hand in five days. All of the 74 miners in Goffin's part survived and were brought to the surface.[34] Transport[edit] Air[edit] Liège
Liège
is served by Liège
Liège
Airport, located in Bierset, a few kilometres west of the city. It is the principal axis for the delivery of freight and in 2011 was the world's 33rd busiest cargo airport.[35] Maritime[edit] The Port of Liège, located on the River Meuse, is the 3rd largest river port in Europe. Liège
Liège
also has direct links to Antwerp
Antwerp
and Rotterdam
Rotterdam
via its canals. Rail[edit] Liège
Liège
is served by many direct rail links with the rest of Western Europe. Its three principal stations are Liège-Guillemins
Liège-Guillemins
railway station, Liège-Jonfosse, and Liège-Palais. The InterCity Express
InterCity Express
and Thalys
Thalys
call at Liège-Guillemins, providing direct connections to Cologne
Cologne
and Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Paris-Nord
Paris-Nord
respectively. Liège
Liège
was once home to a network of trams. However, they were removed by 1967 in favour of the construction of a new metro system. A prototype of the metro was built and a tunnel was dug underneath the city, but the metro was never built. The construction of a new modern tramway has been ordered and is currently scheduled to be open by 2017. Road[edit] Liège
Liège
sits at the crossroads of a number of highways including the European route E25, the European Route 411, the European Route E40 and the European Route E313. Famous inhabitants[edit]

Statue of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in the centre of Liège

See also: List of people from Liège

Alger of Liège (11th century), learned priest Nicolas Ancion (born 1971), writer Jacques Arcadelt
Jacques Arcadelt
(16th century), composer Nacer Chadli
Nacer Chadli
(born 1989), football player Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(birth in Liège
Liège
uncertain, 8th century), King of the Franks, then crowned emperor Johannes Ciconia (14th century), composer, Master of the Ars Nova Jean d'Outremeuse
Jean d'Outremeuse
(14th century), writer and historian Theodor de Bry (1528–1598), engraver Louis De Geer
Geer
(1587–1652), introducer of Walloon blast furnaces in Sweden Gérard de Lairesse (1640–1711), painter Jean-Maurice Dehousse, politician, Walloon movement activists, first Minister-President of the Walloon Region Serge Delaive (born 1965), writer Marie Delcourt (1891–1979), professor at the University, expert of the ancient Greek religion, Walloon movement activist Louis Dewis
Louis Dewis
(1872–1946), pseudonym for the Post-Impressionist painter born Louis Dewachter, leading retailer who managed the first chain department stores Emile Digneffe
Emile Digneffe
(1858–1937), lawyer and politician José Dupuis (1833–1900), creator of many roles in Offenbach's opéras-bouffes Ermano Fegatilli
Ermano Fegatilli
(born 1984), boxer César Franck
César Franck
(1822–1890), composer Hubert Joseph Walther Frère-Orban (1812–1896), statesman Marie Gillain
Marie Gillain
(born 1975), international actress Anton Gosswin (16th century), composer Zénobe Gramme
Zénobe Gramme
(1826–1901), inventor André Ernest Modeste Grétry
André Ernest Modeste Grétry
(1741–1813), composer Groupe µ, team of scientists Gary Hartstein, M.D. (born 1955), Formula 1 delegate Richard Heintz (1871–1929), Post-Impressionist
Post-Impressionist
painter Justine Henin
Justine Henin
(born 1982), top ranked female tennis player Axel Hervelle
Axel Hervelle
(born 1983), basketball player Georges Ista (1874–1939), writer Joseph Jongen (1873–1953), organist, composer, and educator Sandra Kim
Sandra Kim
(born 1972), winner of the Eurovision Song Contest 1986
Eurovision Song Contest 1986
for Belgium Caroline Lamarche (born 1955), French-speaking writer Philippe Léonard (born 1974), football player Linus of Liège
Linus of Liège
(1595–1675), Counter-reformation critic of Isaac Newton Lambert Lombard
Lambert Lombard
(1505–1566), painter Charles Magnette (1863–1937), lawyer and politician Georges Malempré
Georges Malempré
(1944), retired UNESCO official Georges Nagelmackers
Georges Nagelmackers
(1845–1905), founder of the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits Hubert Naich (16th century), composer Pippin the Younger
Pippin the Younger
(in French: Pépin le Bref; born in Jupille, 8th century), King of the Franks Henri Pousseur (1929–2009), composer Jean Rey (1902–1983), Old Minister, Walloon movement activist second President of the European Commission Gustave Serrurier-Bovy
Gustave Serrurier-Bovy
(1858–1910), architect and furniture designer Georges Simenon
Georges Simenon
(1903–1989, novelist) Stanislas-André Steeman (1908–1970), writer Violetta Villas
Violetta Villas
(1938–2011), Polish singer and actress William of St-Thierry (11th century), theologian and mystic Axel Witsel
Axel Witsel
(born 1989), football player Eugène Ysaÿe
Eugène Ysaÿe
(1858–1931), composer and violinist Haroun Tazieff
Haroun Tazieff
(1914–1998), volcanologist and geologist

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Belgium Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Liège
Liège
is twinned with:

 Aachen, Germany  Cologne, Germany  Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg  Lille, France[36]  Kraków, Poland  Lubumbashi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo  Maastricht, the Netherlands  Nancy, France  Plzeň, Czech Republic  Porto, Portugal[37]  Rotterdam, the Netherlands  Saint-Louis, Senegal  Szeged, Hungary  Tangier, Morocco  Turin, Italy[38]  Volgograd, Russia

See also[edit]

University of Liège Liège
Liège
Science Park Bishop of Liège Liège–Bastogne–Liège Ratherius Liège
Liège
Island, Antarctica, named after the city

References[edit]

Notes

^ Population per municipality as of 1 January 2017 (XLS; 397 KB) ^ Statistics Belgium; Population de droit par commune au 1 janvier 2008 (excel-file) Population of all municipalities in Belgium
Belgium
on 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. ^ a b Statistics Belgium; De Belgische Stadsgewesten 2001 (pdf-file) Archived 29 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Liège
Liège
is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie) with 480,513 inhabitants (2008-01-01). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 641,591. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 810,983. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. ^ "Ludike – Vroegmiddelnederlands woordenboek" (in Dutch). Retrieved 8 July 2012.  ^ The Book Collector. Vol. 8 (1959), p. 10. ^ Room, Adrian. 2006. Placenames of the World. 2nd ed. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., p. 219. ^ "Liège". 1991. Encyclopædia Britannica: Micropædia. Vol. 7. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, p. 344. ^ Brown, Jennifer N. Three women of Liège : a critical edition of and commentary on the Middle English lives of Elizabeth of Spalbeek, Christina Mirabilis and Marie d'Oignies. Turnhout: Brepols, 2008. ^ Henri Pirenne, Belgian Democracy, Its Early History, Translated by J.V. Saunders, The University press, Hull 1915, pp. 140–141. Available online: Belgian Democracy, Its Early History pp. 72–73. ^ Helfferich, Tryntje, The Thirty Years War: A Documentary History (Cambridge, 2009), pp. 292. ^ The New York Times, Published March 25, 1886 ^ See The New York Times, published March 23, 1886 ^ Erik Jones, Economic Adjustment and Political Transformation in Small States,Oxford Press, 2008, p. 121 978-0-19-920833-3 ^ Political History of Belgium: From 1830 Onwards, Academic and Scientific Publishers, Brussels, 2009, p. 278. ISBN 978-90-5487-517-8 ^ "Belgian grenade attack leaves 4 dead, 123 injured". CBC News. 14 December 2011.  ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Liège, Belgium". Weatherbase. 2011.  Retrieved on November 24, 2011. ^ "Montagne de Bueren".  ^ "La ville autour du Piéton".  ^ "RTBF Liège: le piétonnier de la rue de la Casquette sera inauguré vendredi".  ^ Libre.be, La. "15 août: Outremeuse, où le cœur bat" (in French). Retrieved 2017-07-17.  ^ "Photographies - Folklore étudiant". www.ulg.ac.be. Retrieved 2017-03-31.  ^ lameuse.be. "Saint-Nicolas: un étudiant qui collecte gagne 15€ par heure". lameuse (in French). Retrieved 2017-03-31.  ^ Delandshere, Ludovic Evrard (MyPixhell.com), Pascal Duc+ (Ditc.be), Frank. "Today in Liege - La collecte de Saint-Nicolas des étudiants en médecine ira à la Croix-Rouge". www.todayinliege.be. Retrieved 2017-03-31.  ^ Paull, Jennifer (2004-01-01). Fodor's Belgium. Fodor's Travel Publications. p. 232. ISBN 9781400013333.  ^ "Spring Classics: How to win cycling's hardest one-day races". BBC Sport. Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ Wynn, Nigel (29 October 2010). "2012 Tour to start in Liege". Cycling
Cycling
Weekly. Time Inc. UK. Retrieved 27 August 2011.  ^ Liggett, Phil; Raia, James; Lewis, Sammarye (2005). Tour de France for Dummies. Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-7645-8449-7.  ^ "Details of 2012 Tour de France
2012 Tour de France
start official". Cyclingnews.com. Immediate Media Company. 18 November 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2011.  ^ MacMichael, Simon (20 November 2010). "Details of 2012 Tour de France
France
Grand Depart announced". road.cc. Farrelly Atkinson. Retrieved 27 August 2011.  ^ "Web Oficial de la Vuelta a Espańa 2009 – Official Web Site Vuelta a Espańa 2009". Lavuelta.com. Archived from the original on 18 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ "Sunday, July 2nd - Stage 2 - 206km". letour.fr. ASO. Retrieved 18 April 2017.  ^ Fightnews (2011-2-26) Fegatilli takes Foster's Euro belt Archived 4 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Fightnews.com. Retrieved 2011-3-31 ^ NASA – A Nighttime View of Liège, Belgium. Nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-28. ^ Thomson, Thomas (April 1816), "Account of an Accident which happened in a Coal-Mine at Liège
Liège
in 1812", Annals of Philosophy, London: Robert Baldwin, VII (XL), pp 260 – 263, retrieved 28 December 2014  ^ McCurry, John. "The world's top 50 airports". Air Cargo News. Archived from the original on 27 November 2013.  ^ " Lille
Lille
Facts & Figures". Mairie-Lille.fr. Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 2007-12-17.  ^ "International Relations of the City of Porto" (PDF). 2006–2009 Municipal Directorate of the Presidency Services International Relations Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 2009-07-10.  ^ Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs – Twinnings and Agreements". International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 2013-06-18. Retrieved 2013-08-06. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Liège External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Liège.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Liège.

Official website of the city of Liège Liège
Liège
congres Leodium: the touristic and cultural network Coat of arms of Liège

Places adjacent to Liège

Ans Juprelle, Oupeye Herstal Visé Blegny

Saint-Nicolas

Liège

Beyne-Heusay

Seraing Esneux Chaudfontaine

v t e

Liège
Liège
and related topics

Culture

General

Walloon language

Education

Université de Liège Conservatoire royal de Liège Haute École de la Province de Liège Marcel Linsman Prize

History

Timeline Prince-Bishopric of Liège
Prince-Bishopric of Liège
(980-1795) Liège Revolution
Liège Revolution
(1789-1791) Sillon industriel Liège
Liège
International world fair (1905) Royal Question
Royal Question
(1950)

Geography

Geology & Hydrology

Meuse Ourthe

Region / Urban area

Ans Beyne-Heusay Blegny Chaudfontaine Esneux Herstal Juprelle Saint Nicolas Seraing Visé

Neighbourhoods

Amercœur Angleur Avroy Bressoux Burenville Le Carré Chênée Cointe Coronmeuse Droixhe Fétinne Glain Grivegnée les Guillemins Hors-Château Jupille-sur-Meuse le Laveu le Longdoz Naimette-Xhovémont Outremeuse Pierreuse Rocourt Saint Gilles Saint-Laurent Saint-Léonard Sainte-Marguerite Sainte-Walburge Sclessin le Thier-à-Liège les Vennes Wandre

Politics

Local politics

(current mayor) Willy Demeyer (PS) (1999-)

Sports

Bulldogs Liege
Bulldogs Liege
(ice hockey) Liège Basket
Liège Basket
(basketball) Liège–Bastogne–Liège
Liège–Bastogne–Liège
(U23) (cycling) RFC Liège
RFC Liège
(football) RFC Liégeois Rugby
RFC Liégeois Rugby
(rugby union) Standard Liège
Standard Liège
(football)

Transportation

European routes E25, E40, E42, E313 high speed railways LGV 2
LGV 2
and LGV 3 Liège
Liège
Airport Angleur railway station Ans
Ans
railway station Bressoux railway station Liège-Guillemins
Liège-Guillemins
railway station Liège-Jonfosse railway station Liège-Palais railway station Liège
Liège
tramway (opening in 2017) TEC Liège-Verviers

capital of the Province of Liège, Belgium

v t e

Municipalities of the Province of Liège

Huy

Amay Anthisnes Burdinne Clavier Engis Ferrières Hamoir Héron Huy Marchin Modave Nandrin Ouffet Tinlot Verlaine Villers-le-Bouillet Wanze

Liège

Ans Awans Aywaille Bassenge Beyne-Heusay Blegny Chaudfontaine Comblain-au-Pont Dalhem Esneux Flémalle Fléron Grâce-Hollogne Herstal Juprelle Liège Neupré Oupeye Saint-Nicolas Seraing Soumagne Sprimont Trooz Visé

Verviers

Amel Aubel Baelen Büllingen Burg-Reuland Bütgenbach Dison Eupen Herve Jalhay Kelmis Lierneux Limbourg Lontzen Malmedy Olne Pepinster Plombières Raeren Sankt Vith Spa Stavelot Stoumont Theux Thimister-Clermont Trois-Ponts Verviers Waimes Welkenraedt

Waremme

Berloz Braives Crisnée Donceel Faimes Fexhe-le-Haut-Clocher Geer Hannut Lincent Oreye Remicourt Saint-Georges-sur-Meuse Waremme Wasseiges

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125420999 ISNI: 0000 0001 2285 1

.