HOME
        TheInfoList







Leung Chun-ying

梁振英
Leung Chun-ying 2017 3.jpg
Leung Chun-ying in March 2017
3rd Chief Executive of Hong Kong
In office
1 July 2012 – 30 June 2017
PremierWen Jiabao
Li Keqiang
Chief SecretaryCarrie Lam
Matthew Cheung
Preceded byDonald Tsang
Succeeded byCarrie Lam
Vice Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
Assumed office
13 March 2017
ChairmanYu Zhengsheng
Wang Yang
Convenor of the Non-Official Members of the Executive Council
In office
1 July 1999 – 3 October 2011
Appointed byTung Chee-hwa
Donald Tsang
Preceded byChung Sze-yuen
Succeeded byRonald Arculli
Member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
Assumed office
28 February 2017
In office
16 March 2003 – 21 June 2012
Member of the Legislative Council
In office
21 December 1996 – 30 June 1998
Personal details
Born (1954-08-12) 12 August 1954 (age 66)
Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong
Political partyProgressive Hong Kong Society (1980s)
New Hong Kong Alliance (1990s)
Leung Chun-ying GBM GBS JP (Chinese: 梁振英; born 12 August 1954), also known as CY Leung, is a Chinese politician from Hong Kong, and a chartered surveyor. He was the third Chief Executive of Hong Kong between 2012 and 2017.[2][3] In March 2017, he was appointed vice-chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.

A surveyor by profession, Leung entered politics when he joined the Hong Kong Basic Law Consultative Committee (HKBLCC) in 1985 and became its secretary-general in 1988. In 1999, he was appointed the convenor of the Executive Council of Hong Kong, a position he held until 2011, when he resigned to run in the 2012 Chief Executive election. Initially regarded as the underdog, Leung ran a successful campaign against front-runner Henry Tang, receiving 689 votes from the Election Committee and with the support of the Liaison Office.

At the beginning of his administration, Leung faced the anti-Moral and National Education protests and the Hong Kong Television Network protests. In 2014, Leung's government faced widespread civil disobedience targeting the government's constitutional reform proposals; the movement gained global attention as the "Umbrella Revolution". After the 2014 protests, Leung's government had to deal with the 2016 Mong Kok civil unrest. During his election campaign and governance, Leung also faced allegations related to his receipt of HK$50 million payment by UGL (see Leung Chun-ying–UGL agreement), which prompted initial investigations by Parliament in Australia. Leung's tenure coincided with the rise of social instability, localism in Hong Kong, and an independence movement for Hong Kong's separation from Chinese sovereignty. In December 2016, Leung announced he would not seek a second term, becoming the first Chief Executive not to do so.

Early life and education

Leung was born at Queen Mary Hospital the teaching hospital of University of Hong Kong in Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong on 12 August 1954 to Leung Zung-Jan and Kong Sau-Zi of Shandong origin. His father was a Hong Kong police officer who had stationed at the Government House.

Leung earned a scholarship to study at King's College, where he was a classmate of future democratic activist Lau San-ching.[4][5] After graduation, he attended Hong Kong Polytechnic. In 1974, Leung undertook further studies in valuation and estate management at the Bristol Polytechnic and graduated in 1977 first in his class.[5][6]

Business career

Leung returned to Hong Kong after becoming a chartered surveyor and joined the real estate company Jones Lang Wootton, where he worked for five years.[7] By the age of 30, he was made vice-chairman of the JLW branch in Hong Kong, and was reported to be making a yearly salary of HK$10 million.[7][8]

Leung became the real estate advisor for Zhu Rongji when Zhu was mayor and party chief in Shanghai from 1987 to 1991. Zhu later became the Vice-Premier and then the 5th Premier of the People's Republic of China from March 1998 to March 2003.[9] Later, in 2013, Leung appointed Levin Zhu Yunlai, the elder son of former premier Zhu Rongji, as an advisor in the Hong Kong Government's Financial Services Development Council.[10]

From 1995 to 1996, Leung was the president of the Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors. He is a former chairman of the Hong Kong branch of Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. After holding the post, Leung became an honorary advisor for the local governments of Shenzhen, Tianjian and Shanghai on land reform. He has also taken up the post of international economic advisor for Hebei.[11]

From 2002 to 2007, Leung was a board member in the Government of Singapore-owned banking firm DBS Group Holdings Ltd and DBS Bank Hong Kong Ltd.[8]

DTZ Holdings

In 1993, Leung set up his own surveying company C. Y. Leung & Co., in Hong Kong, which then quickly set up many offices in Shanghai and Shenzhen.[12] In 1995, C. Y. Leung & Co joined an international alliance comprising CB Commercial, Debenham Tewson & Chinnocks and DTZ.[13] By 2000, his company merged with Singapore's Dai Yuk-coeng Company (戴玉祥產業諮詢公司) into DTZ Debenham Tie Leung Limited.[14]

In December 2006, after a complex share swap, Leung emerged as owner of 4.61% of the 200-year-old London listed property consultancy DTZ Holdings. The deal involved HK$330 million cash and a share deal with Leung. In 2007, DTZ Holdings, replete with a US$400 million fund, expanded into the property market in mainland China. This fund was to be passed through Leung's regional company DTZ Asia Pacific.[15]

In October 2011, one month before Leung announced his candidacy for the Hong Kong Chief Executive post, his company DTZ was hit by a liquidity crisis. Following this, after informing the London Stock exchange that its shares were worthless, the board of DTZ, including Leung, agreed to sell DTZ to UGL Limited.[16] On 24 November 2011, Leung resigned as director from the board of DTZ and on 28 November 2011 announced his candidacy for the Hong Kong Chief Executive election.[16&#

A surveyor by profession, Leung entered politics when he joined the Hong Kong Basic Law Consultative Committee (HKBLCC) in 1985 and became its secretary-general in 1988. In 1999, he was appointed the convenor of the Executive Council of Hong Kong, a position he held until 2011, when he resigned to run in the 2012 Chief Executive election. Initially regarded as the underdog, Leung ran a successful campaign against front-runner Henry Tang, receiving 689 votes from the Election Committee and with the support of the Liaison Office.

At the beginning of his administration, Leung faced the anti-Moral and National Education protests and the Hong Kong Television Network protests. In 2014, Leung's government faced widespread civil disobedience targeting the government's constitutional reform proposals; the movement gained global attention as the "Umbrella Revolution". After the 2014 protests, Leung's government had to deal with the 2016 Mong Kok civil unrest. During his election campaign and governance, Leung also faced allegations related to his receipt of HK$50 million payment by UGL (see Leung Chun-ying–UGL agreement), which prompted initial investigations by Parliament in Australia. Leung's tenure coincided with the rise of social instability, localism in Hong Kong, and an independence movement for Hong Kong's separation from Chinese sovereignty. In December 2016, Leung announced he would not seek a second term, becoming the first Chief Executive not to do so.

Leung was born at Queen Mary Hospital the teaching hospital of University of Hong Kong in Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong on 12 August 1954 to Leung Zung-Jan and Kong Sau-Zi of Shandong origin. His father was a Hong Kong police officer who had stationed at the Government House.

Leung earned a scholarship to study at King's College, where he was a classmate of future democratic activist Lau San-ching.[4][5] After graduation, he attended Hong Kong Polytechnic. In 1974, Leung undertook further studies in valuation and estate management at the Bristol Polytechnic and graduated in 1977 first in his class.[5][6]

Business career

Leung returned to Hong Kong after becoming a chartered surveyor and joined the real estate company Jones Lang Wootton, where he worked for five years.[7] By the age of 30, he was made vice-chairman of the JLW branch in Hong Kong, and was reported to be making a yearly salary of HK$10 million.[7][8]

Leung became the real estate advisor for Zhu Rongji when Zhu was mayor and party chief in Shanghai from 1987 to 1991. Zhu later became the Vice-Premier and then the 5th Premier of the People's Republic of China from March 1998 to March 2003.[9] Later, in 2013, Leung appointed Levin Zhu Yunlai, the elder son of former premier Zhu Rongji, as an advisor in the Hong Kong Government's Financial Services Development Council.[10]

From 1995 to 1996, Leung was the president of the Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors. He is a former chairman of the Hong Kong branch of Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. After holding the post, Leung became an honorary advisor for the local governments of Shenzhen, King's College, where he was a classmate of future democratic activist Lau San-ching.[4][5] After graduation, he attended Hong Kong Polytechnic. In 1974, Leung undertook further studies in valuation and estate management at the Bristol Polytechnic and graduated in 1977 first in his class.[5][6]

Leung returned to Hong Kong after becoming a chartered surveyor and joined the real estate company Jones Lang Wootton, where he worked for five years.[7] By the age of 30, he was made vice-chairman of the JLW branch in Hong Kong, and was reported to be making a yearly salary of HK$10 million.[7][8]

Leung became the real estate advisor for Zhu Rongji when Zhu was mayor and party chief in Shanghai from 1987 to 1991. Zhu later became the Vice-Premier and th

Leung became the real estate advisor for Zhu Rongji when Zhu was mayor and party chief in Shanghai from 1987 to 1991. Zhu later became the Vice-Premier and then the 5th Premier of the People's Republic of China from March 1998 to March 2003.[9] Later, in 2013, Leung appointed Levin Zhu Yunlai, the elder son of former premier Zhu Rongji, as an advisor in the Hong Kong Government's Financial Services Development Council.[10]

From 1995 to 1996, Leung was the president of the Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors. He is a former chairman of the Hong Kong branch of Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. After holding the post, Leung became an honorary advisor for the local governments of Shenzhen, Tianjian and Shanghai on land reform. He has also taken up the post of international economic advisor for Hebei.[11]

From 2002 to 2007, Leung was a board member in the Government of Singapore-owned banking firm DBS Group Holdings Ltd and DBS Bank Hong Kong Ltd.[8]

In 1993, Leung set up his own surveying company C. Y. Leung & Co., in Hong Kong, which then quickly set up many offices in Shanghai and Shenzhen.[12] In 1995, C. Y. Leung & Co joined an international alliance comprising CB Commercial, Debenham Tewson & Chinnocks and DTZ.[13] By 2000, his company merged with Singapore's Dai Yuk-coeng Company (戴玉祥產業諮詢公司) into DTZ Debenham Tie Leung Limited.[14]

In December 2006, after a complex share swap, Leung emerged as owner of 4.61% of the 200-year-old London listed property consultancy DTZ Holdings. The deal involved HK$330 million cash and a share deal with Leung. In 2007, DTZ Holdings, replete with a US$400 million fund, expanded into the property marke

In December 2006, after a complex share swap, Leung emerged as owner of 4.61% of the 200-year-old London listed property consultancy DTZ Holdings. The deal involved HK$330 million cash and a share deal with Leung. In 2007, DTZ Holdings, replete with a US$400 million fund, expanded into the property market in mainland China. This fund was to be passed through Leung's regional company DTZ Asia Pacific.[15]

In October 2011, one month before Leung announced his candidacy for the Hong Kong Chief Executive post, his company DTZ was hit by a liquidity crisis. Following this, after informing the London Stock exchange that its shares were worthless, the board of DTZ, including Leung, agreed to sell DTZ to UGL Limited.[16] On 24 November 2011, Leung resigned as director from the board of DTZ and on 28 November 2011 announced his candidacy for the Hong Kong Chief Executive election.[16]

In October 2014, investigative reporters from the Australian newspaper The Age, owned by Fairfax Media, revealed details of an agreement Leung had signed on 2 December 2011, which entitled him to payment of GB£4 million from UGL in exchange for his supporting the acquisition of DTZ group assets by UGL, for not competing with UGL/DTZ and making himself available to provide advisory services for a period of two years from that date.[16] The Age newspaper report stated that "the payments were made in two instalments, in 2012 and 2013, after he became Hong Kong's top official'' but were not declared on Leung's register of interests. The payments relate to a deal in which UGL bought DTZ Holdings (the insolvent property services firm he was associated with), whose prospects depended on his network of managers and clients in Hong Kong and mainland China.[17] Australian media also revealed that on the same day Leung signed the agreement, China's state-owned Tianjin Innovation Financial Investment Company had made a bid that valued DTZ at GBP100 million more than the bid by UGL, but that this more valuable bid was rejected by the DTZ board, which included Leung, and not released to shareholders.[18] In December 2012, nine months after winning the Hong Kong Chief Executive election, Leung received the first tranche from UGL.[16]

Following the Fairfax Media revelations of this agreement and the rejected competitive bid, many more questioned Leung's integrity in the "secret transaction" signed a few days before his election, expressing concerns of potential conflicts of interest and fraudulent preference. Prosecutors f

Following the Fairfax Media revelations of this agreement and the rejected competitive bid, many more questioned Leung's integrity in the "secret transaction" signed a few days before his election, expressing concerns of potential conflicts of interest and fraudulent preference. Prosecutors from Hong Kong's Independent Commission Against Corruption started investigations into this scandal, as did authorities in Australia.[19] The abrupt and unprecedented sacking of Rebecca Li Bo-lan, a 30-year veteran graft-buster and the first female head of the ICAC investigative unit appointed in June 2015, fuelled suspicions of Leung's attempts to impede investigation.[20]

In 1985, Leung joined the Hong Kong Basic Law Consultative Committee (HKBLCC), a 180-member body nominated by the Hong Kong Basic Law Drafting Committee (HKBLDC), that was to consult with Hong Kong people regarding various drafts of the Hong Kong Basic Law. [21][22] The working of the BLCC was criticised as it had not established any formal machinery for the consultation process and did not indicate the degree of public support of views expressed. [23] In 1988, Leung, then aged 34, was made the Secretary-General of the committee, replacing Mao Junnian. Former CCP member Leung Mo-han, and Leung's critics, have suggested that Leung must be a secret member of the Communist party, since, per the rules of the Chinese Communist Party, such senior positions are normally assumed only by party members.[24][25] In 1990, the BLCC ceased to exist after the Basic Law was adopted by the National People's Congress.[21] He was a founding member of the New Hong Kong Alliance (NHKA) set up by Lo Tak-shing in 1989 who led to a faction of the Group of 89, a conservative business and professional lobby group in the HKBLCC and HKBLDC. In 1989, the NHKA put forward an ultra-conservative proposal for the electoral methods for the Chief Executive and Legislative Council of the SAR.

Then-Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa appointed Leung as the convenor of the Executive Council in 1998, replacing his predecessor Chung Sze-yuen

Then-Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa appointed Leung as the convenor of the Executive Council in 1998, replacing his predecessor Chung Sze-yuen. During Tung's 1997 policy address, he proposed that the government would build no less than 85,000 flats every year, allowing 70% of the citizens to own a house within 10 years.[26] However, the proposal was put on hold in the wake of the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. As convenor of the Executive Council, CY Leung has been questioned many times regarding this policy plan over the years.[27] The 1997 pledge was not met. In 1999, Leung was awarded the Gold Bauhinia Star by the Hong Kong Government.[7] In the 2002 Chief Executive election, Leung became the chairman of Tung Chee-hwa's campaign office. Tung was re-elected uncontestedly as a result.

He was also a member of the National Standing Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and only submitted his resignation one week prior to assuming his office of the Chief Executive of Hong Kong in 2012.[6][28] He is currently the chairman and sits on the board of directors of the pro-Beijing One Country Two Systems Research Institute.[6]

In 1999, Leung took over the position of council chairman of Lingnan University. In the same year, on 16 June 1999[29] the Lingnan College received University status. Leung continued in this position for nine years, until 21 October 2008.[30]

In April 2008, Leung was appointed as chairman and member of the council of the City University of Hong Kong.[31] .[32] Leung held this position until 2011. In terms of his performance as chairman, the University staff had scored Leung less than one point on a scale of 10. During his tenure as chairman, Leung was accused of attempts to weaken the power of the staff association.[33]

In 2011, there were confrontations between police and demonstrators after the annual 1 July march amid public opposition to the government's draft legislation to eliminate by-elections for vacated Legco seats. Leung responded by saying that such rowdy rallies should be "sanctioned and restrained".[34]

On 28 November 2011, Leung officially announced his candidacy for Chief Executive of Hong Kong, two years after he had first hinted at his interest in the post.[35][36]

The election campaign was controversial and bitterly fought. The early favourite to win was long-considered to be former Chief Secretary Henry Tang, who was supported by the local bureaucracy, key property and business tycoons, and crucially, by the Beijing government.[37]The election campaign was controversial and bitterly fought. The early favourite to win was long-considered to be former Chief Secretary Henry Tang, who was supported by the local bureaucracy, key property and business tycoons, and crucially, by the Beijing government.[37][38] However, while Tang stumbled over the revelation of an illegal structure at his home, Leung faced similar problems at his residence.

Leung appointed Fanny Law, who attracted widespread criticisms for mishandling educational reforms when in office from 2002 to 2006, to his Office of the Chief-Executive Elect as Campaign Manager.[39]

During the campaign, rumours persistently resurfaced that Leung was a closet member of the Communist Party of China. Section 31 of Chief Executive Election Ordinance (Chapter 569) stipulates that a CE election winner must "publicly make a statutory declaration to the effect that he is not a member of any political party".

Martin Lee, a pro-democracy politician, questioned the survival of the 'one country, two systems' principle if Leung were to be elected the CE, saying that Leung must have been a loyal CCP member for him to be appointed as the Secretary General of the Basic Law Consultative Committee in 1985 at the young age of 31.[40] This view was supported by a former underground communist, Florence Leung, whose memoir recorded that Leung was also a secret member of the party. She explained that, in order for Leung to succeed Mao Junnian (whose identity as a communist had been revealed) as the Secretary General of the Basic Law Consultative Committee, he must also have been a party member, per the tradition of the party. She also cited Leung's vague remarks about the 1989 Tiananmen massacre as a clue to his membership, in contrast to Henry Tang's greater sympathy for the protest movement.[41] She said that if Leung, as an underground party member, won the election then the leader of the Communist Party in Hong Kong would be in actual control. Leung consistently dismissed such claims as ungrounded.[42]

The suggestion that Leung's loyalty was more to Beijing than Hong Kong has long dogged him. In 2010, Leung had been asked whether he would support the award of the Nobel Peace Prize to jailed Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo. He replied that China's former paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, should have been the first Chinese to win the award.[43]

Towards the end of the election campaign, James Tien, the honorary chairman of the Liberal Party and a supporter of Henry Tang during the election, stated that members of the election committee had received phone calls from the Beijing government's Liaison Office demanding that they vote for Leung.[44]

On 25 March 2012, Leung was declared Hong Kong's new Chief Executive,[2] after securing 689 votes from the 1,200-member appointed election committee. Henry Tang garnered 285 votes and the third candidate, Democrat Albert Ho, just 76, of a total of 1,132 valid votes received.

Upon his selection, the online version of the People's Daily addressed Leung as "Comrade Leung Chun-ying".[4] When the Chinese mass media pointed out that the title Comrade (or tongzhi, 同志) is reserved by the party for its own members, and that neither Tung Chee-hwa nor Donald Tsang had been thus addressed, the epithet "Comrade" was removed from the page.[45]

After his selection, a number of illegal or unauthorised structures were found at Leung's house, in a reprise of the scandal involving an illegal basement that had badly hit the campaign of his rival, Tang, and for which Leung had roundly criticised Tang.[46] The issue dominated the period around his taking up the post. Leung's structures were to be demolished. Chief Executive contender Albert Ho challenged Leung's legal legitimacy as the territory's new leader but his claim was rejected by the High Court.[47]

Chief Executive

Transition period