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Leiden
Leiden
University (abbreviated as LEI; Dutch: Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.[5] The university was founded in 1575 by William, Prince of Orange, leader of the Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
in the Eighty Years' War. The Dutch Royal Family and Leiden
Leiden
University still have a close relationship; Queens Juliana and Beatrix and King Willem-Alexander are former students. The university came into particular prominence during the Dutch Golden Age, when scholars from around Europe were attracted to the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
due to its climate of intellectual tolerance and Leiden's international reputation. During this time Leiden
Leiden
was home to such figures as René Descartes, Rembrandt, Christiaan Huygens, Hugo Grotius, Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
and Baron d'Holbach. Leiden
Leiden
University has seven faculties (six in Leiden
Leiden
and one in The Hague) and over 50 departments. The university is a member of the Coimbra Group, the Europaeum
Europaeum
and the League of European Research Universities. Leiden
Leiden
University houses more than 40 national and international research institutes. The University is associated with ten leaders and Prime Ministers of the Netherlands
Netherlands
including the current Prime Minister Mark Rutte, nine foreign leaders, among them the 6th President of the United States John Quincy Adams, a Secretary General of NATO, a President of the International Court of Justice, a Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and sixteen recipients of the Nobel Prize (including renowned physicists Albert Einstein[6][7] and Enrico Fermi).

Contents

1 History

1.1 Foundation and early history 1.2 Modern day

2 University and city 3 Campus The Hague 4 Organisation 5 Education

5.1 Undergraduate studies 5.2 Graduate studies 5.3 Doctorate programmes

6 Research schools and affiliated institutes 7 Rankings and reputation 8 Notable alumni and professors

8.1 Nobel laureates

9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

History[edit] Foundation and early history[edit]

The Academy building of Leiden
Leiden
University

In 1575, the emerging Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
did not have any universities in its northern heartland. The only other university in the Habsburg Netherlands
Netherlands
was the University of Leuven
Leuven
in southern Leuven, firmly under Spanish control. The scientific renaissance had begun to highlight the importance of academic study, so Prince William founded the first Dutch university in Leiden, to give the Northern Netherlands an institution that could educate its citizens for religious purposes, but also to give the country and its government educated men in other fields.[8] It is said the choice fell on Leiden
Leiden
as a reward for the heroic defence of Leiden
Leiden
against Spanish attacks in the previous year. Ironically, the name of Philip II of Spain, William's adversary, appears on the official foundation certificate, as he was still the de jure count of Holland. Philip II replied by forbidding any subject to study in Leiden. Originally located in the convent of St Barbara, the university moved to the Faliede Bagijn Church in 1577 (now the location of the University museum) and in 1581 to the convent of the White Nuns, a site which it still occupies, though the original building was destroyed by fire in 1616.[8] The presence within half a century of the date of its foundation of such scholars as Justus Lipsius, Joseph Scaliger, Franciscus Gomarus, Hugo Grotius, Jacobus Arminius, Daniel Heinsius
Daniel Heinsius
and Gerhard Johann Vossius, rapidly made Leiden
Leiden
university into a highly regarded institution that attracted students from across Europe in the 17th century.[9] Renowned philosopher Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
was based close to Leiden
Leiden
during this period and interacted with numerous scholars at the university. The learning and reputation of Jacobus Gronovius, Herman Boerhaave, Tiberius Hemsterhuis
Tiberius Hemsterhuis
and David Ruhnken, among others, enabled Leiden
Leiden
to maintain its reputation for excellence down to the end of the 18th century. At the end of the nineteenth century, Leiden
Leiden
University again became one of Europe's leading universities. At the world’s first university low-temperature laboratory, professor Heike Kamerlingh Onnes achieved temperatures of only one degree above absolute zero of −273 degrees Celsius. In 1908 he was also the first to succeed in liquifying helium and can be credited with the discovery of the superconductivity in metals.[10] Modern day[edit] The University Library, which has more than 5.2 million books and fifty thousand journals, also has a number of internationally renowned special collections of western and oriental manuscripts, printed books, archives, prints, drawings, photographs, maps, and atlases. It houses the largest collections worldwide on Indonesia and the Caribbean. The research activities of the Scaliger Institute focus on these special collections and concentrate particularly on the various aspects of the transmission of knowledge and ideas through texts and images from antiquity to the present day. In 2005 the manuscript of Einstein on the quantum theory of the monatomic ideal gas (the Einstein-Bose condensation) was discovered in one of Leiden's libraries.[11] The portraits of many famous professors since the earliest days hang in the university aula, one of the most memorable places, as Niebuhr called it, in the history of science.[citation needed] In 2012 Leiden
Leiden
entered into a strategic alliance with Delft University of Technology and Erasmus University Rotterdam
Erasmus University Rotterdam
in order for the universities to increase the quality of their research and teaching. The university is also the unofficial home of the Bilderberg Group, a meeting of high-level political and economic figures from North America and Europe. University and city[edit]

Gorlaeus building

The university has no central campus; its buildings are spread over the city. Some buildings, like the Gravensteen, are very old, while buildings like Lipsius and Gorlaeus are much more modern.[12] In recent years the university has also expanded to The Hague
The Hague
which has become home to Leiden
Leiden
University College The Hague
The Hague
a liberal arts and sciences college and the departments of Public Administration, International Relations and Politics. It occupies a number of buildings in the historic centre of the city including a college building in Lange Voorhout.

The Leiden
Leiden
University Medical Centre

Faculty of Law

Among the institutions affiliated with the university are The KITLV
KITLV
or Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (founded in 1851), the observatory 1633; the natural history museum, with a very complete anatomical cabinet; the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden (National Museum of Antiquities), with specially valuable Egyptian and Indian departments; a museum of Dutch antiquities from the earliest times; and three ethnographical museums, of which the nucleus was Philipp Franz von Siebold's Japanese collections. The anatomical and pathological laboratories of the university are modern, and the museums of geology and mineralogy have been restored.

A new professor's inauguration lecture in the Academiegebouw, 2008

The 'Academiegebouw'

The Hortus Botanicus (botanical garden) is the oldest botanical garden in the Netherlands, and one of the oldest in the world. Plants from all over the world have been carefully cultivated here by experts for more than four centuries. The Clusius garden (a reconstruction), the 18th century Orangery with its monumental tub plants, the rare collection of historical trees hundreds of years old, the Japanese Siebold Memorial Museum
Siebold Memorial Museum
symbolising the historical link between East and West, the tropical greenhouses with their world class plant collections, and the central square and Conservatory exhibiting exotic plants from South Africa and southern Europe. Campus The Hague[edit] The Hague
The Hague
is the political and administrative heart of The Netherlands, profiling itself as the legal capital of the world as well. In 1999 this made the University decide to establish a branch in cooperation with the municipality of The Hague. Here, the University offers academic courses in the fields of law, political science, public administration and medicine. Six of the seven faculties of Leiden
Leiden
University are now active in The Hague. Faculteit Governance and Global Affairs as established in 2011 and has its location completely and exclusively in The Hague, together with the University College. Also one of the largest programmes of the Faculty of Humanities, International Studies, is locates at Campus The Hague. Organisation[edit] The university is divided into seven major faculties which offer approximately 50 undergraduate degree programmes and over 100 graduate programmes.

Humanities Law Medicine / LUMC Mathematics
Mathematics
and Natural Sciences Social and Behavioural sciences Archaeology Governance and Global Affairs

Education[edit] Undergraduate studies[edit] Most of the university's departments offer their own degree programme(s). Undergraduate programmes lead to either a B.A., B.Sc. or LL.B. degree. Other degrees, such as the B.Eng. or B.F.A., are not awarded at Leiden
Leiden
University. Graduate studies[edit] Students can choose from a range of graduate programmes. Most of the above-mentioned undergraduate programmes can be continued with either a general or a specialised graduate program. Leiden
Leiden
University offers more than 100 graduate programs leading to either MA, MSc, MPhil, or LLM degrees. The MPhil is the most advanced graduate degree and is awarded by select departments of the university (mostly in the fields of Arts, Social Sciences, Archeology, Philosophy, and Theology). Admission to these programmes is highly selective and primarily aimed at those students opting for an academic career or before going into law or medicine. Traditionally, the MPhil degree enabled its holder to teach at the university levels as an associate professor. The MPhil degree is also common in elite universities in the UK (Oxford and Cambridge), and the Ivy League in the United States.

The Pieter de la Court-building, the main building of the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences

Doctorate programmes[edit] In addition, most departments, affiliated (research) institutes or faculties offer doctorate programmes or positions, leading to the PhD degree. Most of the PhD programmes offered by the university are concentrated in several research schools or institutes. Research schools and affiliated institutes[edit]

Research building of the Leiden
Leiden
University Medical Centre

logo of the Leiden
Leiden
academy, founded in 2008.

Leiden
Leiden
University has more than 50 research and graduate schools and institutes. Some of them are fully affiliated with one faculty of the university, while others are interfaculty institutes or even interuniversity institutes.

Institute

ACPA Academy of Creative and Performing Arts

ASC African Studies Centre Leiden

CML Institute of Environmental Sciences
Institute of Environmental Sciences
(CML)[13]

CRC Crisis Research Centre[14]

CTI Centre for Language and Identity

CWTS Centre for Science and Technology Studies

The Meijers Research Institute Research School for Legal Studies

eLaw@Leiden Centre for Law in the Information Society

Grotius
Grotius
Centre Research Centre for International Legal Studies

GSS Leiden
Leiden
Graduate School of Science

Historical Institute Leiden
Leiden
University Institute for History

Huizinga Instituut Research Institute and Graduate School for Cultural History

IBL Institute of Biology Leiden

IIAS International Institute for Asian Studies

IIASL International Institute of Air and Space Law

IOPS Interuniversity Graduate School of Psychometrics and Sociometrics

ITC International Tax Centre (ITC)[15]

LACDR The Leiden
Leiden
Academic Centre for Drug Research

LCMBS Leiden
Leiden
Centre for Molecular BioScience

LEAD Leiden
Leiden
Ethnosystems and Development Programme, Faculty of Science[16]

Leyden Academy Leyden Academy on Vitality and Ageing[17]

LGSAS Leiden
Leiden
Graduate School for Archeology

LIACS Leiden
Leiden
Institute of Advanced Computer Science[18]

LIAS Leiden
Leiden
Institute for Area Studies

LIBC Leiden
Leiden
Institute for Brain and Cognition[19]

LIC Leiden
Leiden
Institute of Chemistry

LION Leiden
Leiden
Institute of Physics

LISOR Leiden
Leiden
Institute for the Study of Religion

LUCAS Leiden
Leiden
University Centre for the Arts in Society

LUCL Leiden
Leiden
University Centre for Linguistics

LUMC Leiden
Leiden
University Medical Centre

LUMI Mathematical Institute of Leiden
Leiden
University

Mediëvistiek Netherlands
Netherlands
Research School for Medieval Studies

NIG Netherlands
Netherlands
Institute of Government

NINO Netherlands
Netherlands
Institute for the Near East

NOVA Netherlands
Netherlands
Research School for Astronomy

N.W. Posthumus Instituut Netherlands
Netherlands
Research Institute and School for Economic and Social History

OIKOS National Research School in Classical Studies

Onderzoekschool Kunstgeschiedenis Dutch Postgraduate School for Art History

OSL Netherlands
Netherlands
Research School for Literary Studies

PALLAS Pallas Institute for Cultural Disciplines

Sterrewacht Leiden Leiden
Leiden
Astronomical Observatory

The Europa Institute Leiden
Leiden
Law School

Van Vollenhoven Institute Research Institute for Law, Governance and Society

Rankings and reputation[edit]

University rankings

Global

ARWU World[20] 88

Times World[22] 67

QS World[21] 109

In the 2009 THE– QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
list the University of Leiden
Leiden
was ranked inside the top 100 for the fourth consecutive year. However, in 2010 it dropped 22 places in the QS World University Rankings[23] to 82nd from its position of 60th in the 2009 THE-QS Rankings (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings
Times Higher Education World University Rankings
and QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
parted ways to produce separate rankings). In the 2012 QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
Leiden
Leiden
was named in 75th place. In the Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
compiled by Shanghai Jiaotong University, Leiden
Leiden
has been in the top hundred universities worldwide since the table's inception in 2003 and in 2012 was ranked 73rd overall. An overview of the QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
by subjects:

Year Rank (Change)

Archaeology History Pharmacology Law Politics Linguistics Modern Languages

2013 28 N/A 11 26 35 23 51

2014 28 () N/A 20 ( 9) 23 ( 3) 34 ( 1) 26 ( 3) 51 ()

2015 28 () N/A 9 ( 11) 23 () 23 ( 11) 29 ( 3) 51 ()

2016 10 ( 18) 19 21 ( 12) 24 ( 1) 25 ( 2) 28 ( 1) 45 ( 6)

2017 9 ( 1) 17 ( 2) 17 ( 4) 32 ( 8) 26 ( 1) 51 ( 23) 51 ( 6)

At present, Leiden
Leiden
has a firmly established international position among the top research institutes in many fields, including the natural sciences, medicine, social and behavioural sciences, law, arts and letters. Of the eighty-five Spinozapremie
Spinozapremie
(the highest scientific award of The Netherlands), twenty-one were granted to professors of the Universiteit Leiden. Literary historian Frits van Oostrom
Frits van Oostrom
was the first professor of Leiden
Leiden
to be granted the Spinoza award for his work on developing the NLCM centre (Dutch literature and culture in the Middle Ages) into a top research centre. Other Spinozapremie
Spinozapremie
winners are linguists Frederik Kortlandt
Frederik Kortlandt
and Pieter Muysken, mathematician Hendrik Lenstra, physicists Carlo Beenakker, Jan Zaanen
Jan Zaanen
and Dirk Bouwmeester, astromers Ewine van Dishoeck, Marijn Franx and Alexander Tielens, transplantation biologist Els Goulmy, clinical epidemiologist Frits Rosendaal, pedagogue Marinus van IJzendoorn, archeologists Wil Roebroeks and Corinne Hofman, neurologist Michel Ferrari, classicist Ineke Sluiter, social psychologist Naomi Ellemers, statistician Aad van der Vaart, cognitive psychologist Eveline Crone, physicist Michel Orrit.[24] Among other leading professors are Wim Blockmans, professor of Medieval History, and Willem Adelaar, professor of Amerindian Languages. Notable alumni and professors[edit] Main article: List of Leiden
Leiden
University people Nobel laureates[edit] Kamerlingh Onnes was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1913. Three other professors received the Nobel Prize for their research performed at Universiteit Leiden: Hendrik Antoon Lorentz
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz
and Pieter Zeeman received the Nobel Prize for their pioneering work in the field of optical and electronic phenomena, and the physiologist Willem Einthoven for his invention of the string galvanometer, which among other things, enabled the development of electrocardiography. Nobel laureates associated with Leiden
Leiden
include: the physicists Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
and Paul Ehrenfest, the Arabist and Islam expert Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, the law expert Cornelis van Vollenhoven and historian Johan Huizinga, all during the 1920s and 1930s. Also, Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, Johannes Diderik van der Waals, Tobias Asser, Albert Szent-Györgyi, Igor Tamm, Jan Tinbergen, Nikolaas Tinbergen, Tjalling Koopmans, Nicolaas Bloembergen
Nicolaas Bloembergen
and Niels Jerne.[25] See also[edit]

Leiden
Leiden
school Leiden
Leiden
University College The Hague List of early modern universities in Europe List of rectores magnifici of Leiden
Leiden
University

References[edit]

^ "De Tachtigjarige Oorlog en het ontstaan van universiteiten in de Noordelijke Nederlanden". Historiek (in Dutch). 16 May 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017.  ^ "The University at a glance". Leiden
Leiden
University. Archived from the original on 2016-06-08. Retrieved 2017-05-08.  ^ a b c "The University in figures". Leiden
Leiden
University. Archived from the original on 2016-02-07. Retrieved 2016-01-29.  ^ "Universiteit Leiden
Leiden
Kleurgebruik". Leiden
Leiden
University. Retrieved 2013-02-07.  ^ Technically the University of Leuven, currently in Belgium but in the year of its foundation (1425) located in the Netherlands, is the oldest university ever founded in the Netherlands, but Leuven
Leuven
is no longer part of the Netherlands. ^ Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
was known as a professor at Leiden
Leiden
University. Einstein regularly taught Leiden
Leiden
students for a few weeks per year. His first lecture at Leiden
Leiden
was about "Ether and Relativity Theory". ^ University, Leiden. "Einstein in Leiden". Leiden
Leiden
University. Retrieved 9 May 2014.  ^ a b Otterspeer, Willem (2000). Groepsportret met Dame: de Leidse universiteit, 1575-1672. ISBN 978-90-351-2240-6.  ^ Schnappen, H. (1960). Niederländische Universitäten und deutsches Geistesleben von der Gründung der Universität Leiden
Leiden
bis ins späte 18. Jahrhundert. Neue Münstersche Beiträge zur Geschichtsforschung. 6. Münster. OCLC 3783378.  ^ Website Nobel Prizes ^ BBC NEWS Europe Student unearths Einstein paper. ^ Vier eeuwen geschiedenis in steen. Universitaire gebouwen in Leiden. Leiden, 2005 ISBN 90-9018052-4 ^ "Institute of Environmental Sciences". Cml.leiden.edu. 2012-09-20. Retrieved 2012-09-26.  ^ "Crisis and Security Management". En.mastersinleiden.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.  ^ "International Tax Centre". Itc-leiden.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.  ^ Leiden
Leiden
Ethnosystems and Development Programme, [http://science.leidenuniv.nl/index.php/lead/index/ LEAD] ^ " Leiden
Leiden
Academy on Vitality and Ageing". Leydenacademy.nl. Retrieved 2015-07-16.  ^ "LIACS (Advanced Computer Science)". Liacs.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.  ^ "Brain & Cognition". Libc-leiden.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.  ^ Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
2017 ^ QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
2018 ^ World University Rankings 2018 ^ " QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
2010 Results". Archived from the original on 2010-09-16.  ^ "Spinoza Prize". Leiden
Leiden
University. 20 July 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.  ^ Leiden's Nobel Laureates - website of the Leiden
Leiden
University

Further reading[edit]

Otterspeer, Willem (2008). The Bastion of Liberty. Leiden
Leiden
University Today and Yesterday. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-90-8728-030-7.  Online version: The Bastion of Liberty - (Open Access) Willem Otterspeer: Good, gratifying and renowned. A concise history of Leiden
Leiden
University. Transl. by John R.J. Eyck. Leiden, 2015. ISBN 978-90-8728-235-6 Th. Lunsingh Scheurleer & G.H.M. Posthumus Meyjes (ed.) (1975). Leiden
Leiden
University in the seventeenth century: an exchange of learning. ISBN 90-04-04267-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Heinz Schneppen: Niederländische Universitäten und deutsches Geistesleben. Von der Gründung der Universität Leiden
Leiden
bis ins späte 18. Jahrhundert, Münster 1960. Neue Münstersche Beiträge zur Geschichtsforschung Bd. 6

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Leiden
Leiden
University.

(in English) Official website (in Dutch) Official website

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Leiden
Leiden
University

Academics

Campus The Hague

Facilities

African Studies Centre Bibliotheca Thysiana Homunculus loxodontus Hortus Botanicus Leiden Institute of Environmental Sciences Leiden
Leiden
Bio Science Park Leiden
Leiden
Observatory

Einstein's Chair

Leiden
Leiden
University College The Hague Leiden
Leiden
University Library Leiden
Leiden
University Medical Center The Netherlands
Netherlands
Institute for the Near East Parlementair Documentatie Centrum Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies

Media

Leiden
Leiden
Aratea Leiden
Leiden
Glossary Leiden
Leiden
Jerusalem Talmud Psalter of Saint Louis

Related

List of Leiden
Leiden
University people

Rectores magnifici

Crayenborgh College Himalayan Languages Project Japan Prizewinners Programme

Category Commons

Links to related articles

v t e

Universities in the Netherlands

State

University of Amsterdam Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Delft University of Technology Eindhoven University of Technology University of Groningen Protestant Theological University Leiden
Leiden
University Maastricht University Nijmegen Radboud University Open University Erasmus University Rotterdam Tilburg University University of Twente Utrecht University Wageningen University

Private

Nyenrode Business University Kampen Theological University Theological University of the Reformed Churches University of Humanistic Studies

Defunct

Catholic University of Utrecht University of Harderwijk University of Franeker

v t e

League of European Research Universities

Amsterdam Barcelona Cambridge Copenhagen Dublin Edinburgh Freiburg Geneva Heidelberg Helsinki Imperial College Leiden Leuven Lund Milan LMU Munich Oxford Sorbonne University Paris XI Strasbourg University College London Utrecht Zürich

v t e

Europaeum

Barcelona (Pompeu Fabra) Geneva (IHEID) Helsinki Kraków (Jagiellonian) Leiden Luxembourg Madrid (Complutense) Munich (LMU) Oxford Paris I Prague St Andrews

v t e

Coimbra Group
Coimbra Group
of European research universities

Aarhus Barcelona Bergen Bologna Bristol Budapest Coimbra Dublin Durham Edinburgh Galway Geneva Göttingen Granada Graz Groningen Heidelberg Iași Istanbul Jena Kraków Leiden Leuven Louvain-la-Neuve Lyon Montpellier Padua Pavia Poitiers Prague St. Petersburg Salamanca Siena Tartu Turku I Turku II Uppsala Vilnius Würzburg

v t e

European Master of Public Administration Consortium

Corvinus University of Budapest University of Geneva Leiden
Leiden
University KU Leuven University of Limerick University of Liverpool Université catholique de Louvain Institut d'Études Politiques de Lyon Sciences Po Paris Erasmus University Rotterdam German University of Administrative Sciences Speyer Tallinn University of Technology University of Vaasa

v t e

Transatlantic Policy Consortium

North America

Monterey Institute of International Studies USC Sol Price School of Public Policy University of Georgia School of Public and International Affairs Indiana University Maurer School of Law Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs University of Maryland School of Public Policy Suffolk University Law School Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs Rockefeller College of Public Affairs & Policy University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public and International Affairs Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs George Mason University School of Public Policy American University School of Public Affairs

Europe

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Danish School of Public Administration École Nationale d'Administration Paris-Sorbonne University University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne German Research Institute for Public Administration German University of Administrative Sciences Speyer Hertie School of Governance Karlsruhe Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis Max Planck Institute of Economics Potsdam University University of Bremen Willy Brandt School of Public Policy Zeppelin University Delft University of Technology Erasmus University Rotterdam Leiden
Leiden
University Tilburg University Utrecht University Polish Institute of International Affairs Instituto Superior Técnico King Juan Carlos University Pompeu Fabra University Jönköping University University of Birmingham University of Glasgow

Coordinates: 52°09′22″N 4°29′13″E / 52.156071°N 4.486949°E / 52.156071; 4.486949

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 138979529 LCCN: n79058414 ISNI: 0000 0001 2013 2535 GND: 1025656059 SUDOC: 027370208 BNF: cb118690185 (data) NLA: 36532304 NKC: ko200216

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