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Lefkada
Lefkada
(Greek: Λευκάδα, Lefkáda, [lefˈkaða]), also known as Lefkas or Leukas[2] ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Katharevousa: Λευκάς, Leukás, modern pronunciation Lefkás) and Leucadia, is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
on the west coast of Greece, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Lefkada.[3] It is situated on the northern part of the island, approximately 1 hour by automobile away from Aktion National Airport. The island is part of the regional unit of Lefkada.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Climate

2 History

2.1 Antiquity 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 Early modern period

3 Lafcadio Hearn
Lafcadio Hearn
Historical Center 4 Municipality 5 Transport 6 Notable people 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 Notes 10 External links

Geography[edit]

The island of Lefkada
Lefkada
in a NASA World Wind satellite picture.

Lefkada
Lefkada
measures 35 kilometres (22 miles) from north to south, and 15 kilometres (9 miles) from east to west. The area of the island is about 302 square kilometres (117 sq mi), the area of the municipality (including the islands Kalamos, Kastos
Kastos
and several smaller islets) is 333.58 km2 (128.80 sq mi).[4] Its highest point is the mountain Stavrota, 1,158 metres (3,799 feet) above sea level,[5] situated in the middle of the island. The east coast section of the island has small resorts of Lygia, Nikiana and Perigiali, all north of Nidri, the largest resort on the island. It is set in a sheltered location with views across to Skorpios
Skorpios
(formerly owned by Aristotle Onassis), Meganisi
Meganisi
and other small islands, as well as the Greek mainland. The main coastal road from Lefkada
Lefkada
to Vasiliki runs through the village, although a bypass has now been completed which skirts the village to the west. There are regular car ferries to Kefalonia, Ithaca
Ithaca
and Meganissi. 20 kilometres (12 miles) south of Nidri
Nidri
is the resort of Vasiliki, a windsurfing center. There are ferries to Kefalonia
Kefalonia
and Ithaca
Ithaca
from Vasiliki. South of Vasiliki is Cape Lefkada, where the Greek female poet Sappho
Sappho
allegedly leapt to her death from the 30 m high cliffs. The famous beach of Porto Katsiki
Porto Katsiki
is located on Lefkada's west coast. Lefkada
Lefkada
was attached to mainland Greece
Greece
(see below about Homer's Ithaca
Ithaca
being Lefkada). The Corinthians dug a trench in the 7th century BC on its isthmus.[6] Climate[edit]

Kalamitsi beach

The island has a typical Mediterranean climate: hot summers and cool winters, especially in the mountains. History[edit]

Santa Maura castle

Santa Maura ("Ste. Maure") castle. Manesson Mallet: Art de la Guerre, 1696.

Theotokos holy church, Lefkada
Lefkada
city.

Pantokratoros holy church, Lefkada
Lefkada
city.

Antiquity[edit] The myth about Sappho's suicide at Cape Lefkada
Lefkada
is related to other myths linking the island to the ancient Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite, and to Odysseus, the hero of Homer's Odyssey. The German archaeologist Wilhelm Dörpfeld, having performed excavations at various locations of Lefkada, was able to obtain funding to do work on the island by suggesting that Lefkada
Lefkada
was Homer's Ithaca, and the palace of Odysseus
Odysseus
was located west of Nydri
Nydri
on the south coast of Lefkada. There have been suggestions by local tourism officials that several passages in the Odyssey
Odyssey
point to Lefkada
Lefkada
as a possible model for Homeric Ithaca. The most notable of these passages pushed by the local tourism board describes Ithaca
Ithaca
as an island reachable on foot, which was the case for Lefkada
Lefkada
since it is not really an island, that it was connected to the mainland by a narrow causeway. According to Strabo, the coast of Acarnania
Acarnania
was called Leucas in earlier times. The ancient sources call Leucas a Corinthian colony, perhaps with a Corcyraen participation.[7] During the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
Leucas had joined the Spartan Confederation.[8] Middle Ages[edit] Lefkada
Lefkada
was part of the Despotate of Epirus
Despotate of Epirus
until 1295 when it passed from Despot Nikephoros I to his son-in-law John Orsini.[9] The Castle of Santa Maura, as the island became known as, was first built in the beginning of the 14th century; the possession of the castle was key to holding the island.[9] The Orsini family lost Lefkada
Lefkada
in 1331, to the Angevins.[9] In 1343, Walter of Brienne granted Lefkada
Lefkada
and the Santa Maura castle to Venetian Graziano Giorgio.[10] Between 1343 and 1348, Serbian ruler Stefan Dušan
Stefan Dušan
invaded Albania, Epirus and Thessaly, conquering all except for Vonitsa and Santa Maura.[10] In 1362, Leonardo I Tocco seized Lefkada
Lefkada
and Vonitsa.[10] In 1479, the Ottomans conquered Lefkada, and rebuilt the castle on a large scale (the core of the castle being Ottoman).[9] Early modern period[edit] The Venetians briefly held Lefkada
Lefkada
between 1500 and 1503, during the Ottoman-Venetian War, after which it was returned to Ottoman rule by peace treaty.[9] Ottoman rule was interrupted by Venice in 1684,[9] with the Ottomans surrendering it after a 16-day siege, and was thus again part of the Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
under Venetian rule.[11] The Ottomans called it Ayamavra, from Greek Agia Maura (Αγία Μαύρα, itself derived from "Santa Maura"), and ruled it between 1479–1502, 1504–1684 and 1715-1716.[12] The Venetians extensively modified the castle in the early 18th century, and the British also made some modification in the 19th century.[9] In 1800, the Septinsular Republic
Septinsular Republic
was established, a Russian protectorate under de jure Ottoman suzerainty. The Russian Empire employed troops recruited from fugitive klephts and armatoloi in the Ionian Islands, particularly of Lefkada. Among these were captains Anastasios Tselios and Apostolos Levendakis, the latter who already in 1802 offered to raise a company of 60 fighters on Lefkada
Lefkada
to support the Russians.[13] Lafcadio Hearn
Lafcadio Hearn
Historical Center[edit] The first museum in Europe for Lafcadio Hearn, who was born on the island and is named after it, was inaugurated in Lefkada
Lefkada
on July 4, 2014, as Lafcadio Hearn
Lafcadio Hearn
Historical Center. It contains early editions, rare books and Japanese collectibles. The visitors, through photos, texts and exhibits, can wander in the significant events of Lafcadio Hearn's life, but also in the civilizations of Europe, America and Japan of late 18th and early 19th centuries through the open mind of his lectures, writings and tales. The municipalities of Kumamoto, Matsue, Shinjuku, Yaizu, Toyama University, Koizumi family and other people from Japan and Greece
Greece
contributed to the establishment of Lafcadio Hearn
Lafcadio Hearn
Historical Center.

View of Nydri

Municipality[edit] The present municipality Lefkada
Lefkada
was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 7 former municipalities, that became municipal units:[3]

Apollonioi Ellomenos Kalamos Karya Kastos Lefkada
Lefkada
(city) Sfakiotes

The municipality covers the island Lefkada
Lefkada
and the smaller islands Kastos
Kastos
and Kalamos. Transport[edit]

Greek National Road 42 Aktion (Preveza) Airport

Notable people[edit]

Bust of Aristotelis Valaoritis

(in chronological order)

Frederick Temple
Frederick Temple
(1821-1902), Archbishop of Canterbury Aristotelis Valaoritis
Aristotelis Valaoritis
(1824-1879), poet and politician Lafcadio Hearn
Lafcadio Hearn
(1850–1904), Greco-Irish orientalist and writer, named after the island Petros Soumilas
Petros Soumilas
(1861–19??), Greek Army officer who reached the rank of Lieutenant General. Dimitrios Golemis
Dimitrios Golemis
(1874–1941), athlete Grigorios Karydis (1912-1968), musician, opera composer and professor of philharmonic orchestra Aggelos Sikelianos (1884–1951), poet and playwright Tzavalas Karousos or Karoussos (1904–1969), actor Aristotle Onassis, (1906–1975), Greek shipping tycoon Panos Rontoyannis (1911–1996), philologist and historian Theodoros Stamos (1922–1997), Greek-American painter Apostolos Kaklamanis
Apostolos Kaklamanis
(1936), politician Evaggelos Vlassopoulos (1935-2002), politician George Ktenas (1938-2004), politician Agnes Baltsa
Agnes Baltsa
(1944), opera singer Spyros Vrettos (1960), poet Spiros Marangos (1967-), footballer

Gallery[edit]

Traditional street of Lefkada
Lefkada
(city)

Panagia ton Xenon, Lefkada
Lefkada
city

Porto Katsiki
Porto Katsiki
beach

Kalamos village

Traditional dress

See also[edit]

Egremni

Notes[edit]

^ a b "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.  ^ Potts, Jim (2010). The Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
and Epirus: A Cultural History. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-19-975416-8. Retrieved 16 June 2011.  ^ a b Kallikratis law Greece
Greece
Ministry of Interior (in Greek) ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21.  ^ Oreivatein.com ^ Strabo
Strabo
10.452 ^ Colony and mother city in ancient Greece
Greece
By A. J. Graham Page 132 ISBN 0-7190-0059-9 ^ The Peloponnesian War: Athens, Sparta and the struggle for Greece
Greece
By Nigel Bagnall Page 17 ISBN 0-312-34215-2 ^ a b c d e f g Brooks 2013, p. 102. ^ a b c Allan Brooks (1 May 2013). Castles of Northwest Greece: From the early Byzantine Period to the eve of the First World War. Aetos Press. pp. 287–. ISBN 978-0-9575846-0-0.  ^ Brooks 2013, p. 103. ^ "Google Drive Görüntüleyici". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ Nicholas Charles Pappas (1982). Greeks in Russian military service in the late eighteen and early nineteenth centuries. Stanford University. These troops were recruited from among the fugitive klephtes and armatoloi residing on the Ionian Islands, particularly Lefkas. Among these men were the Captains Anastasios Tselios and Apostolos Levendakls. Tselios was a member of a prominent family of armatoloi from Xeromeros in southwestern Greece. As early as 1802, he had offered his services to the Septinsular Republic, proposing to raise and command a company of sixty men on Lefkas. ... In April 1806, this kapitanios and his men were among a number of refugee armatoloi on Lefkas. including the kapitanaioi Skylodemos, Stratos, Giannes Kolovelones, Konstantes Poules, Giorgakes — — 72 Varnakiotes and others. By June ... 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lefkada.

Lefkada
Lefkada
Prefecture Travel Guide to Lefkada [1] The official page of Greek National Tourism Organization Map of Homer's Ithaka (Lefkada), Same and Asteris according to Wilhelm Dörpfeld. Digital library of Heidelberg University. Photo of Dörpfeld's excavation site at Lefkada
Lefkada
near Nydri, early in the 20th century. Digital library of Heidelberg University.

v t e

Ionian Islands

Main Islands

Cephalonia Ithaca Corfu Lefkada Paxi Zakynthos Kythira

Archipelagoes

Diapontia (Largest islands: Othonoi, Ereikoussa, Mathraki) Echinades
Echinades
(Largest islands: Petalas, Oxeia, Drakonera) Oinousses (Largest islands: Schiza, Sapientza)

Smaller islands and islets

Antikythera Antipaxi Arkoudi Atokos Elafonisos Kalamos Kastos Kravia Kythros Lazareto (Ithaca) Lazaretto (Corfu) Meganisi Pontikonisi Proti Sphacteria Skorpios Sparti (Lefkada) Strofades Vido

v t e

Administrative division of the Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
Region

Area 2,307 km2 (891 sq mi) Population 207,855 (as of 2011) Municipalities 7 (since 2011) Capital Corfu

Regional unit of Corfu

Corfu Paxoi

Regional unit of Cephalonia

Cephalonia

Regional unit of Ithaca

Ithaca

Regional unit of Lefkada

Lefkada Meganisi

Regional unit of Zakynthos

Zakynthos

Regional governor Theodoros Galiatsatos (since 2014) Decentralized Administration Peloponnese, Western Greece
Greece
and the Ionian

v t e

Subdivisions of the municipality of Lefkada

Municipal unit of Apollonioi

Agios Ilias Agios Petros Athani Chortata Dragano Evgiros Komili Kontaraina Marantochori Nikolis Syvros Vasiliki Vournika

Municipal unit of Ellomenos

Charadiatika Fterno Katochori Neochori Nydri Platystoma Poros Vafkeri Vlycho

Municipal unit of Kalamos

Kalamos

Municipal unit of Karya

Egklouvi Karya Pigadisanoi

Municipal unit of Kastos

Kastos

Municipal unit of Lefkada
Lefkada
(city)

Agios Nikitas Alexandros Apolpaina Kalamitsi Kariotes Katouna Lefkada
Lefkada
(city) Tsoukalades

Municipal unit of Sfakiotes

Asprogerakata Drymonas Exatheia Kavallos Lazarata Pinakochori Spanochori

Authority control

GND: 4111277-5 BNF:

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