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Thus: The titles are contradicting, which is correct?
According to Cosmographia (Sebastian Münster)#Editions, there's only one, a German, edition of 1544, and its title page reads: "Cosmographia: Beschreibũg aller Lender důrch Sebastianum Munsterum [Nom.: Sebastianus Munsterus] in welcher begriffen, aller völcker, Herschafften, Stetten und namhafftiger flecken, herkom̃en: Sitten, gebreüch, ordnung, glauben, secten, und hantierung, durch die gantze welt, und fürnemlich Teütscher nation. Was auch besunders in iedem landt gefunden, unnd darin beschehen sey. Alles mit figuren und schönen landt taflen erklert, und für augen gestelt. Getruckt zů Basel durch Henrichum Petri. Anno M. D. XLiiij [1544]."

Thus, both titles (Cosmographia universalis and Cosmographia Universalis) or the year is wrong (that it's not 1544 from the first German edition, but some later year and edition).
Also on which page is the prayer (or in which section if there are no page numbers)? Please help improve this article if you can. (November 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Latvian
Lettish[1]
latviešu valoda
Pronunciation[ˈlatviɛʃu ˈvaluɔda]
Native toLatvia
RegionBaltic
EthnicityLatvians
The rarely used Latvian ergonomic keyboard layout

In late 1992 the official Latvian computing standard LVS 8-92 took effect. It was followed by LVS 24-93 (Latvian language support for computers) that also specified the way

In late 1992 the official Latvian computing standard LVS 8-92 took effect. It was followed by LVS 24-93 (Latvian language support for computers) that also specified the way Latvian language (alphabet, numbers, currency, punctuation marks, date and time) should be represented on computers. A Latvian ergonomic keyboard standard LVS 23-93 was also announced several months later, but it didn't gain popularity due to its need for a custom-built keyboard.[27]

Nowadays standard QWERTY or the US keyboards are used for writing in Latvian; diacritics are entered by using a dead key (usually ', occasionally ~).[27] Some keyboard layouts use the modifier key AltGr (most notably the Windows 2000 and XP built-in layout (Latvian QWERTY), it is also default modifier in X11R6, thus a default in most Linux distributions).

In the 1990s, lack of software support of diacritics caused an unofficial style of orthography, often called translits, to emerge for use in situations when the user is unable to access Latvian diacritic marks (e-mail, newsgroups, web user forums, chat, SMS etc.). It uses the QWERTY or the US keyboards are used for writing in Latvian; diacritics are entered by using a dead key (usually ', occasionally ~).[27] Some keyboard layouts use the modifier key AltGr (most notably the Windows 2000 and XP built-in layout (Latvian QWERTY), it is also default modifier in X11R6, thus a default in most Linux distributions).

In the 1990s, lack of software support of diacritics caused an unofficial style of orthography, often called translits, to emerge for use in situations when the user is unable to access Latvian diacritic marks (e-mail, newsgroups, web user forums, chat, SMS etc.). It uses the basic Modern Latin alphabet only, and letters that are not used in standard orthography are usually omitted. In this style, diacritics are replaced by digraphs – a doubled letter indicates a long vowel (as in Finnish and Estonian); a following j indicates palatalisation of consonants, i.e., a cedilla; and the postalveolars Š, Č and Ž are written with h replacing the háček, as in English. Sometimes the second letter, the one used instead of a diacritic, is changed to one of two other diacritic letters (e.g. š is written as ss or sj, not sh), and since many people may find it difficult to use these unusual methods, they write without any indication of missing diacritic marks, or they use digraphing only if the diacritic mark in question would make a semantic difference.[28] Sometimes an apostrophe is used before or after the character that would properly need to be diacriticised. Also, digraph diacritics are often used and sometimes even mixed with diacritical letters of standard orthography. Although today there is software support available, diacritic-less writing is still sometimes used for financial and social reasons. As š and ž are part of the Windows-1252 coding, it is possible to input those two letters using a numerical keypad. Latvian language code for cmd and .bat files - 1257

For example, the Lord's Prayer in Latvian written in different styles:

First orthography
(Cosmographia Universalis, 1544)
Old orthography, 1739[29] Modern orthography Internet-style
Muuſze Thews exkan tho Debbes Muhſu Tehvs debbeſ

Consonants in consonant sequences assimilate to the voicing of the subsequent consonant, e.g. apgabals [ˈabɡabals] or labs [ˈlaps]. Latvian does not feature final-obstruent devoicing.

Consonants can be long (written as double consonants) mamma [ˈmamːa], or short. Plosives and fricatives occurring between two short vowels are lengthened: upe [ˈupːe]. Same with 'zs' that is pronounced as /sː/, šs and žs as /ʃː/.

Vowels

Latvian has six vowels, with length as distinctive feature:

Latvian vowels
  Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i   u
Mid e   (ɔ) (ɔː)
Open æ æː a  

/ɔ ɔː/, and the diphthongs involving it other than /uɔ/, are confined to loanwords.

Latvian also has 10 diphthongs, four of which are only found in loanwords (/ai ui ɛi au iɛ uɔ iu (ɔi) ɛu (ɔu)/), although some diphthongs are mostly limited to proper names and interjections.

Syllable accent

Standard Latvian and, with some exceptions in derivation and inflection, all of the Latvian dialects have fixed initial stress. Long vowels and diphthongs have a tone, regardless of their position in the word. This includes the so-called "mixed diphthongs", composed of a short vowel followed by a sonorant.

Loanwords

During the period of Livonia many Middle Low German words such as amats (profession), dambis (dam), būvēt (to build) and bikses (trousers) were borrowed into Latvian, while the period of Swedish Livonia brought loanwords like skurstenis (chimney) from Swedish.[30]

Loanwords from other Baltic language include ķermenis (body) from Old Prussian, as well as veikals (store) and paģiras (hangover) from Lithuanian.[30]

History of the study

The first Latvian dictionary Lettus compiled by Georg Mancelius was published in 1638.[31]

The first grammar of the Latvian language is a short “Manual on the Latvian language” (Latin: Manuductio ad linguam lettonicam) by lv:Johans Georgs Rehehūzens, published in 1644 in Riga.[32]

Bibliography

  • Bielenstein, Die lettische Sprache (Berlin, 1863–64)
  • Bielenstein, Lettische Grammatik (Mitau, 1863)
  • Bielenstein, Die Elemente der lettischen Sprache (Mitau, 1866), popular in treatment
  • Ulmann and Brasche, Lettisches Wörterbuch (Riga, 1872–80)
  • Bielenstein, Tausend lettische Räthsel, übersetzt und erklärt (Mitau, 1881)
  • mamma [ˈmamːa], or short. Plosives and fricatives occurring between two short vowels are lengthened: upe [ˈupːe]. Same with 'zs' that is pronounced as /sː/, šs and žs as /ʃː/.

    Latvian has six vowels, with length as distinctive feature:

    Latvian vowels
      Front Central /ɔ ɔː/, and the diphthongs involving it other than /uɔ/, are confined to loanwords.

    Latvian also has 10 diphthongs, four of which are only found in loanwords (/ai ui ɛi au iɛ uɔ iu (ɔi) ɛu (ɔu)/), although some diphthongs are mostly limited to proper names and interjections.

    Syllable accent

    Standard Latvian and, with some exceptions in derivation and inflection, all of the Latvian dialects have fixed initial stress. Long vowels and diphthongs have a tone, regardless of their position in the word. This includes the so-called "mixed diphthongs", composed of a short vowel followed by a sonorant.

    Loanwords

    During the period of Livonia many Middle Low German words such as amats (profession), dambis (dam), būvēt (to build) and bikses (trousers) were borrowed into Latvian, while the period of Swedish Livonia brought loanwords like skurstenis (chimney) from Swedish.[30]

    Loanwords from other Baltic language include ķermenis (body) from diphthongs, four of which are only found in loanwords (/ai ui ɛi au iɛ uɔ iu (ɔi) ɛu (ɔu)/), although some diphthongs are mostly limited to proper names and interjections.

    Standard Latvian and, with some exceptions in derivation and inflection, all of the Latvian dialects have fixed initial stress. Long vowels and diphthongs have a tone, regardless of their position in the word. This includes the so-called "mixed diphthongs", composed of a short vowel followed by a sonorant.

    Loanwords

    During the peri

    During the period of Livonia many Middle Low German words such as amats (profession), dambis (dam), būvēt (to build) and bikses (trousers) were borrowed into Latvian, while the period of Swedish Livonia brought loanwords like skurstenis (chimney) from Swedish.[30]

    Loanwords from other Baltic language include ķermenis (body) from Old Prussian, as well as veikals (store) and paģiras (hangover) from Lithuanian

    Loanwords from other Baltic language include ķermenis (body) from Old Prussian, as well as veikals (store) and paģiras (hangover) from Lithuanian.[30]

    The first Latvian dictionary Lettus compiled by Georg Mancelius was published in 1638.[31]

    The first grammar of the Latvian language is a short “Manual on the Latvian language” (Latin: Manuductio ad linguam lettonicam) by Latin: Manuductio ad linguam lettonicam) by lv:Johans Georgs Rehehūzens, published in 1644 in Riga.[32]