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LATIN or ROMAN script is a set of graphic signs (script ) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, used by the Etruscans .

Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
.

The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
.

Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population). Latin script is used as the standard method of writing in most Western and Central European languages, as well as in many languages in other parts of the world.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 History

* 2.1 Old Italic alphabet * 2.2 Archaic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
* 2.3 Classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
* 2.4 ISO basic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet

* 3 Spread

* 3.1 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 3.2 Since the 16th century * 3.3 Since 19th century * 3.4 Since 20th century

* 4 International standards

* 5 As used by various languages

* 5.1 Letters * 5.2 Multigraphs * 5.3 Ligatures * 5.4 Diacritics * 5.5 Collation * 5.6 Capitalization

* 6 Romanization * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links

NAME

The script is either called Roman script or Latin
Latin
script, in reference to its origin in ancient Rome . In the context of transliteration , the term "romanization " or "romanisation" is often found. Unicode
Unicode
uses the term "Latin" as does the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

The numeral system is called the Roman numeral system; and the collection of the elements, Roman numerals . The numbers 1,2,3 ... are Latin/Roman script numbers for the Hindu–Arabic numeral system
Hindu–Arabic numeral system
.

HISTORY

Main article: History of the Latin script

OLD ITALIC ALPHABET

Old Italic alphabet LETTERS 𐌀 𐌁 𐌂 𐌃 𐌄 𐌅 𐌆 𐌇 𐌈 𐌉 𐌊 𐌋 𐌌 𐌍 𐌎 𐌏 𐌐 𐌑 𐌒 𐌓 𐌔 𐌕 𐌖 𐌗 𐌘 𐌙 𐌚

TRANSLITERATION A B C D E V Z H Θ I K L M N Ξ O P Ś Q R S T Y X Φ Ψ F

ARCHAIC LATIN ALPHABET

Archaic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
AS OLD ITALIC 𐌀 𐌁 𐌂 𐌃 𐌄 𐌅 𐌆 𐌇 𐌉 𐌊 𐌋 𐌌 𐌍 𐌏 𐌐 𐌒 𐌓 𐌔 𐌕 𐌖 𐌗

AS LATIN A B C D E F Z H I K L M N O P Q R S T V X

The letter ⟨C⟩ was the western form of the Greek gamma , but it was used for the sounds /ɡ/ and /k/ alike, possibly under the influence of Etruscan , which might have lacked any voiced plosives . Later, probably during the 3rd century BC, the letter ⟨Z⟩ — unneeded to write Latin
Latin
properly — was replaced with the new letter ⟨G⟩, a ⟨C⟩ modified with a small vertical stroke, which took its place in the alphabet. From then on, ⟨G⟩ represented the voiced plosive /ɡ/, while ⟨C⟩ was generally reserved for the voiceless plosive /k/. The letter ⟨K⟩ was used only rarely, in a small number of words such as _Kalendae _, often interchangeably with ⟨C⟩.

CLASSICAL LATIN ALPHABET

After the Roman conquest of Greece in the 1st century BC, Latin adopted the Greek letters ⟨Y⟩ and ⟨Z⟩ (or readopted, in the latter case) to write Greek loanwords, placing them at the end of the alphabet. An attempt by the emperor Claudius
Claudius
to introduce three additional letters did not last. Thus it was during the classical Latin
Latin
period that the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
contained 23 letters:

Classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
LETTER A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T V X Y Z

LATIN NAME (MAJUS) á bé cé dé é ef gé há ꟾ ká el em en ó pé qv́ er es té v́ ix ꟾ graeca zéta

LATIN NAME _ā_ _bē_ _cē_ _dē_ _ē_ _ef_ _gē_ _hā_ _ī_ _kā_ _el_ _em_ _en_ _ō_ _pē_ _qū_ _er_ _es_ _tē_ _ū_ _ix_ _ī Graeca_ _zēta_

LATIN PRONUNCIATION (IPA ) aː beː keː deː eː ɛf ɡeː haː iː kaː ɛl ɛm ɛn oː peː kuː ɛr ɛs teː uː iks iː ˈɡraɪka ˈdzeːta

ISO BASIC LATIN ALPHABET

Main article: ISO basic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet

ISO basic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
UPPERCASE LATIN ALPHABET A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

LOWERCASE LATIN ALPHABET a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

The use of the letters I and V for both consonants and vowels proved inconvenient as the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
was adapted to Germanic and Romance languages. W originated as a doubled V (VV) used to represent the sound found in Old English
Old English
as early as the 7th century. It came into common use in the later 11th century, replacing the runic Wynn
Wynn
letter which had been used for the same sound. In the Romance languages, the minuscule form of V was a rounded _u_; from this was derived a rounded capital U for the vowel in the 16th century, while a new, pointed minuscule _v_ was derived from V for the consonant. In the case of I, a word-final swash form, _j_, came to be used for the consonant, with the un-swashed form restricted to vowel use. Such conventions were erratic for centuries. J was introduced into English for the consonant in the 17th century (it had been rare as a vowel), but it was not universally considered a distinct letter in the alphabetic order until the 19th century.

By the 1960s, it became apparent to the computer and telecommunications industries in the First World
First World
that a non-proprietary method of encoding characters was needed. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) encapsulated the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
in their ( ISO/IEC 646 ) standard. To achieve widespread acceptance, this encapsulation was based on popular usage. As the United States held a preeminent position in both industries during the 1960s, the standard was based on the already published _American Standard Code for Information Interchange_, better known as ASCII
ASCII
, which included in the character set the 26 × 2 (uppercase and lowercase) letters of the English alphabet . Later standards issued by the ISO, for example ISO/IEC 10646 ( Unicode
Unicode
Latin
Latin
), have continued to define the 26 × 2 letters of the English alphabet as the basic Latin alphabet with extensions to handle other letters in other languages.

SPREAD

The distribution of the Latin
Latin
script. The dark green areas show the countries where the Latin
Latin
script is the sole main script. Light green shows countries where Latin
Latin
co-exists with other scripts. Latin-script alphabets are sometimes extensively used in areas coloured grey due to the use of unofficial second languages, such as French in Algeria and English in Egypt, and to Latin
Latin
transliteration of the official script, such as pinyin in China. Main article: Spread of the Latin script

The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
spread, along with Latin
Latin
, from the Italian Peninsula to the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
with the expansion of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. The eastern half of the Empire, including Greece
Greece
, Turkey
Turkey
, the Levant
Levant
, and Egypt
Egypt
, continued to use Greek as a lingua franca , but Latin
Latin
was widely spoken in the western half, and as the western Romance languages
Romance languages
evolved out of Latin, they continued to use and adapt the Latin
Latin
alphabet.

MIDDLE AGES

With the spread of Western Christianity during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
was gradually adopted by the peoples of Northern Europe who spoke Celtic languages (displacing the Ogham
Ogham
alphabet) or Germanic languages (displacing earlier Runic alphabets ) or Baltic languages
Baltic languages
, as well as by the speakers of several Uralic languages
Uralic languages
, most notably Hungarian , Finnish and Estonian .

The Latin
Latin
script also came into use for writing the West Slavic languages and several South Slavic languages , as the people who spoke them adopted Roman Catholicism . The speakers of East Slavic languages generally adopted Cyrillic
Cyrillic
along with Orthodox Christianity . The Serbian language uses both scripts, with Cyrillic
Cyrillic
predominating in official communication and Latin
Latin
elsewhere, as determined by the Law on Official Use of the Language and Alphabet.

SINCE THE 16TH CENTURY

As late as 1500, the Latin
Latin
script was limited primarily to the languages spoken in Western , Northern , and Central Europe
Central Europe
. The Orthodox Christian
Orthodox Christian
Slavs of Eastern and Southeastern Europe mostly used Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, and the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
was in use by Greek-speakers around the eastern Mediterranean. The Arabic script was widespread within Islam, both among Arabs and non- Arab
Arab
nations like the Iranians , Indonesians , Malays , and Turkic peoples . Most of the rest of Asia used a variety of Brahmic alphabets or the Chinese script .

Through European colonization the Latin
Latin
script has spread to the Americas
Americas
, Oceania
Oceania
, parts of Asia
Asia
, Africa
Africa
, and the Pacific, in forms based on the Spanish , Portuguese , English , French , German and Dutch alphabets.

It is used for many Austronesian languages , including the languages of the Philippines and the Malaysian and Indonesian languages , replacing earlier Arabic and indigenous Brahmic alphabets. Latin letters served as the basis for the forms of the Cherokee syllabary developed by Sequoyah
Sequoyah
; however, the sound values are completely different.

SINCE 19TH CENTURY

In the late 19th century, the Romanians returned to the Latin alphabet, which they had used until the Council of Florence in 1439, primarily because Romanian is a Romance language
Romance language
. The Romanians were predominantly Orthodox Christians , and their Church, increasingly influenced by Russia after the fall of Byzantine Greek Constantinople in 1453 and capture of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch , had begun promoting the Slavic Cyrillic
Cyrillic
.

Under French rule and Portuguese missionary influence, a Latin alphabet was devised for the Vietnamese language
Vietnamese language
, which had previously used Chinese characters
Chinese characters
.

SINCE 20TH CENTURY

In 1928, as part of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk 's reforms, the new Republic of Turkey
Turkey
adopted a Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
for the Turkish language , replacing a modified Arabic alphabet. Most of the Turkic -speaking peoples of the former USSR , including Tatars , Bashkirs , Azeri
Azeri
, Kazakh , Kyrgyz and others, used the Latin-based Uniform Turkic alphabet in the 1930s; but, in the 1940s, all were replaced by Cyrillic. After the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, three of the newly independent Turkic-speaking republics, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
, and Turkmenistan , as well as Romanian-speaking Moldova
Moldova
, officially adopted Latin
Latin
alphabets for their languages.

Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
, Iranian -speaking Tajikistan
Tajikistan
, and the breakaway region of Transnistria
Transnistria
kept the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet, chiefly due to their close ties with Russia. In the 1930s and 1940s, the majority of Kurds replaced the Arabic script with two Latin
Latin
alphabets. Although the only official Kurdish government uses an Arabic alphabet for public documents, the Latin
Latin
Kurdish alphabet remains widely used throughout the region by the majority of Kurdish -speakers.

In 2015, the Kazakh government announced that the Latin
Latin
alphabet would replace Cyrillic
Cyrillic
as the writing system for the Kazakh language by 2025.

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

Main articles: ISO basic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and Latin
Latin
script in Unicode
Unicode

By the 1960s, it became apparent to the computer and telecommunications industries in the First World
First World
that a non-proprietary method of encoding characters was needed. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) encapsulated the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
in their ( ISO/IEC 646 ) standard. To achieve widespread acceptance, this encapsulation was based on popular usage.

As the United States held a preeminent position in both industries during the 1960s, the standard was based on the already published _American Standard Code for Information Interchange_, better known as ASCII
ASCII
, which included in the character set the 26 × 2(uppercase and lowercase) letters of the English alphabet . Later standards issued by the ISO, for example ISO/IEC 10646 ( Unicode
Unicode
Latin
Latin
), have continued to define the 26 × 2 letters of the English alphabet as the basic Latin alphabet with extensions to handle other letters in other languages.

AS USED BY VARIOUS LANGUAGES

Main article: Latin-script alphabet

In the course of its use, the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
was adapted for use in new languages, sometimes representing phonemes not found in languages that were already written with the Roman characters. To represent these new sounds, extensions were therefore created, be it by adding diacritics to existing letters , by joining multiple letters together to make ligatures , by creating completely new forms, or by assigning a special function to pairs or triplets of letters. These new forms are given a place in the alphabet by defining an alphabetical order or collation sequence, which can vary with the particular language.

LETTERS

Main article: List of Latin-script letters
List of Latin-script letters

Some examples of new letters to the standard Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
are the Runic letters wynn ⟨Ƿ/ƿ⟩ and thorn ⟨Þ/þ⟩, and the letter eth ⟨Ð/ð⟩, which were added to the alphabet of Old English
Old English
. Another Irish letter, the insular _g_ , developed into yogh ⟨Ȝ/ȝ⟩, used in Middle English . Wynn
Wynn
was later replaced with the new letter ⟨w⟩, eth and thorn with ⟨th ⟩, and yogh with ⟨gh ⟩. Although the four are no longer part of the English or Irish alphabets, eth and thorn are still used in the modern Icelandic and Faroese alphabets .

Some West, Central and Southern African languages use a few additional letters that have a similar sound value to their equivalents in the IPA. For example, Adangme uses the letters ⟨Ɛ/ɛ⟩ and ⟨Ɔ/ɔ⟩, and Ga uses ⟨Ɛ/ɛ⟩, ⟨Ŋ/ŋ⟩ and ⟨Ɔ/ɔ⟩. Hausa uses ⟨Ɓ/ɓ⟩ and ⟨Ɗ/ɗ⟩ for implosives , and ⟨Ƙ/ƙ⟩ for an ejective . Africanists have standardized these into the African reference alphabet .

The Azerbaijani language also has the letter written as "Ə", which represents the near-open front unrounded vowel .

MULTIGRAPHS

Main article: Latin-script multigraph

A digraph is a pair of letters used to write one sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters in sequence. Examples are ⟨ch ⟩, ⟨ng ⟩, ⟨rh ⟩, ⟨sh ⟩ in English, and ⟨ij ⟩ in Dutch. In Dutch the ⟨ij⟩ is capitalized as ⟨IJ⟩ or the ligature ⟨IJ⟩, but never as ⟨Ij⟩, and it often takes the appearance of a ligature ⟨ij⟩ very similar to the letter ⟨ÿ⟩ in handwriting .

A trigraph is made up of three letters, like the German ⟨sch ⟩, the Breton ⟨c’h ⟩ or the Milanese
Milanese
⟨oeu⟩. In the orthographies of some languages, digraphs and trigraphs are regarded as independent letters of the alphabet in their own right. The capitalization of digraphs and trigraphs is language-dependent, as only the first letter may be capitalized, or all component letters simultaneously (even for words written in titlecase, where letters after the digraph or trigraph are left in lowercase).

LIGATURES

Main article: Ligature (typography)

A ligature is a fusion of two or more ordinary letters into a new glyph or character. Examples are ⟨ Æ
Æ
/æ⟩ (from ⟨AE⟩, called "ash"), ⟨ Œ /œ⟩ (from ⟨OE⟩, sometimes called "oethel"), the abbreviation ⟨"> The letter ⟨a ⟩ with an acute diacritic . Main article: Diacritic

A diacritic, in some cases also called an accent, is a small symbol that can appear above or below a letter, or in some other position, such as the umlaut sign used in the German characters ⟨ä ⟩, ⟨ö ⟩, ⟨ü ⟩ or the Romanian characters ă , â , î , ș , ț . Its main function is to change the phonetic value of the letter to which it is added, but it may also modify the pronunciation of a whole syllable or word, or distinguish between homographs . As with letters, the value of diacritics is language-dependent.

COLLATION

Main article: Collating sequence

Some modified letters, such as the symbols ⟨å ⟩, ⟨ä ⟩, and ⟨ö ⟩, may be regarded as new individual letters in themselves, and assigned a specific place in the alphabet for collation purposes, separate from that of the letter on which they are based, as is done in Swedish . In other cases, such as with ⟨ä ⟩, ⟨ö ⟩, ⟨ü ⟩ in German, this is not done; letter-diacritic combinations being identified with their base letter. The same applies to digraphs and trigraphs. Different diacritics may be treated differently in collation within a single language. For example, in Spanish , the character ⟨ñ ⟩ is considered a letter, and sorted between ⟨n ⟩ and ⟨o ⟩ in dictionaries, but the accented vowels ⟨á ⟩, ⟨é ⟩, ⟨í ⟩, ⟨ó ⟩, ⟨ú ⟩ are not separated from the unaccented vowels ⟨a ⟩, ⟨e ⟩, ⟨i ⟩, ⟨o ⟩, ⟨u ⟩.

CAPITALIZATION

Main article: Letter case

The languages that use the Latin
Latin
script today generally use capital letters to begin paragraphs and sentences and proper nouns . The rules for capitalization have changed over time, and different languages have varied in their rules for capitalization. Old English
Old English
, for example, was rarely written with even proper nouns capitalized; whereas Modern English of the 18th century had frequently all nouns capitalized, in the same way that Modern German is written today, e.g. _Alle Schwestern der alten Stadt hatten die Vögel gesehen_ ("All of the sisters of the old city had seen the birds").

ROMANIZATION

Main article: Romanization

Words from languages natively written with other scripts , such as Arabic or Chinese , are usually transliterated or transcribed when embedded in Latin-script text or in multilingual international communication, a process termed Romanization.

Whilst the Romanization of such languages is used mostly at unofficial levels, it has been especially prominent in computer messaging where only the limited 7-bit ASCII
ASCII
code is available on older systems. However, with the introduction of Unicode
Unicode
, Romanization is now becoming less necessary. Note that keyboards used to enter such text may still restrict users to Romanized text, as only ASCII
ASCII
or Latin-alphabet characters may be available.

SEE ALSO

* Romic alphabet * List of languages by writing system# Latin
Latin
script * Western Latin
Latin
character sets (computing) * Latin
Latin
letters used in mathematics

NOTES

* ^ Haarmann 2004 , p. 96 * ^ "Search results BSI Group". Bsigroup.com. Retrieved 2014-05-12. * ^ "Romanisation_systems". Pcgn.org.uk. Retrieved 2014-05-12. * ^ " ISO 15924 – Code List in English". Unicode.org. Retrieved 2013-07-22. * ^ "Search – ISO". Iso.org. Retrieved 2014-05-12. * ^ "ZAKON O SLUŽBENOJ UPOTREBI JEZIKA I PISAMA" (PDF). Ombudsman.rs. 17 May 2010. Retrieved 2014-07-05. * ^ "Descriptio_Moldaviae". La.wikisource.org. 1714. Retrieved 2014-09-14. * ^ Kazakh language to be converted to Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
– MCS RK. Inform.kz (30 January 2015). Retrieved on 2015-09-28.

REFERENCES

* Haarmann, Harald (2004), _Geschichte der Schrift_ (in German) (2nd ed.), München: C. H. Beck, ISBN 3-406-47998-7

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to LATIN ALPHABET _.

* Diacritics Project — All you need to design a font with correct accents

* v * t * e

Latin
Latin
script

* History * Spread * Romanization * Roman numerals

ALPHABETS (LIST )

* Classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
* ISO basic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet

* phonetic alphabets

* International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
* X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA

* spelling alphabets

LETTERS (LIST )

LETTERS OF THE ISO BASIC LATIN ALPHABET

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee <