The LAST JUDGMENT, FINAL JUDGMENT, DAY OF JUDGMENT, JUDGMENT DAY, DOOMSDAY, or THE DAY OF THE LORD (Hebrew _YOM HA DIN_) or in Arabic YAWM AL-QIYāMAH (یوم القيامة) or YAWM AD-DIN (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism .
In Christian belief , it is the final and eternal judgment by God of the people in every nation resulting in the glorification of some and the punishment of others. The concept is found in all the Canonical gospels , particularly the Gospel of Matthew . Christian Futurists believe it will take place after the Resurrection of the Dead and the Second Coming of Christ while Full Preterists believe it has already occurred. The Last Judgment has inspired numerous artistic depictions.
* 1 Christianity
* 1.1 Biblical sources
* 1.2 Amillennialism
* 1.2.1 Anglicanism and Methodism * 1.2.2 Catholicism
* 1.2.3 Eastern Orthodoxy
* 22.214.171.124 Icons * 126.96.36.199 Hymnography
* 1.2.4 Lutheranism
* 1.3 Millennialism * 1.4 Esoteric Christian tradition * 1.5 Artistic representations
* 2 Islam * 3 Judaism
* 4 Bahai Faith
* 4.1 Future Day of Judgment
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links
The doctrine and iconographic depiction of the "Last Judgment" are drawn from many passages from the apocalyptic sections of the Bible, but most notably from Jesus' teaching of the strait gate in the Gospel of Matthew and also found in the Gospel of Luke :
Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat: Because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it. Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? Even so, every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit. Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. Therefore, by their fruits ye shall know them. Not every one that saith unto me: Lord, Lord, shall enter into the Kingdom of Heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in Heaven. Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity. (Matthew 7:13–23)
Then said one unto him, Lord, are there few that be saved? And he said unto them, Strive to enter in at the strait gate: for many, I say unto you, will seek to enter in, and shall not be able. When once the master of the house is risen up, and hath shut to the door, and ye begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, Lord, open unto us; and he shall answer and say unto you, I know you not whence ye are: Then shall ye begin to say, We have eaten and drunk in thy presence, and thou hast taught in our streets. But he shall say, I tell you, I know you not whence ye are; depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity. There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, and you yourselves thrust out. (Luke 13:23–28) The Last Judgment mosaic (14th-century), Saint Vitus Cathedral , Prague, Czech Republic
It also appears in the Sheep and the Goats section of Matthew where the judgment seems entirely based on help given or refused to "one of the least of these my brethren" who are identified in Matthew 12 as "whosoever shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven".
“When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on the throne of his glory. All the nations will be gathered before him, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats, and he will put the sheep at his right hand and the goats at the left. Then the king will say to those at his right hand, ‘Come, you that are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; for I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me, I was naked and you gave me clothing, I was sick and you took care of me, I was in prison and you visited me.’ (Matthew 25:31–36),
And the king will answer them, ‘Truly I tell you, just as you did it to one of the least of these who are members of my family, you did it to me.’ Then he will say to those at his left hand, ‘You that are accursed, depart from me into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels; for I was hungry and you gave me no food, I was thirsty and you gave me nothing to drink, I was a stranger and you did not welcome me, naked and you did not give me clothing, sick and in prison and you did not visit me.’ (Matthew 25:40–43)
Then he will answer them, ‘Truly I tell you, just as you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to me.’ And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.” (Matthew 25:45–46)
The doctrine is further supported by passages in the Books of Daniel , Isaiah and the Revelation :
Then I saw a great white throne and him who was seated on it. From his presence earth and sky fled away, and no place was found for them. And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Then another book was opened, which is the book of life. And the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to what they had done. (Rev 20:11–12)
Even now the axe is lying at the root of the trees; every tree therefore that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. "I baptize you with water for repentance, but one who is more powerful than I is coming after me; I am not worthy to carry his sandals. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire. His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will clear his threshing-floor and will gather his wheat into the granary; but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire." (Matthew 3:10–12)
Just as the weeds are collected and burned up with fire, so will it be at the end of the age. The Son of Man will send his angels, and they will collect out of his kingdom all causes of sin and all evildoers, and they will throw them into the furnace of fire, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Then the righteous will shine like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Let anyone with ears listen! (Matthew 13:40–43)
I tell you, my friends, do not fear those who kill the body, and after that can do nothing more. But I will warn you whom to fear: fear him who, after he has killed, has authority to cast into hell. Yes, I tell you, fear him! (Luke 12:4–5)
I came to bring fire to the earth, and how I wish it were already kindled! (Luke 12:49)
Main article: Amillennialism
Amillennialism is the standard view in Christian denominations such as the Anglican , Catholic , Eastern Orthodox , Lutheran , Methodist and Presbyterian / Reformed Churches. It holds that "the kingdom of God is present in the church age", and that the millennium mentioned in the book of Book of Revelation is a "symbol of the saints reigning with Christ forever in victory."
Anglicanism And Methodism
_ The Last Judgment _ by John Martin (1854)
Christ did truly rise again from death, and took again his body, with flesh, bones, and all things appertaining to the perfection of Man's nature; wherewith he ascended into Heaven, and there sitteth, until he return to judge all Men at the last day.
As such, Anglican and Methodist theology holds that "there is an intermediate state between death and the resurrection of the dead , in which the soul does not sleep in unconsciousness, but exists in happiness or misery till the resurrection, when it shall be reunited to the body and receive its final reward." This space, termed Hades , is divided into Paradise (the Bosom of Abraham ) and Gehenna "but with an impassable gulf between the two". Souls remain in Hades until the Last Judgment and "Christians may also improve in holiness after death during the middle state before the final judgment". Anglican and Methodist theology holds that at the time of the Last Day , "Jesus will return and that He will 'judge both the quick and the dead'," and "all be bodily resurrected and stand before Christ as our Judge. After the Judgment, the Righteous will go to their eternal reward in Heaven and the Accursed will depart to Hell (see Matthew 25)." The "issue of this judgment shall be a permanent separation of the evil and the good, the righteous and the wicked" (see The Sheep and the Goats ). Moreover, in "the final judgment every one of our thoughts, words, and deeds will be known and judged" and individuals will be justified on the basis of their faith in Jesus , although "our works will not escape God's examination."
Belief in the Last Judgment (often linked with the General judgment ) is held firmly in Catholicism . Immediately upon death each soul undergoes the particular judgment , and depending upon the state of the person's soul, goes to Heaven , Purgatory , or Hell . A soul in Purgatory will always reach Heaven, but those in Hell will be there eternally.
The Last Judgment will occur after the resurrection of the dead and the reuniting of a person's soul with own physical body. The Catholic Church teaches that at the time of the Last Judgment Christ will come in His glory , and all the angels with him, and in his presence the truth of each man's relationship with God will be laid bare, and each person who has ever lived will be judged with perfect justice with those believing in Christ (and the unknown number of the righteous ignorant of Christ's teaching, but who might be mysteriously saved through by Christ's atonement), going to everlasting bliss, and those who reject Christ going to everlasting condemnation. At that time, all will be resurrected. Those who were in purgatory will have already been purged, meaning they would have already been released into Heaven, and so like those in Heaven and Hell will resurrect with their bodies. Following the Last Judgment, the bliss of Heaven ">_ The Last Judgment_, 17th-century icon from Lipie. Historic Museum in Sanok , Poland . _ The Last Judgment_, mural from Voroneț Monastery , Romania
The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that there are two judgments: the first, or "Particular" Judgment, is that experienced by each individual at the time of his or her death, at which time God will decide where the soul is to spend the time until the Second Coming of Christ (see Hades in Christianity ). This judgment is generally believed to occur on the fortieth day after death. The second, "General" or "Final" Judgment will occur after the Second Coming. Although in modern times some have attempted to introduce the concept of soul sleep into Orthodox thought about life after death, it has never been a part of traditional Orthodox teaching, and it even contradicts the Orthodox understanding of the intercession of the Saints .
Eastern Orthodoxy teaches that salvation is bestowed by God as a free gift of Divine grace , which cannot be earned, and by which forgiveness of sins is available to all. However, the deeds done by each person are believed to affect how he will be judged, following the Parable of the Sheep and the Goats. How forgiveness is to be balanced against behavior is not well-defined in scripture, judgment in the matter being solely Christ's. Similarly, although Orthodoxy teaches that salvation is obtained only through Christ and his Church, the fate of those outside the Church at the Last Judgment is left to the mercy of God and is not declared. _ The Last Judgment_, 1904
The theme of the Last Judgment is extremely important in Orthodoxy. Traditionally, an Orthodox church will have a fresco or mosaic of the Last Judgment on the back (western) wall (see the 12th-century mosaic pictured at the top of this page) so that the faithful, as they leave the services, are reminded that they will be judged by what they do during this earthly life.
The icon of the Last Judgment traditionally depicts Christ Pantokrator , enthroned in glory on a white throne, surrounded by the Theotokos (Virgin Mary), John the Baptist , Apostles , saints and angels . Beneath the throne the scene is divided in half with the "mansions of the righteous" (John 14:2), i.e., those who have been saved to Jesus' right (the viewer's left); and the torments of those who have been damned to his left. Separating the two is the River of fire which proceeds from Jesus' left foot. For more detail, see below.
The theme of the Last Judgment is found in the funeral and memorial hymnody of the Church, and is a major theme in the services during Great Lent . The second Sunday before the beginning of Great Lent is dedicated to the Last Judgment. It is also found in the hymns of the Octoechos used on Saturdays throughout the year.
Lutherans do not believe in any sort of earthly millennial kingdom of Christ either before or after his second coming on the last day. On the last day, all the dead will be resurrected. Their souls will then be reunited with the same bodies they had before dying. The bodies will then be changed, those of the wicked to a state of everlasting shame and torment, those of the righteous to an everlasting state of celestial glory. After the resurrection of all the dead, and the change of those still living, all nations shall be gathered before Christ, and he will separate the righteous from the wicked. Christ will publicly judge all people by the testimony of their faith— the good works of the righteous in evidence of their faith, and the evil works of the wicked in evidence of their unbelief. He will judge in righteousness in the presence of all and men and angels, and his final judgement will be just damnation to everlasting punishment for the wicked and a gracious gift of life everlasting to the righteous.
Particularly among those Protestant groups who adhere to a millennialist eschatology, the Last Judgment is said to be carried out before the Great White Throne by Jesus Christ to either eternal life or eternal consciousness in the lake of fire at the end of time . Salvation is granted by grace based on the individual's surrender and commitment to Jesus Christ. A second particular judgment they refer to as the Bema Seat judgement occurs after (or as) salvation is discerned when awards are granted based on works toward heavenly treasures. What happens after death and before the final judgment is hotly contested; some believe all people sleep in Sheol until the resurrection, others believe Christians dwell in Heaven and pagans wander the earth, and others consider the time to pass instantaneously. Nevertheless, the body is not fully redeemed until after Death is destroyed after the Great Tribulation .
Protestant Millennialism falls into roughly two categories: Premillennialist (Christ's second coming precedes the millennium ) and Postmillennialist (which sees Christ's second coming as occurring after the millennium).
Dispensational premillennialism generally holds that Israel and the Church are separate. It also widely holds to the pretribulational return of Christ, which believes that Jesus will return before a seven-year Tribulation followed by an additional return of Christ with his saints.
ESOTERIC CHRISTIAN TRADITION
Although the Last Judgment is preached by a great part of Christian mainstream churches; the Esoteric Christian traditions like the Essenes and Rosicrucians , the Spiritualist movement , Christian Science , and some liberal theologies reject the traditional conception of the Last Judgment, as inconsistent with an all-just and loving God , in favor of some form of universal salvation .
Max Heindel taught that when the Day of Christ comes, marking the end of the current fifth or Aryan epoch, the human race will have to pass a final examination or last judgment, where, as in the _Days of Noah_, the chosen ones or pioneers, the _sheep_, will be separated from the _goats_ or stragglers, by being carried forward into the next evolutionary period, inheriting the ethereal conditions of the New Galilee in the making. Nevertheless, it is emphasized that all beings of the human evolution will ultimately be saved in a distant future as they acquire a superior grade of consciousness and altruism . At the present period, the process of human evolution is conducted by means of successive rebirths in the physical world and the salvation is seen as being mentioned in Revelation 3:12 ( KJV ), which states "Him that overcometh will I make a _pillar_ in the temple of my God and _he shall go no more out_". However, this western esoteric tradition states—like those who have had a near-death experience —that after the death of the physical body, at the end of each physical lifetime and after the life review period (which occurs before the silver cord is broken), it occurs a judgment , more akin to a Final Review or End Report over one's life , where the life of the subject is fully evaluated and scrutinized. This judgment is seen as being mentioned in Hebrews 9:27, which states that "it is appointed unto men once to die, but _after this the judgment_".
In art, the Last Judgment is a common theme in medieval and renaissance religious iconography. Like most early iconographic innovations, its origins stem from Byzantine art , although it was a much less common subject than in the West during the Middle Ages. In Western Christianity, it is often the subject depicted in medieval cathedrals and churches, either outside on the central tympanum of the entrance, or inside on the (rear) west wall, so that the congregation attending church saw the image on either entering of leaving. In the 15th century it also appeared as the central section of a triptych on altarpieces , with the side panels showing heaven and hell, as in the Beaune Altarpiece or a triptych by Hans Memling . The usual composition has Christ seated high in the centre, flanked by angels and the Virgin Mary and John the Evangelist who are supplicating on behalf of the souls being judged (in what is called a Deesis group in Orthodoxy). Saint Michael is often shown, either weighing souls on scales or directing matters, and there might be a large crowd of saints, angels, and the saved around the central group.
At the bottom of the composition a crowd of souls are shown, often with some rising from their graves. These are being sorted and directed by angels into the saved and the damned. Almost always the saved are on the viewer's left (so on the right hand of Christ), and the damned on the right. The saved are led up to heaven , often shown as a fortified gateway , while the damned are handed over to devils who herd them down into hell on the right; the composition therefore has a circular pattern of movement. Often the damned disappear into a Hellmouth , the mouth of a huge monster, an image of Anglo-Saxon origin. The damned often include figures of high rank, wearing crowns, mitres and often the Papal tiara during the lengthy periods when there were antipopes , or in Protestant depictions. There may be detailed depictions of the torments of the damned.
The image in Eastern Orthodox icons has a similar composition, but usually less space is devoted to Hell, and there are often a larger number of scenes; the Orthodox readiness to label figures with inscriptions often allows more complex compositions. There is more often a large group of saints around Christ (which may include animals), and the hetoimasia or "empty throne", containing a cross, is usually shown below Christ, often guarded by archangels; figures representing Adam and Eve may kneel below it or below Christ. A distinctive feature of the Orthodox composition, especially in Russian icons, is a large band leading like a chute from the feet of Christ down to Hell; this may resemble a striped snake or be a "river of Fire" coloured flame red. If it is shown as a snake, it attempts to bite Adam on the heel, but as he is protected by Christ is unsuccessful.
Main article: Islamic view of the Last Judgment
According to Islamic mythology , _Yawm al-Qiyāmah_ (Arabic : يوم القيامة "the Day of Resurrection") or _Yawm ad-Din_ (Arabic : يوم الدين "the Day of Judgment") is believed to be God\'s (Allāh) final assessment of humanity. The sequence of events (according to the most commonly held belief) is the annihilation of all creatures, resurrection of the body, and the judgment of all sentient creatures. It is a time where everyone would be shown his or her deeds and actions with justice.
The exact time when these events will occur is unknown, however there are said to be major and minor signs which are to occur near the time of _Qiyammah_ ( End time ). It is believed that prior to the time of _Qiyammah_, two dangerous, evil tribes called _Yajooj_ and _Majooj_ are released from a dam-resembling wall that Allah makes stronger everyday. Many verses of the Qu'ran, especially the earlier ones, are dominated by the idea of the nearing of the day of resurrection.
Belief in Judgment Day is considered a fundamental tenet of faith by all Muslims. It is one of the six articles of faith . The trials and tribulations associated with it are detailed in both the Quran and the hadith , sayings of the Prophet Muhammad . Hence they were added in the commentaries of the Islamic expositors and scholarly authorities such as al-Ghazali , Ibn Kathir , Ibn Majah , Muhammad al-Bukhari , and Ibn Khuzaimah who explain them in detail. Every human, Muslim and non-Muslim alike, is believed to be held accountable for their deeds and are believed to be judged by God accordingly.
Main article: Jewish eschatology
In Judaism , beliefs vary about a last day of judgment for all mankind. Some rabbis hold that there will be such a day following the resurrection of the dead . Others hold that this accounting and judgment happens when one dies. Still others hold that the last judgment only applies to the gentiles (goyim ) and not the Jewish people.
The Bab and Baha\'u\'llah taught that there is one unfolding religion of one God and that once in about every 1000 years a new Prophet (Nabi ), Messenger ( Rasul ), or as Bahais call them, Manifestation of God , comes to mankind to renew the Kingdom of God on earth and establish a new Covenant between humanity and God. Each time a new Manifestation of God comes it is considered the Day of Judgement or Day of Resurrection for the believers and unbelievers of the previous Messenger. The Bab told of the judgment:
"There shall be no resurrection of the day, in the sense of the coming forth from the physical graves.
Rather, the resurrection of all shall occur (in the form of) those that are living in that age. If they belong to paradise, they shall be believers, if to hell, they shall be unbelievers. There is no denying that upon the Day of Resurrection, each and every thing shall be raised to life before God, may he be praised and glorified. For God shall originate that creation and then cause it to return. He has decreed the creation of all things, and he shall raise them to life again. God is powerful over all things."
Also, the coming of The Bab is the promised Mahdi and Qaim , and the coming of Baha\'u\'llah is the return of Christ in the glory of the Father, which respectively signify the Day of Judgement foretold by Muhammad in the Quran and the Day of Resurrection foretold by the Bayan
FUTURE DAY OF JUDGMENT
Last Judgment (Russia, 18th century)
Baha'u'llah wrote in the Kitab-i-Aqdas : "Whoso layeth claim to Revelation direct from God, ere the expiration of a full thousand years, such a man is assuredly a lying imposter." The thousand years is calculated from beginning in October 1852 CE and they could refer to either lunar or solar years, which associate to roughly the Islamic New Year of 2270 AH or October 2853 CE.
Moreover, in Tablets of Baha\'u\'llah : “We will now mention unto thee Trustworthiness and the station thereof in the estimation of God, thy Lord, the Lord of the Mighty Throne. One day of days We repaired unto Our Green Island. Upon Our arrival, We beheld its streams flowing, and its trees luxuriant, and the sunlight playing in their midst. Turning Our face to the right, We beheld what the pen is powerless to describe; nor can it set forth that which the eye of the Lord of Mankind witnessed in that most sanctified, that most sublime, that blest, and most exalted Spot. Turning, then, to the left We gazed on one of the Beauties of the Most Sublime Paradise, standing on a pillar of light, and calling aloud saying: ‘O inmates of earth and heaven! Behold ye My beauty, and My radiance, and My revelation, and My effulgence. By God, the True One! I am Trustworthiness and the revelation thereof, and the beauty thereof. I will recompense whosoever will cleave unto Me, and recognize My rank and station, and hold fast unto My hem. I am the most great ornament of the people of Bahá, and the vesture of glory unto all who are in the kingdom of creation. I am the supreme instrument for the prosperity of the world, and the horizon of assurance unto all beings.’" Also, according to Abjad in the Arabic alphabet , 'amin', or trust, is equal to 2, and the year 1001 B.E. is also equal to 2.
The Bab wrote: "He Who will shine resplendent in the Day of Resurrection is the inner reality enshrined in the Point of the Bayan" which referred to Baha'u'llah being the inner reality of The Bab. The 'Point of the Bayan' refers to The Bab Himself. Moreover, The Bab foretold the coming 'Him Whom God shall manifest', which Bahais believe is Baha'u'llah.
In summary, it could be that 1) Baha'u'llah is the inner reality of The Bab and 2) the Maid of Heaven is the inner reality of Baha'u'llah. Therefore, that 3) One Who comes in the Station of the Maid of Heaven after the 'full thousand years' could claim 'direct Revelation from God'. However, the voice of the Maid of Heaven was personified: “O my friends,” She said, “We shall not come again." This could mean that the Maiden of Heaven (Mirza Husayn 'Ali i-Nuri Baha'u'llah's inner reality) will not return, although Sayyed \'Ali Muhammad Shirazi (The Bab) signified that His own inner reality would come in He Whom God Shall make manifest. Furthermore, in the voice of the Maid of Heaven: “But will conceal God’s secrets in His Scriptures and His Books,” as bidden by One mighty and bounteous indeed! “Nor shall ye find Me till the Promised One appear on Judgement Day.” Additionally, Baha'u'llah warned not to be dismayed if the next Revelation, direct from God, is from a Nabi (Prophet). Furthermore, In the Kitab-i-Iqan , Baha'u'llah revealed that every Dispensation's Messenger is rejected using the Scriptures of the past and because "every subsequent Revelation hath abolished the manners, habits, and teachings that have been clearly, specifically, and firmly established by the former Dispensation".
* Apocatastasis * Atonement in Christianity * Christian Eschatology * Day of Atonement * General judgment * God the Father in Western art * Intermediate state * Lawsuits against God * List of dates predicted for apocalyptic events * New World Order (conspiracy) * Particular judgment * Plan of salvation (Latter Day Saints) Mormon view * Pralay * Ragnarök * Revelation * Second Coming * Yama (Buddhism and Chinese mythology) * Problem of evil
* ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: General Judgment: "Few truths are more often or more clearly proclaimed in Scripture than that of the general judgment. To it the prophets of the Old Testament refer when they speak of the ' Day of the Lord ' (Joel 2:31; Ezekiel 13:5; Isaiah 2:12), in which the nations will be summoned to judgment by the Fathers. In the New Testament the Parousia , or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine. The Saviour Himself not only foretells the event but graphically portrays its circumstances (Matthew 24:27 sqq.; 25:31 sqq.). The Apostles give a most prominent place to this doctrine in their preaching (Acts 10:42; 17:31) and writings (Romans 2:5–16; 14:10; 1 Corinthians 4:5; 2 Corinthians 5:10; 2 Timothy 4:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:5; James 5:7). Besides the name Parusia (parousia), or Advent (1 Corinthians 15:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:19), the Second Coming is also called Epiphany, epiphaneia, or Appearance (2 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 Timothy 6:14; 2 Timothy 4:1; Titus 2:13), and Apocalypse (apokalypsis), or Revelation (2 Thessalonians 2:7; 1 Peter 4:13). The time of the Second Coming is spoken of as 'that Day' (2 Timothy 4:8), 'the day of the Lord' (1 Thessalonians 5:2), 'the day of Christ' (Philemon 1:6), 'the day of the Son of Man' (Luke 17:30), 'the last day' (John 6:39–40). The belief in the general judgment has prevailed at all times and in all places within the Church. It is contained as an article of faith in all the ancient creeds: 'He ascended into heaven. From thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead' (Apostles\' Creed ). The two shall come again with glory to judge both the living and the dead' ( Nicene Creed ). 'From thence they shall come to judge the living and the dead, at whose coming all men must rise with their bodies and are to render an account of their deeds' ( Athanasian Creed ). Relying on the authority of Papias , several Fathers of the first four centuries advanced the theory of a thousand years' terrestrial reign of Christ with the saints to precede the end of the World (see article on MILLENNIUM). Though this idea is interwoven with the eschatological teachings of those writers, it in no way detracted from their belief in a universal world-judgment. Patristic testimony to this dogma is clear and unanimous." * ^ Matthew 25:40 and Matthew 25:45 * ^ Matthew 12:50 * ^ Jon Kennedy. _The Everything Jesus Book: His Life, His Teachings_. Adams Media . With some variations, amillennialism is the traditional eschatology of the Catholic, Orthodox, Lutheran, Calvinist ( Presbyterian and Reformed), Anglican, and Methodist Churches. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Schwarz, John E. (1999). _The Compact Guide to the Christian Faith_. Bethany House Publishers. ISBN 9780764222702 . Most churches — Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox — are amillennial. * ^ Enns, Paul P (1 February 2008). _The Moody Handbook of Theology_. Moody Publishers. p. 403. ISBN 9780802480187 . * ^ Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C.; Beck, Astrid B. (2000). _Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible_. W.B. Eerdmans. p. 900. ISBN 9780802824004 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Articles of Religion, As established by the Bishops, the Clergy, and the Laity of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, in Convention, on the twelfth day of September, in the Year of our Lord, 1801". Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America . 1801. Retrieved 29 September 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Articles of Religion of the Methodist Church". The United Methodist Church . 1784. Retrieved 29 September 2015. * ^ Holden, George (1855). _The Anglican Catechist: Manual of Instruction Preparatory to Confirmation_. London: Joseph Masters. p. 40. We are further taught by it that there is an intermediate state between death and the resurrection, in which the soul does not sleep in unconsciousness, but exists in happiness or misery till the resurrection, when it shall be reunited to the body and receive its final reward. * ^ Swartz, Alan (20 April 2009). _United Methodists and the Last Days_. Hermeneutic. Wesley believed that when we die we will go to an Intermediate State ( Paradise for the Righteous and Hades for the Accursed). We will remain there until the Day of Judgment when we will all be bodily resurrected and stand before Christ as our Judge. After the Judgment, the Righteous will go to their eternal reward in Heaven and the Accursed will depart to Hell (see Matthew 25). * ^ Cook, Joseph (1883). _Advanced thought in Europe, Asia, Australia, &c_. London: Richard D. Dickinson. p. 41. Anglican orthodoxy, without protest, has allowed high authorities to teach that there is an intermediate state, Hades, including both Gehenna and Paradise, but with an impassable gulf between the two. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Withington, John Swann (1878). _The United Methodist Free Churches' Magazine_. London: Thomas Newton. p. 685. The country is called Hades. That portion of it which is occupied by the good is called Paradise, and that province which is occupied by the wicked is called Gehenna. * ^ Shields, Charles (2009-05-01). _Philosophia Ultima_. Applewood Books. p. 184. ISBN 9781429019644 . Some Anglican divines, from like premises, have surmised that Christians may also improve in holiness after death during the middle state before the final judgment. * ^ Crowther, Jonathan (1813). _A True and Complete Portraiture of Methodism_. Daniel Hitt and Thomas Ware. p. 195. The Methodists believe in a state of separate spirits after death, a general resurrection, a day of judgment, and a stateof eternal happiness and eternal misery. 1 They believe in a state of separate spirits. The bodies of men, after death, return to dust and see corruption; but their souls neither _die_ nor _sleep_, but have an immortal subsistence, and immediately "return to God who gave them." The souls of the righteous, being made perfect, are received into paradise, where they are with Christ in unspeakable felicity, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ A. Mitchican, Jonathan (23 December 2011). "Ask an Anglican: The End of the World". The Conciliar Anglican. 'ALMIGHTY God, give us grace that we may cast away the works of darkness, and put upon us the armour of light, now in the time of this mortal life in which thy Son Jesus Christ came to visit us in great humility; that in the last day, when he shall come again in his glorious majesty to judge both the quick and the dead, we may rise to the life immortal; through him who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, one God, now and for ever. Amen.' ... On that last day, the collect tells us that Jesus will return and that He will “judge both the quick and the dead,” echoing the language of the creeds. Missing or empty url= (help ); access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ _A_ _B_ Campbell, Ted A. (1 December 2011). _Methodist Doctrine: The Essentials_. Abingdon Press. p. 78. ISBN 9781426713644 . The third Article of Religion affirms that Christ "ascended into heaven, and there sitteth until he return to judge all men at the last day." This statement is consistent with the Apostles' Creed ("from thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead") and the Nicene Creed ("He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead"). In the end, Christ will be our judge. Wesley's _Sermons_ maintain that at the final judgment every one of our thoughts, words, and deeds will be known and judged. Our justification on "the last day" will again be by faith in Christ but our works will not escape God's examination. * ^ Swartz, Alan (20 April 2009). _United Methodists and the Last Days_. Hermeneutic. Wesley believed that when we die we will go to an Intermediate State ( Paradise for the Righteous and Hades for the Accursed). We will remain there until the Day of Judgment when we will all be bodily resurrected and stand before Christ as our Judge. After the Judgment, the Righteous will go to their eternal reward in Heaven and the Accursed will depart to Hell (see Matthew 25). * ^ Ritchie, Arthur (1888). "Six Sermons to Men Preached in St. Ignatius\' Church New York City During Lent, 1888". American Bank Note Co. Retrieved 29 September 2015. The teaching of the Bible concerning the General Judgment at the end of the world presupposes a particular judgment of each soul at the hour of death, for the king at that last judgment shall separate the righteous from the wicked "as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats." * ^ Stuart, George Rutledge; Chappell, Edwin Barfield (1922). _What Every Methodist Should Know_. Publishing house of the M. E. church, South, Lamar & Barton, agents. p. 77. The issue of this judgment shall be a permanent separation of the evil and the good, the righteous and the wicked. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Olliffe, Matt (23 September 2005). "What will happen on Judgement Day?". Sydney Anglican Network. Retrieved 30 September 2015. Our decisions matter. Our throw away lines. Our thoughts and motives. They all have eternal meaning. * ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church 990 * ^ The Orthodox do not have an understanding of "Purgatory." Rather, they believe that the souls of the departed will await the Final Judgment either in heaven or hell—but that there are different levels of heaven and different levels of hell—and they believe that the prayers of the Church can help to ease the sufferings of the souls, but do not dogmatize as to how exactly this is accomplished. * ^ "Joh 18:36; ESV - Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not of - Bible Gateway". _Bible Gateway_. * ^ John 6:40, John 6:54 * ^ John 5:21, John 5:28–29, Matthew 25:32, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Acts 24:15 * ^ Romans 8:11, Philippians 3:21, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Job 19:26, 1 Corinthians 15:44, 1 Corinthians 15:53, John 5:28, Revelation 20:12 * ^ Daniel 12:2, Matthew 25:41–46, John 5:29 * ^ Daniel 12:1–2, John 5:29, 1 Corinthians 15:52, 1 Corinthians 15:42–44, 1 Corinthians 15:49–53, Philippians 3:21, Matthew 13:43, Revelation 7:16 * ^ John 6:40, John 6:44, John 11:24 * ^ 1 Corinthians 15:51–52, 1 Thessalonians 4:15–17 * ^ Matthew 25:32, Romans 14:10, John 5:22, Acts 17:31, Revelation 1:7 * ^ Matthew 25:32, Mark 16:16 * ^ 2 Corinthians 5:10, 1 Corinthians 4:5, Romans 2:5, Romans 2:16 * ^ Ephesians 2:8–10, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Matthew 25:35–36, Matthew 25:42–43 * ^ Isaiah 43:25, Ezekiel 18:22, 1 John 2:28 * ^ Matthew 25:34–35, John 3:16–18, John 3:36, Revelation 14:13, Galatians 5:6, John 13:35 * ^ Matthew 25:42, Matthew 7:17–18, John 3:18, John 3:36 * ^ Romans 2:5, Acts 17:31, Romans 2:16 * ^ Luke 9:26, Matthew 25:31–32 * ^ Matthew 25:41, Matthew 25:34, Matthew 25:46, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). _Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology_. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 233–8. * ^ "Matthew 6:19-24". _ESV Bible_. * ^ Max Heindel, _The Days of Noah and of Christ_ in Teachings of an Initiate (posthumous publication of collected works), ISBN 0-911274-19-7 * ^ Cf. Matthew 25:31–35 * ^ Max Heindel , The Rosicrucian Christianity Lectures (The Riddle of Life and Death), 1908, ISBN 0-911274-84-7 * ^ Max Heindel, Death and Life in Purgatory – Life and Activity in Heaven * ^ Remarkably, only three Byzantine icons of the subject survive, all at St Catherine\'s Monastery . Daly, 252 * ^ Janson, H. W.; Janson, Dora Jane (1977). _History of Art_ (Second ed.). Englewood and New York: Prentis-Hall & Harry N. Abrams. p. 428. ISBN 0-13-389296-4 . * ^ "Major Signs before the Day of Judgement (Qiyamah)". _inter-islam.org_. * ^ "Signs Of Qiyaamah". _inter-islam.org_. * ^ Isaac Hasson, _Last Judgment_, Encyclopaedia of the Qur\'an * ^ L. Gardet, _Qiyama_, Encyclopaedia of the Qur\'an * ^ "Will there be trial and judgment after the Resurrection?". _Will there be trial and judgment after the Resurrection?_. Askmoses.com. Retrieved 2 May 2012. * ^ "The Persian Bayan". _bahai-library.com_. * ^ "Gems of Divine Mysteries - Bahá’í Reference Library". _bahai.org_. * ^ Bab, The (2006). _Selections from the Writings of the Bab_ (Second ed.). 415 Linden Avenue, Wilmette, IL 60091-2844: Bahai Publishing Trust. p. 101 (3:3). ISBN 978-0-87743-311-8 . * ^ Baha'u'llah, Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri. _Kitab-i-Aqdas_. Retrieved 3 January 2017. * ^ Baha'u'llah, Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri. _Kitab-i-Aqdas_. Retrieved 3 January 2017. * ^ "Tablets of Baha\'u\'llah". _The Bahai Faith_. Bahai Publishing Trust. Retrieved 24 July 2017. first1= missing last1= in Authors list (help ) * ^ Al-Bab, Siyyid Ali Muhammad Shirazi. _Selections from the Writings of the Bab_. Retrieved 3 January 2017. * ^ Baha'u'llah, Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri. _Kitab-i-Aqdas_. Retrieved 3 January 2017. * ^ Baha'u'llah, Mirza Husayn 'Ali i-Nuri. "Days of Remembrance". _bahai.org_. Retrieved 30 March 2017. * ^ Baha'u'llah, Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri. _Days of Remembrance_. Retrieved 24 January 2017. * ^ "Strong\'s Concordance". _biblehub.com_. Retrieved 8 April 2017. * ^ Baha'u'llah, Mirza Husayn 'Ali i-Nuri. "Kitab-i-Aqdas". _bahai.org_. Retrieved 30 March 2017. * ^ Baha'u'llah, Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri. "Kitab-i-Iqan". _bahai.org_. Retrieved 8 April 2017. * ^ Baha'u'llah, Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri. "Kitab-i-Iqan". _bahai.org_. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
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