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Lakshmi
Lakshmi
(/ˈləksmiː/; Sanskrit: लक्ष्मी, IAST: lakṣmī) or Laxmi, is the Hindu goddess
Hindu goddess
of wealth, fortune and prosperity.[1][5] She is the wife and shakti (energy) of Vishnu, one of the principal deities of Hinduism
Hinduism
and the Supreme Being in the Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
Tradition.[4] Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is also an important deity in Jainism
Jainism
and found in Jain
Jain
temples.[6] Lakshmi
Lakshmi
has also been a goddess of abundance and fortune for Buddhists, and was represented on the oldest surviving stupas and cave temples of Buddhism.[7][8] In Buddhist
Buddhist
sects of Tibet, Nepal
Nepal
and southeast Asia, goddess Vasudhara mirrors the characteristics and attributes of the Hindu
Hindu
goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
with minor iconographic differences.[9] Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is also called Sri[1] or Thirumagal because she is endowed with six auspicious and divine qualities, or gunas, and is the divine strength of Vishnu. In Hindu
Hindu
religion, she was born from the churning of the primordial ocean (Samudra manthan) and she chose Vishnu
Vishnu
as her eternal consort.[10] When Vishnu
Vishnu
descended on the Earth as the avatars Rama
Rama
and Krishna, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
descended as his respective consort.[11][12] In the ancient scriptures of India, all women are declared to be embodiments of Lakshmi.[13] The marriage and relationship between Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and Vishnu
Vishnu
as wife and husband is the paradigm for rituals and ceremonies for the bride and groom in Hindu
Hindu
weddings.[14] Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is considered another aspect of the same supreme goddess principle in the Shaktism
Shaktism
tradition of Hinduism.[15] Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is depicted in Indian art as an elegantly dressed, prosperity-showering golden-coloured woman with an owl as her vehicle, signifying the importance of economic activity in maintenance of life, her ability to move, work and prevail in confusing darkness.[3] She typically stands or sits like a yogin on a lotus pedestal and holds lotus in her hand, a symbolism for fortune, self-knowledge and spiritual liberation.[10][16] Her iconography shows her with four hands, which represent the four goals of human life considered important to the Hindu
Hindu
way of life: dharma, kāma, artha, and moksha.[17][18] Archaeological discoveries and ancient coins suggest the recognition and reverence for Lakshmi
Lakshmi
by the 1st millennium BCE.[19][20] Lakshmi's iconography and statues have also been found in Hindu
Hindu
temples throughout southeast Asia, estimated to be from the second half of the 1st millennium CE.[21][22] The festivals of Diwali
Diwali
and Sharad Purnima (Kojagiri Purnima) are celebrated in her honor.[23]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Symbolism and iconography 3 Names 4 Ancient literature on Lakshmi

4.1 Upanishads 4.2 Stotrams and sutras 4.3 Puranas 4.4 Subhasita, gnomic and didactic literature

5 Manifestations and aspects

5.1 Secondary manifestations 5.2 Jain
Jain
temples

6 Creation and legends 7 Celebration in Hindu
Hindu
society 8 Hymns 9 Archaeology 10 Related goddesses

10.1 Japan 10.2 Tibet
Tibet
and Nepal 10.3 Bali
Bali
(Indonesia)

11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology[edit]

A painting of Lakshmi
Lakshmi
on the inner walls of the Tanjore Big temple.

Lakshmi
Lakshmi
(Lakṣmī) is one of many Hindu
Hindu
deities whose meaning and significance evolved in ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts.[24] Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is mentioned once in Rigveda, but the context suggests that the word does not mean goddess of wealth and fortune, rather it means kindred mark or sign of auspicious fortune.[1][24]

भद्रैषां लक्ष्मीर्निहिताधि वाचि bhadraiṣāṁ lakṣmīrnihitādhi vāci "an auspicious fortune is attached to their words" — Rig Veda, x.71.2, Translated by John Muir[24]

In Atharvaveda, composed about 1000 BCE, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
evolves into a complex concept with plural manifestations. Book 7, Chapter 115 of Atharva Veda describes the plurality, asserting that a hundred Lakshmis are born with the body of a mortal at birth, some good, punya (virtuous) and auspicious, while others bad, paapi (evil) and unfortunate. The good are welcomed, while the bad urged to leave.[24] The concept and spirit of Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and her association with fortune and the good is significant enough that Atharva Veda mentions it in multiple books: for example, in Book 12, Chapter 5 as punya Lakshmi.[25] In some chapters of Atharva Veda, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
connotes the good, an auspicious sign, good luck, good fortune, prosperity, success and happiness.[1]

Goddess Lakshmi

Bharhut
Bharhut
Stupa, 2nd century BC

Coins of Gandhara, 1st century BCE

Coinage of Gupta Empire

Cambodia

Vietnam, 10th century

Malaysia

Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is one of the trinity of Hindu
Hindu
goddesses. Her iconography is found in ancient and modern Hindu
Hindu
temples.

Later, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is referred to as the goddess of fortune, identified with Sri
Sri
and regarded as wife of Viṣṇu (Nārāyaṇa).[1] For example, in Shatapatha Brahmana, variously estimated to be composed between 800 BCE and 300 BCE, Sri
Sri
(Lakshmi) is part of one of many theories, in ancient India, about the creation of universe. In Book 9 of Shatapatha Brahmana, Sri
Sri
emerges from Prajapati, after his intense meditation on creation of life and nature of universe. Sri
Sri
is described as beautiful, resplendent and trembling woman at her birth with immense energy and powers.[24] The gods were bewitched, desire her and immediately become covetous of her. The gods approach Prajapati
Prajapati
and request permission to kill her and then take her powers, talents and gifts. Prajapati
Prajapati
refuses, tells the gods that males should not kill females and that they can seek her gifts without violence.[26] The gods then approach Lakshmi, deity Agni
Agni
gets food, Soma gets kingly authority, Varuna
Varuna
gets imperial authority, Mitra acquires martial energy, Indra
Indra
gets force, Brihaspati gets priestly authority, Savitri acquires dominion, Pushan gets splendour, Saraswati takes nourishment and Tvashtri gets forms.[24] The hymns of Shatapatha Brahmana
Brahmana
thus describe Sri
Sri
as a goddess born with and personifying a diverse range of talents and powers. According to another legend, she emerges during the creation of universe, floating over the water on the expanded petals of a lotus flower; she is also variously regarded as wife of Dharma, mother of Kāma, sister or mother of Dhātṛ and Vidhātṛ, wife of Dattatreya, one of the nine Shaktis of Viṣṇu, a manifestation of Prakṛti as identified with Dākshāyaṇī in Bharatasrama and as Sita, wife of Rama.[1][27] In the Epics of Hinduism, such as in Mahabharata, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
personifies wealth, riches, beauty, happiness, loveliness, grace, charm and splendour.[1] In another Hindu
Hindu
legend, about the creation of universe as described in Ramayana,[28] Lakshmi
Lakshmi
springs with other precious things from the foam of the ocean of milk when it is churned by the gods and demons for the recovery of Amṛta. She appeared with a lotus in her hand and so she is also called Padmā.[1][29]

Root of the word

Lakshmi
Lakshmi
in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is derived from the root word lakṣ (लक्ष्) and lakṣa(लक्ष), meaning to perceive, observe, know, understand and goal, aim, objective respectively.[30] These roots give Lakshmi
Lakshmi
the symbolism: know and understand your goal.[31] A related term is lakṣaṇa, which means sign, target, aim, symbol, attribute, quality, lucky mark, auspicious opportunity.[32] Symbolism and iconography[edit]

Bas relief of Gaja Lakshmi
Lakshmi
at the Buddhist
Buddhist
Sanchi
Sanchi
Stupa, Stupa
Stupa
I, North gateway, Satavahana dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
sculpture, 1st century CE.[33]

The image, icons and sculptures of Lakshmi
Lakshmi
are represented with symbolism. Her name is derived from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
root words for knowing the goal and understanding the objective.[31] Her four arms are symbolic of the four goals of humanity that are considered good in Hinduism
Hinduism
- dharma (pursuit of ethical, moral life), artha (pursuit of wealth, means of life), kama (pursuit of love, emotional fulfillment) and moksha (pursuit of self-knowledge, liberation).[18][34] In Lakshmi's iconography, she is either sitting or standing on a lotus and typically carrying a lotus in one or two hands. The lotus carries symbolic meanings in Hinduism
Hinduism
and other Indian traditions. It symbolically knowledge, self-realisation and liberation in Vedic context, and represents reality, consciousness and karma (work, deed) in the Tantra
Tantra
(Sahasrara) context.[35] The lotus, a flower that blossoms in clean or dirty water, also symbolises purity and beauty regardless of the good or bad circumstances in which its grows. It is a reminder that good and prosperity can bloom and not be affected by evil in one's surrounding.[36][37] Below, behind or on the sides, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is sometimes shown with one or two elephants and occasionally with an owl. Elephants symbolise work, activity and strength, as well as water, rain and fertility for abundant prosperity.[38] The owl signifies the patient striving to observe, see and discover knowledge particularly when surrounded by darkness. As a bird reputedly blinded by daylight, the owl also serves as a symbolic reminder to refrain from blindness and greed after knowledge and wealth has been acquired.[39]

Manuscript painting of Gaja-Lakshmi, ca 1780 AD.

In some representations, wealth either symbolically pours out from one of her hands or she simply holds a jar of money. This symbolism has a dual meaning: wealth manifested through Lakshmi
Lakshmi
means both material as well as spiritual wealth.[35] Her face and open hands are in a mudra that signify compassion, giving or daana(charity).[34] Lakshmi
Lakshmi
typically wears a red dress embroidered with golden threads, symbolism for beauty and wealth. She, goddess of wealth and prosperity, is often represented with her husband Vishnu, the god who maintains human life filled with justice and peace. This symbolism implies wealth and prosperity is coupled with maintenance of life, justice, and peace.[35] Names[edit] Lakshmi
Lakshmi
has numerous names and numerous ancient Stotram
Stotram
and Sutras of Hinduism
Hinduism
recite her various names:[13][40]

Padma: Lotus-dweller Kamala: Lotus-dweller Padmapriya: One who likes lotuses Padmamaladhara devi: One who wears a garland of lotuses Padmamukhi: One whose face is as beautiful as a lotus Padmakshi: One whose eyes are as beautiful as a lotus Padmahasta: One who holds a lotus Padmasundari: One who is as beautiful as a lotus Sri: Goddess Sri
Sri
Lakshmi, Opulence Srija: Jatika of goddess Lakshmi Jagadishwari: Supreme Mother who rules the universe Vishnupriya: One who is the beloved of Vishnu Ulkavahini: One who rides an owl

Her other names include:[13] Ambika, Manushri, Mohini, Chakrika, Kamalika, Aishwarya, Lalima, Indira, Kalyani, Nandika, Nandini, Rujula, Vaishnavi, Samruddhi, Narayani, Bhargavi, Sridevi, Chanchala, Jalaja, Madhavi, Sujata, Shreeya, Prachi, Haripriya, Maheshwari, Madhu, Parama, Janamodini, Tripura, Tulsi, Ketki, Malti, Vidya, Vasuda, Vedavati, Trilochana, Tilottama, Subha, Chandika, Devi, Kriyalakshmi, Viroopa, Vani, Gayatri, Savitri, Apara or Aparajita, Aparna, Aruna, Akhila, Bala, Tara, Kuhu, Purnima, Aditi, Anumati, Avashya, Sita, Rama, Rukmini, Taruni, Jyotsna, Jyoti, Nimeshika, Atibha, Ishaani, Smriti, Durga, Sharanya, Shivasahodari Sri.[40] Ancient literature on Lakshmi[edit] Upanishads[edit] Shakta Upanishads
Upanishads
are dedicated to the trinity (Tridevi) of goddesses - Lakshmi, Saraswati
Saraswati
and Parvati. Saubhagyalakshmi Upanishad, describes the qualities, characteristics and powers of Lakshmi.[41] In the second part of the Upanishad, the emphasis shifts to the use of yoga and transcendence from material craving in order to achieve spiritual knowledge and self-realisation, the true wealth.[42][43] Saubhagya- Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Upanishad
Upanishad
synonymously uses Sri
Sri
to describe Lakshmi.[41] Stotrams and sutras[edit] Numerous ancient Stotram
Stotram
and Sutras of Hinduism
Hinduism
recite hymns dedicated to Lakshmi.[13] She is a major goddess in Puranas
Puranas
and Itihasa
Itihasa
of Hinduism. In ancient scriptures of India, all women are declared to be embodiments of Lakshmi.

Hindu
Hindu
Goddess Lakshmi

For example,[13]

Every woman is an embodiment of you. You exist as little girls in their childhood, As young women in their youth And as elderly women in their old age. —  Sri
Sri
Kamala Stotram[13]

Every woman is an emanation of you. —  Sri
Sri
Daivakrta Laksmi Stotram[13]

Ancient prayers dedicated to Lakshmi
Lakshmi
seek both material and spiritual wealth in prayers.[44] Puranas[edit] Lakshmi
Lakshmi
features prominently in Puranas
Puranas
of Hinduism. Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, in particular, dedicates many sections to her and also refers to her as Sri.[45] J. A. B. van Buitenen translates passages describing Lakshmi in Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
as, "Sri, loyal to Vishnu, is the mother of the world. Vishnu
Vishnu
is the meaning, Sri
Sri
is the speech. She is the conduct, he the behavior. Vishnu
Vishnu
is knowledge, she the insight. He is dharma, she the virtuous action. She is the earth, he earth's upholder. She is contentment, he the satisfaction. She is wish, he is the desire. Sri is the sky, Vishnu
Vishnu
the Self of everything. He is the moon, she the beauty of moon. He is the ocean, she is the shore".[45] Subhasita, gnomic and didactic literature[edit] Lakshmi, along with Parvati
Parvati
and Saraswati, is a subject of extensive Subhashita, gnomic and didactic literature of India.[46] Composed in the 1st millennium BC through the 16th century AD, they are short poems, proverbs, couplets, or aphorisms in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
written in a precise meter. They sometimes take the form of dialogue between Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and Vishnu
Vishnu
or highlight the spiritual message in Vedas
Vedas
and ethical maxims from Hindu
Hindu
Epics through Lakshmi.[46] An example Subhashita
Subhashita
is Puranartha Samgraha, compiled by Vekataraya in South India, where Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and Vishnu
Vishnu
discuss niti(right, moral conduct) and rajaniti(statesmanship, right governance) - covering in 30 chapters and ethical and moral questions about personal, social and political life.[47] Manifestations and aspects[edit]

Vishnu
Vishnu
resting on the ocean accompanied by Lakshmi

In eastern India, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is seen as a form of one goddess Devi, the Supreme power; Devi
Devi
is also called Durga
Durga
or Shakti. Lakshmi, Saraswati, and Parvati
Parvati
are typically conceptualised as distinct in most of India, but in states such as West Bengal and Odisha, they are regionally believed to be forms of Durga.[48] Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is seen in two forms, Bhudevi
Bhudevi
and Sridevi, both at the sides of Sri
Sri
Venkateshwara
Venkateshwara
or Vishnu. Bhudevi
Bhudevi
is the representation and totality of the material world or energy, called the aparam Prakriti, in which she is called Mother Earth. Sridevi is the spiritual world or energy called the Prakriti. Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is the power of Vishnu.[4][49] Inside temples, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is often shown together with Vishnu. In certain parts of India, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
plays a special role as the mediator between her husband Vishnu
Vishnu
and his worldly devotees. When asking Vishnu
Vishnu
for grace or forgiveness, the devotees often approach Him through the intermediary presence of Lakshmi.[50] She is also the personification of spiritual fulfillment.[51] Lakshmi
Lakshmi
embodies the spiritual world, also known as Vaikunta, the abode of Lakshmi-Narayana or what would be considered heaven in Vaishnavism. Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is the embodiment of the creative energy of Vishnu,[52] and primordial Prakriti
Prakriti
who creates the universe.[53] Secondary manifestations[edit] Main article: Ashta Lakshmi Ashta Lakshmi(Sanskrit: अष्टलक्ष्मी,Aṣṭalakṣmī, lit. eight Lakshmis) is a group of eight secondary manifestations of Lakshmi. The Ashta Lakshmis preside over eight sources of wealth and thus represent the eight powers of Shri Lakshmi. Temples dedicated to Ashta Lakshmi are found in Tamil Nadu, such as Ashtalakshmi Kovil
Ashtalakshmi Kovil
near Chennai and in many other states of India.[54] The Ashta Lakshmis are as follows:

Gaja Lakshmi
Lakshmi
at Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
Temple, Karnataka.

Ashta Lakshmi

Adi Lakshmi The First manifestation of Lakshmi

Dhanya Lakshmi Granary wealth

Dhairya Lakshmi Wealth of courage

Gaja Lakshmi Elephants spraying water, wealth of fertility, rains and food.[55]

Santana Lakshmi Wealth of continuity, progeny

Vijaya Lakshmi Wealth of victory

Vidya Lakshmi Wealth of knowledge and education

Dhana Lakshmi Monetary wealth

Ashta Lakshmi
Ashta Lakshmi
murti worshipped in a Golu
Golu
display during Dusshera.

Other secondary representations of the goddess include Lakshmi manifesting in three forms: Sri
Sri
Devi, Bhudevi
Bhudevi
and Nila Devi. This threefold goddess can be found, for example, in Sri
Sri
Bhu Neela Sahita Temple near Dwaraka Tirumala, Andhra Pradesh, and in Adinath Swami Temple in Tamil Nadu.[56] In Nepal, Mahalakshmi is shown with 16 hands, each holding a sacred emblem, expressing a sacred gesture, or forming a mudra(lotus, pot, mudra of blessing, book, rosary, bell, shield, bow, arrow, sword, trident, mudra of admonition, noose, skull cap and kettledrum.)[57] In this representation, Mahalakshmi manifests as a kind, compassionate, tranquil deity sitting not on a lotus, but on a lion.[57] Jain
Jain
temples[edit] Some Jain
Jain
temples also depict Sri
Sri
Lakshmi
Lakshmi
as a goddess of artha(wealth) and kama(pleasure). For example, she is exhibited with Vishnu
Vishnu
in Parshvanatha Jain
Jain
Temple at the Khajuraho Monuments of Madhya Pradesh,[58] where she is shown pressed against Vishnu's chest, while Vishnu
Vishnu
cups a breast in his palm. The presence of Vishnu-Lakshmi iconography in a Jain
Jain
temple built near the Hindu
Hindu
temples of Khajuraho, suggests the sharing and acceptance of Lakshmi
Lakshmi
across a spectrum of Indian religions.[58] This commonality is reflected in the praise of Lakshmi
Lakshmi
found in the Jain
Jain
text Kalpa Sūtra.[59] Creation and legends[edit]

A manuscript depicting Samudra Manthan, with Lakshmi
Lakshmi
emerging with lotus in her hands.

Devas (gods) and asuras (demons) were both mortal at one time in Hinduism. Amrita, the divine nectar that grants immortality, could only be obtained by churning Kshirasagar (Ocean of Milk). The devas and asuras both sought immortality and decided to churn the Kshirasagar with Mount Mandhara. The samudra manthan commenced with the devas on one side and the asuras on the other. Vishnu
Vishnu
incarnated as Kurma, the tortoise and a mountain was placed on the tortoise as a churning pole. Vasuki, the great venom-spewing serpent-god, was wrapped around the mountain and used to churn the ocean. A host of divine celestial objects came up during the churning. Along with them emerged the goddess Lakshmi. In some versions, she is said to be daughter of the sea god since she emerged from the sea.[citation needed] In Garuda Purana, Linga Purana
Purana
and Padma Purana, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is said to have been born as daughter of the divine sage Bhrigu
Bhrigu
and his wife Khyati and was named Bhargavi. According to Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, the universe was created when the Devas(god) and Asuras(evil) churn the cosmic ocean of milk(Ksheera Sagara). Lakshmi
Lakshmi
came out of the ocean bearing lotus, along with divine cow Kamadhenu, Varuni, Parijat
Parijat
tree, Apsaras, Chandra(the moon) and Dhanvantari
Dhanvantari
with Amrita(nectar of immortality). When she appeared, she had a choice to go to Devas or Asuras. She chose Devas' side and among thirty deities, she chose to be with Vishnu. Thereafter, in all three worlds, the lotus-bearing goddess was celebrated.[45] Celebration in Hindu
Hindu
society[edit] Many Hindus worship Lakshmi
Lakshmi
on Diwali, the festival of lights.[60] It is celebrated in autumn, typically October or November every year.[61] The festival spiritually signifies the victory of light over darkness, knowledge over ignorance, good over evil and hope over despair.[62] Before Diwali
Diwali
night, people clean, renovate and decorate their homes and offices.[63] On Diwali
Diwali
night, Hindus dress up in new clothes or their best outfits, light up diyas (lamps and candles) inside and outside their home, and participate in family puja (prayers) typically to Lakshmi. After puja, fireworks follow,[64] then a family feast including mithai (sweets), and an exchange of gifts between family members and close friends. Diwali
Diwali
also marks a major shopping period, since Lakshmi
Lakshmi
connotes auspiciousness, wealth and prosperity.[65] This festival dedicated to Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is considered by Hindus to be one of the most important and joyous festivals of the year. Gaja Lakshmi Puja
Lakshmi Puja
is another autumn festival celebrated on Sharad Purnima in many parts of India on the full-moon day in the month of Ashvin (October).[23] Sharad Purnima, also called Kojaagari Purnima or Kuanr Purnima, is a harvest festival marking the end of monsoon season. There is a traditional celebration of the moon called the Kaumudi celebration, Kaumudi meaning moonlight.[66] On Sharad Purnima night, goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is thanked and worshipped for the harvests. Hymns[edit]

Part of a series on

Vaishnavism

Supreme deity

Vishnu

Important deities

Dashavatara

Matsya Kurma Varaha Narasimha Vamana Parasurama Rama Balarama Krishna Buddha Kalki

Other Avatars

Mohini Nara-Narayana Hayagriva

Related

Lakshmi Sita Hanuman Shesha

Texts

Vedas Upanishads Bhagavad Gita Divya Prabandha Ramcharitmanas

Puranas

Vishnu Bhagavata Naradiya Garuda Padma Agni

Sampradayas

Sri
Sri
(Vishishtadvaita) Brahma
Brahma
(Dvaita, Acintyabhedabheda) Rudra
Rudra
(Shuddhadvaita) Nimbarka
Nimbarka
(Dvaitadvaita)

Philosophers–acharyas

Nammalvar Yamunacharya Ramanuja Madhva Chaitanya Vallabha Sankardev Madhavdev Nimbarka Pillai Lokacharya Prabhupada Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika

Related traditions

Bhagavatism Pancharatra Tattvavada Pushtimarg Radha
Radha
Krishna ISKCON Swaminarayan Ekasarana Pranami Ramanandi Vaikhanasas

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

Countless hymns, prayers, shlokas, stotra, songs and legends dedicated to Mahalakshmi are recited during the ritual worship of Lakshmi.[13] These include Sri
Sri
Mahalakshmi Ashtakam, Sri
Sri
Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Sahasaranama Stotra(by Sanathkumara), Sri
Sri
Stuti(by Sri
Sri
Vedantha Desikar), Sri Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Stuti By Indra, Sri
Sri
Kanakadhara Stotra(by Sri
Sri
Adi Shankara), Sri
Sri
Chatussloki(by Sri
Sri
Yamunacharya), Narayani Stuti, Devi
Devi
Mahatmyam Middle episode, Argala Stotra, Sri
Sri
Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Sloka(by Bhagavan
Bhagavan
Sri
Sri
Hari Swamiji) and Sri
Sri
Sukta, which is contained in the Vedas. Sri
Sri
Sukta contains Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Gayatri Mantra(Om Shree Mahalakshmyai ca vidmahe Vishnu
Vishnu
patnyai ca dheemahi tanno Lakshmi
Lakshmi
prachodayat Om).[67] Archaeology[edit] A representation of the goddess as Gaja Lakshmi
Lakshmi
or Lakshmi
Lakshmi
flanked by two elephants spraying her with water, is one of the most frequently found in archaeological sites.[19][20] An ancient sculpture of Gaja Lakshmi
Lakshmi
(from Sonkh site at Mathura) dates to the pre-Kushan Empire era.[19] Atranjikhera site in modern Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has yielded terracotta plaque with images of Lakshmi
Lakshmi
dating to 2nd century BCE. Other archaeological sites with ancient Lakshmi
Lakshmi
terracotta figurines from the 1st millennium BCE include Vaisali, Sravasti, Kausambi, Campa, and Candraketugadh.[20] The goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is frequently found in ancient coins of various Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms from Afghanistan to India. Gaja Lakshmi
Lakshmi
has been found on coins of Scytho-Parthian kings Azes II
Azes II
and Azilises; she also appears on Shunga Empire
Shunga Empire
king Jyesthamitra era coins, both dating to 1st millennium BCE. Coins from 1st through 4th century CE found in various locations in India such as Ayodhya, Mathura, Ujjain, Sanchi, Bodh Gaya, Kanauj, all feature Lakshmi.[68] Similarly, ancient Greco-Indian gems and seals with images of Lakshmi
Lakshmi
have been found, estimated to be from 1st millennium BCE.[69] A 1400-year-old rare granite sculpture of Lakshmi
Lakshmi
has been recovered at the Waghama village along Jehlum
Jehlum
in Anantnag
Anantnag
district of Jammu and Kashmir.[70] A statuette of Lakshmi
Lakshmi
found in Pompeii, Italy, dates to before the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE.[71] Related goddesses[edit] Japan[edit] Goddess Kishijoten of Japan corresponds to Lakshmi.[72] Kishijoten is the goddess of beauty, fortune, and prosperity.[73] Kishijoten is considered the sister of the deity Bishamon (毘沙門, also known as Tamon or Bishamon-ten); Bishamon protects human life, fights evil, and brings good fortune. In ancient and medieval Japan, Kishijoten was the goddess worshiped for luck and prosperity, particularly on behalf of children. Kishijoten was also the guardian goddess of Geishas. While Bishamon and Kishijoten are found in ancient Chinese and Japanese Buddhist
Buddhist
literature, their roots have been traced to deities in Hinduism.[73] Tibet
Tibet
and Nepal[edit] In Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
she is an important deity, especially in the Gelug School. She has both peaceful and wrathful forms. Her wrathful form is known as Palden Lhamo
Palden Lhamo
or Shri Devi
Devi
Dudsol Dokam or Kamadhatvishvari, and is the principal female protector of (Gelug) Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
and of Lhasa, Tibet. Goddess Vasudhara
Vasudhara
in Tibetan and Nepalese culture is closely analogous to goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
as well.[9] Bali
Bali
(Indonesia)[edit] Goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is closely linked to two goddesses worshipped in Bali – Dewi Sri, as the goddess of fertility & agriculture and Dewi Laxmi as the goddess of wealth.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Ashta Lakshmi Deepalakshmi Doddagaddavalli Hindu
Hindu
goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Narayan Star of Lakshmi Tridevi

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j lakṣmī, Monier-Williams' Sanskrit–English Dictionary, University of Washington Archives ^ George M. Williams (2008). Handbook of Hindu
Hindu
Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2.  ^ a b Laura Amazzone (2012). Goddess Durga
Durga
and Sacred Female Power. University Press of America. pp. 103–104. ISBN 978-0-7618-5314-5.  ^ a b c Anand Rao (2004). Soteriologies of India. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 167. ISBN 978-3-8258-7205-2.  ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 385–386. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8. ; Quote: "[Goddess] Lakshmi
Lakshmi
is associated with wealth, good fortune, and prosperity, and is considered the embodiment of all these things." ^ Vidya Dehejia (2013). The Body Adorned: Sacred and Profane in Indian Art. Columbia University Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-231-51266-4.  Quote: "The Vishnu- Lakshmi
Lakshmi
imagery on the Jain
Jain
temple speaks of the close links between various Indian belief systems and the overall acceptance by each of the values adopted by the other."; Robert S. Ellwood; Gregory D. Alles (2007). The Encyclopedia of World Religions. Infobase Publishing. p. 262. ISBN 978-1-4381-1038-7.  ^ "The Goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
in Buddhist
Buddhist
Art: The goddess of abundance and fortune, Sri
Sri
Lakshmi, reflected the accumulated wealth and financial independence of the Buddhist
Buddhist
monasteries. Her image became one of the popular visual themes carved on their monuments" in Images of Indian Goddesses: Myths, Meanings, and Models, Madhu Bazaz Wangu, Abhinav Publications, 2003, p. 57 [1] ^ Heinrich Robert Zimmer (2015). Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Princeton University Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-4008-6684-7.  ^ a b Miranda Shaw (2006), Buddhist
Buddhist
Goddesses of India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691127583, Chapter 13 with pages 258–262 ^ a b James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 385–386. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8.  ^ Henk W. Wagenaar; S. S. Parikh (1993). Allied Chambers transliterated Hindi-English dictionary. Allied Publishers. p. 983. ISBN 978-81-86062-10-4.  ^ Essential Hinduism; by Steven Rosen (2006); p. 136 ^ a b c d e f g h Constantina Rhodes (2011), Invoking Lakshmi: The Goddess of Wealth in Song and Ceremony, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438433202 ^ Patricia Monaghan, Goddesses in World Culture, Volume 1, Praeger, ISBN 978-0313354656, page 5–11 ^ Laura Amazzone (2012). Goddess Durga
Durga
and Sacred Female Power. University Press of America. pp. 95–101. ISBN 978-0-7618-5314-5.  ^ Heinrich Robert Zimmer (2015). Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Princeton University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-4008-6684-7.  ^ Constantina Rhodes (2011), Invoking Lakshmi: The Goddess of Wealth in Song and Ceremony, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438433202, pages 29–47, 220–252 ^ a b Divali - THE SYMBOLISM OF LAKSHMI Archived 8 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. National Library and Information System Authority, Trinidad and Tobago (2009) ^ a b c Upinder Singh (2009), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, ISBN 978-8131711200, Pearson Education, pages 438 ^ a b c Asha Vishnu
Vishnu
(1993), Material life of northern India: Based on an archaeological study, 3rd century B.C. to 1st century BCE, ISBN 978-8170994107, pages 194-195 ^ Vitorio Roveda (June 2004), The Archaeology of Khmer Images, Aséanie, Volume 13, Issue 13, pages 11–46 ^ O goddess where art thou? S. James, Cornell University (2011) ^ a b Constance Jones (2011), in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (Editor: J Gordon Melton), ISBN 978-1598842050, pages 253–254 and 798 ^ a b c d e f John Muir, Original Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India - Their Religions and Institutions at Google Books, Volume 5, pp. 348-362 with footnotes ^ "अप क्रामति सूनृता वीर्यं पुन्या लक्ष्मीः"; अथर्ववेद: काण्डं 12 Atharva Veda Sanskrit Original Archive ^ Naama Drury (2010), The Sacrificial Ritual In The Satapatha Brahmana, ISBN 978-8120826656, pages 61-102 ^ Monier Williams Religious Thought and Life in India, Part 1, 2nd Edition, pages 103-112 ^ Ramayana, i.45.40-43 ^ Monier Williams Religious Thought and Life in India, Part 1, 2nd Edition, pages 108-111 ^ lakṣ, लक्ष् Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, University of Koeln, Germany ^ a b Carol Plum-Ucci, Celebrate Diwali, ISBN 978-0766027787, pages 79-86 ^ lakṣaṇa Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, University of Koeln, Germany ^ The Toranas are dated to the 1st century CE. See: Ornament in Indian Architecture, Margaret Prosser Allen, University of Delaware Press, 1991, p.18 [2] ^ a b A Parasarthy (1983), Symbolism in Hinduism, Chinmaya Mission Publication, ISBN 978-8175971493, pages 57-59 ^ a b c A Parasarthy (1983), Symbolism in Hinduism, Chinmaya Mission Publication, ISBN 978-8175971493, pages 91-92, 160-162 ^ R.S. Nathan (1983), Symbolism in Hinduism, Chinmaya Mission Publication, ISBN 978-8175971493, page 16 ^ Lynne Gibson (2002), Hinduism, Heinemann, ISBN 978-0435336196, page 29 ^ Hope Werness (2007), Continuum Encyclopedia of Animal Symbolism in World Art, Bloomsbury, ISBN 978-0826419132, pages 159-167 ^ Ajnatanama (1983), Symbolism in Hinduism, Chinmaya Mission Publication, ISBN 978-8175971493, page 317-318 ^ a b Vijaya Kumara, 108 Names Of Lakshmi, Sterling Publishers, ISBN 9788120720282 ^ a b A Mahadeva (1950), Saubhagya- Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Upanishad
Upanishad
in The Shakta Upanishads
Upanishads
with the Commentary of Sri
Sri
Upanishad
Upanishad
Brahma
Brahma
Yogin, Adyar Library Series No. 10, Madras ^ Saubhagya Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Upanishad
Upanishad
Original text of the Upanishad
Upanishad
in Sanskrit ^ A. G. Krishna
Krishna
Warrier (1931, Translator), Saubhagya Lakshmi Upanishad, The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai, ISBN 978-0835673181 ^ Constantina Rhodes (2011), Invoking Lakshmi: The Goddess of Wealth in Song and Ceremony, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438433202, Quote: Through illusion, A person can become disconnected, From his higher self, Wandering about from place to place, Bereft of clear thought, Lost in destructive behaviour. It matters not how much truth, May shine forth in the world, Illuminating the entire creation, For one cannot acquire wisdom, Unless it is experienced, Through the opening on the heart.[...] ^ a b c J. A. B. van Buitenen (Translator), Cornelia Dimmitt (Editor), Classical Hinduism: A Reader in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Puranas, Temple University Press, ISBN 978-0877221227, pages 95-99 ^ a b Ludwik Sternbach (1974), Subhasita, Gnomic and Didactic Literature, A History of Indian literature, Volume 4, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447015462 ^ Ludwik Sternbach (1974), Subhasita, Gnomic and Didactic Literature, A History of Indian literature, Volume 4, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447015462, page 22 ^ Christopher John Fuller (2004), The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691120485, page 41 ^ Edward Balfour (1873). Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia. Adelphi Press. pp. 10–11.  ^ Pages 31 and 32 in Kinsley, David. Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious Traditions. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. ISBN 978-0-520-06339-6 ^ Srimad Devi
Devi
Bhagwata Purana ^ Charles Russell Coulter; Patricia Turner (2013). Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities. Routledge. p. 285. ISBN 978-1-135-96390-3.  ^ Tracy Pintchman (2001). Seeking Mahadevi: Constructing the Identities of the Hindu
Hindu
Great Goddess. State University of New York Press. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-0-7914-5007-9.  ^ Vidya Dehejia and Thomas Coburn, Devi: the great goddess : female divinity in South Asian art, Smithsonian, ISBN 978-3791321295 ^ Anna Dallapiccola (2007), Indian art in detail, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0674026919, pages 11-27 ^ Stephen Knapp, Spiritual India Handbook, ISBN 978-8184950243, page 392 ^ a b Pratapaditya Pal (1985), Art of Nepal: A Catalogue of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Collection, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520054073, page 120 ^ a b Vidya Dehejia (2009), The Body Adorned: Sacred and Profane in Indian Art, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231140287, page 151 ^ Hermann Jacobi (Editor: Max Muller, Republished with edits by Mahendra Kulasrestha), The Golden Book of Jainism, ISBN 978-8183820141, page 213 ^ Vera, Zak (February 2010). Invisible River: Sir Richard's Last Mission. ISBN 978-1-4389-0020-9. Retrieved 26 October 2011. First Diwali
Diwali
day called Dhanteras or wealth worship. We perform Laskshmi-Puja in evening when clay diyas lighted to drive away shadows of evil spirits.  ^ Diwali
Diwali
Encyclopædia Britannica (2009) ^ Jean Mead, How and why Do Hindus Celebrate Divali?, ISBN 978-0-237-534-127 ^ Pramodkumar (March 2008). Meri Khoj Ek Bharat Ki. ISBN 978-1-4357-1240-9. Retrieved 26 October 2011. It is extremely important to keep the house spotlessly clean and pure on Diwali. Lamps are lit in the evening to welcome the goddess. They are believed to light up her path.  ^ Solski, Ruth (2008). Big Book of Canadian Celebrations. S&S Learning Materials. ISBN 978-1-55035-849-0. Retrieved 26 October 2011. Fireworks and firecrackers are set off to chase away evil spirits, so it is a noisy holiday too.  ^ India Journal: ‘Tis the Season to be Shopping Devita Saraf, The Wall Street Journal (August 2010) ^ "Sharad Poornima".  ^ Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Stotra
Stotra
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
documents ^ Upinder Singh (2009), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, ISBN 978-8131711200, Pearson Education, pages 438, 480 for image ^ Duffield Osborne (1914), A Graeco-Indian Engraved Gem, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 18, No. 1, pages 32-34 ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Jammu & Kashmir". Tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 2012-11-09.  ^ http://www.pompeiiinpictures.com/pompeiiinpictures/R1/1%2008%2005.htm ^ Charles Russell Coulter; Patricia Turner (2013). Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities. Routledge. pp. 102, 285, 439. ISBN 978-1-135-96390-3. , Quote (p 102): "Kishijoten, a goddess of luck and beauty who corresponds to Lakshmi, the Indian goddess of fortune..." ^ a b Charles Russell Coulter and Patricia Turner (2013), Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities, Taylor and Francis, ISBN 9781135963903, page 102

Further reading[edit]

Venkatadhvari, , (1904). Sri
Sri
Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Sahasram. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Depot, Benares.  (in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
only) Dilip Kododwala, Divali, p. 11, at Google Books, ISBN 978-0237528584 Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious Traditions (ISBN 81-208-0379-5) by David Kinsley Lakshmi Puja
Lakshmi Puja
and Thousand Names (ISBN 1-887472-84-3) by Swami Satyananda Saraswati

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Lakshmi

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lakshmi.

Lakshmi
Lakshmi
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