191 sq mi (490 km2):
Placer County (41.0%)
El Dorado County (28.6%)
Douglas County (13.2%)
Washoe County (11.0%)
Carson City (6.2%)
1,000 ft (300 m)
1,645 ft (501 m)
36 cu mi (150 km3)
71 mi (114 km)
6,225 ft (1,897 m)
Incline Village, NV
South Lake Tahoe, CA
Tahoe City, CA
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.
Lake Tahoe (/ˈtɑːhoʊ/; Washo: dáʔaw) is a large freshwater lake
in the Sierra
Nevada of the United States. Lying at 6,225 ft
(1,897 m), it straddles the state line between
Nevada, west of Carson City.
Lake Tahoe is the largest alpine lake in
North America, and at 122,160,280 acre⋅ft
(150,682,490 dam3) trails only the five
Great Lakes as the
largest by volume in the United States. Its depth is 1,645 ft
(501 m), making it the second deepest in the United States after
Crater Lake in Oregon (1,945 ft (593 m)).
The lake was formed about 2 million years ago as part of the Lake
Tahoe Basin, with the modern extent being shaped during the ice ages.
It is known for the clarity of its water and the panorama of
surrounding mountains on all sides. The area surrounding the lake
is also referred to as Lake Tahoe, or simply Tahoe. More than 75% of
the lake's watershed is national forest land, comprising the Lake
Tahoe Basin Management Unit of the United States Forest Service.
Lake Tahoe is a major tourist attraction in both
California. It is home to winter sports, summer outdoor recreation,
and scenery enjoyed throughout the year. Snow and ski resorts are a
significant part of the area's economy and reputation. The
Nevada side also offers large casinos, with highways providing
year-round access to the entire area.
2 Natural history
3 Human history
3.1 Native people
3.2 Exploration and naming
3.3 Mining era
3.5 Government and politics
3.6 Historical locations
4 Environmental issues
4.1 Water quality
4.2 Ecosystem changes
4.3 Environmental protection
5 Tourist activities
5.1 Winter sports
5.2 Water sports
5.3 Hiking and bicycling
6.2 Major area airports
8 In the media
9 See also
12 External links
Lake Tahoe aerial photo
Lake Tahoe is the second deepest lake in the U.S., with a maximum
depth of 1,645 feet (501 m), trailing Oregon's Crater Lake
at 1,949 ft (594 m). Tahoe is the 16th deepest lake in
the world, and the fifth deepest in average depth. It is about
22 mi (35 km) long and 12 mi (19 km) wide and has
72 mi (116 km) of shoreline and a surface area of 191 square
miles (490 km2). Approximately two-thirds of the shoreline is in
California. The south shore is dominated by the lake's largest
city, South Lake Tahoe, California, which adjoins the town of
Stateline, Nevada, while Tahoe City, California, is located on the
lake's northwest shore. Although highways run within sight of the lake
shore for much of Tahoe's perimeter, many important parts of the
shoreline lie within state parks or are protected by the United States
Forest Service. The
Lake Tahoe Watershed (
USGS Huc 18100200) of
505 sq mi (1,310 km2) includes the land area that
drains to the lake and the
Lake Tahoe drainage divide traverses the
same general area as the Tahoe Rim Trail.
Lake Tahoe is fed by 63 tributaries. These drain an area about the
same size as the lake and produce half its water, with the balance
entering as rain or snow falling directly on it.
Truckee River is the lake's only outlet, flowing northeast
through Reno, Nevada, into Pyramid Lake which has no outlet. It
accounts for one third of the water that leaves the lake, the rest
evaporating from the lake's vast surface. The flow of the Truckee
River and the height of the lake are controlled by the
Lake Tahoe Dam
at the outlet. The natural rim is at 6,223 ft (1,897 m)
above sea level, with a spillway at the dam controlling overflow. The
maximum legal limit, to which the lake can be allowed to rise in order
to store water, is at 6,229.1 ft (1,898.6 m). Around New
Year 1996/1997 a
Pineapple Express atmospheric river melted snow and
caused the lake and river to overflow, inundating Reno and surrounding
List of Lake Tahoe peaks
List of Lake Tahoe peaks and Lake Tahoe-
Nevada State Park
Lake Tahoe from space
Lake Tahoe Basin
Lake Tahoe Basin was formed by vertical motion (normal) faulting.
Uplifted blocks created the
Carson Range on the east and the main
Nevada crest on the west. Down-dropping and block tilting
(half-grabens) created the
Lake Tahoe Basin
Lake Tahoe Basin in between. This kind
of faulting is characteristic of the geology of the adjoining Great
Basin to the east.
Lake Tahoe is the youngest of several extensional basins of the Walker
Lane deformation zone that accommodates nearly 12 mm/yr of
dextral shear between the
Sierra Nevada-Great Valley Block and North
Three principal faults form the
Lake Tahoe basin: the West Tahoe
Fault, aligned between Meyers and Tahoe City, and which is the local
segment of the Sierra
Nevada Fault, extending on shore north and south
of these localities; the Stateline/North Tahoe Fault, starting in
the middle of the lake and creating the relief that forms Stateline,
NV; and the Incline Village Fault, which runs parallel to the
Stateline/North Tahoe Fault offshore and into Incline Village. The
West Tahoe Fault appears to be the most active and potentially
hazardous fault in the basin. A study in Fallen Leaf Lake, just south
of Lake Tahoe, used seafloor mapping techniques to image evidence for
paleoearthquakes on the West Tahoe and revealed the last earthquake
occurred between 4,100 and 4,500 years ago. Subsequent studies
revealed submarine landslides in Fallen Leaf Lake and
Lake Tahoe that
are thought to have been triggered by earthquakes on the West Tahoe
fault and the timing of these events suggests a recurrence interval of
Some of the highest peaks of the
Lake Tahoe Basin
Lake Tahoe Basin that formed during
the process of
Lake Tahoe creation are
Freel Peak at 10,891 feet
(3,320 m), Monument Peak at 10,067 feet (3,068 m), Pyramid
Peak at 9,984 feet (3,043 m) (in the Desolation Wilderness), and
Mount Tallac at 9,735 feet (2,967 m). The north shore boasts
three peaks at 10,000+ feet: Mount Rose, Houghton and Relay peaks. Mt.
Rose is a very popular hiking and backcountry skiing destination.
Eruptions from the extinct volcano Mount Pluto formed a dam on the
north side. Melting snow filled the southern and lowest part of the
basin to form the ancestral Lake Tahoe. Rain and runoff added
Nevada adjacent to
Lake Tahoe were carved by scouring
glaciers during the Ice Ages, which began a million or more years ago,
and retreated ~15,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene. The
glaciers carved canyons that are today iconic landmarks such as
Emerald Bay, Cascade Lake, and Fallen Leaf Lake, among others. Lake
Tahoe itself never held glaciers, but instead water is retained by
Miocene volcanic deposits.
Soils of the basin come primarily from andesitic volcanic rocks and
granodiorite, with minor areas of metamorphic rock. Some of the valley
bottoms and lower hill slopes are mantled with glacial moraines, or
glacial outwash material derived from the parent rock. Sandy soils,
rock outcrops and rubble and stony colluvium account for over 70% of
the land area in the basin. The basin soils (in the < 2 mm
fraction) are generally 65–85% sand (0.05–2.0 mm).
Given the great depth of Lake Tahoe, and the locations of the normal
faults within the deepest portions of the lake, modeling suggests that
earthquakes on these faults can trigger tsunamis. Wave heights of
these tsunamis are predicted to be on the order of 10 to 33 ft (3
to 10 m) in height, capable of traversing the lake in just a few
minutes. A massive collapse of the western edge of the basin that
formed McKinney Bay around 50,000 years ago is thought to have
generated a tsunami/seiche wave with a height approaching 330 ft
Fallen Leaf Lake and
Lake Tahoe in background from Angora Ridge Rd. to
Angora Lakes Resort
Lake Tahoe has a dry-summer continental climate (Dsb in the Köppen
climate classification), featuring warm, dry summers and chilly
winters with regular snowfall. Mean annual precipitation ranges from
over 55 inches (1440 mm) for watersheds on the west side of
the basin to about 26 inches (660 mm) near the lake on the
east side of the basin. Most of the precipitation falls as snow
between November and April, although rainstorms combined with rapid
snowmelt account for the largest floods. There is a pronounced annual
runoff of snowmelt in late spring and early summer, the timing of
which varies from year to year. In some years, summertime monsoon
storms from the
Great Basin bring intense rainfall, especially to high
elevations on the northeast side of the basin.
August is normally the warmest month at the
Lake Tahoe Airport
(elevation 6,254 ft, 1,906 m) with an average maximum of
78.7 °F (25.9 °C) and an average minimum of 39.8 °F
(4.3 °C). January is the coolest month with an average maximum
of 41.0 °F (5.0 °C) and an average minimum of
15.1 °F (−9.4 °C). The all-time maximum of 99 °F
(37.2 °C) was recorded on July 22, 1988. The all-time minimum of
−16 °F (−26.7 °C) was recorded on December 9, 1972.
Temperatures exceed 90 °F (32.2 °C) on an average of 2.0
days annually. Minimum temperatures of 32 °F (0 °C) or
lower occur on an average of 231.8 days annually, and minimum
temperatures of 0 °F (−17.8 °C) or lower occur on an
average of 7.6 days annually. Freezing temperatures have occurred in
every month of the year.
Climate data for Tahoe City,
California (Elevation 6,230 ft, 1,899 m)
Record high °F (°C)
Average high °F (°C)
Average low °F (°C)
Record low °F (°C)
Average precipitation inches (mm)
Average snowfall inches (cm)
Source: The Western Regional Climate Center
Main article: Ecology of the Sierra Nevada
Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) jumping a beaver dam
Damaged beaver dam on Blackwood Creek. Beaver dams are easily crossed
by trout and their ponds may serve as critical breaks for
Vegetation in the basin is dominated by a mixed conifer forest of
Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi), lodgepole pine (P. contorta), white fir
(Abies concolor), and red fir (A. magnifica). The basin also
contains significant areas of wet meadows and riparian areas, dry
meadows, brush fields (with
Arctostaphylos and Ceanothus) and rock
outcrop areas, especially at higher elevations.
Ceanothus is capable
of fixing nitrogen, but mountain alder (Alnus tenuifolia), which grows
along many of the basin’s streams, springs and seeps, fixes far
greater quantities, and contributes measurably to nitrate-N
concentrations in some small streams. The beaches of
Lake Tahoe are
the only known habitat for the rare
Lake Tahoe yellowcress (Rorippa
subumbellata), a plant which grows in the wet sand between low- and
Each autumn, from late September through mid-October, mature kokanee
salmon (Oncorhyncus nerka) transform from silver-blue color to a fiery
vermilion, and run up Taylor Creek, near South Lake Tahoe. As spawning
season approaches the fish acquire a humpback and protuberant jaw.
After spawning they die and their carcasses provide a feast for
gatherings of mink (Neovison vison), bears (Ursus americanus), and
bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The non-native salmon were
transplanted from the North Pacific to
Lake Tahoe in 1944.
North American beaver
North American beaver (Castor canadensis) were re-introduced to the
Tahoe Basin by the
California Department of Fish and Wildlife and the
U.S. Forest Service between 1934 and 1949. Descended from no more than
nine individuals, 1987 beaver populations on the upper and lower
Truckee River had reached a density of 0.72 colonies (3.5 beavers) per
kilometer. At the present time beaver have been seen in Tahoe
Keys, Taylor Creek, Meeks Creek at
Meeks Bay on the western shore, and
Kings Beach on the north shore, so the descendants of the original
nine beavers have apparently migrated around most of Lake
Tahoe. Recently novel physical evidence has demonstrated that
beaver were native to the Sierra until at least the mid-nineteenth
century, via radiocarbon dating of buried beaver dam wood uncovered by
deep channel incision in the
Feather River watershed. That report
was supported by a summary of indirect evidence of beaver including
reliable observer accounts of beaver in multiple watersheds from the
northern to the southern Sierra Nevada, including its eastern
slope. A specific documented record of beaver living historically
in Lake Tahoe's
North Canyon Creek
North Canyon Creek watershed above Glenbrook includes
a description of Spooner
Meadow rancher Charles Fulstone hiring a
caretaker to control the beaver population in the early 20th
century. A recent study of Taylor Creek showed that beaver dam
removal decreased wetland habitat, increased stream flow, and
increased total phosphorus pollutants entering
Lake Tahoe – all
factors which negatively impact the clarity of the lake's water.
In addition, beaver dams located in Ward Creek, located on the west
shore of Lake Tahoe, were also shown to decrease nutrients and
sediments traveling downstream.
The lake's cold temperatures and extreme depth can slow the
decomposition rate of organic matter. For example, a diver was found
at a depth of 300 feet (90 m) 17 years after being lost, with his
body preserved nearly perfectly.
The area around
Lake Tahoe was previously inhabited by the Washoe
tribe of Native Americans.
Lake Tahoe was the center and heart of
Washoe Indian territory, including the upper valleys of the Walker,
Carson and Truckee Rivers. The English name for
Lake Tahoe derives
from the Washo word "dá’aw," meaning "The Lake" or possibly
"The Lake of the Sky."
Exploration and naming
John C. Frémont
John C. Frémont was the first person of European descent to see
Lake Tahoe, during Fremont's second exploratory expedition on February
14, 1844. John Calhoun Johnson, Sierra explorer and founder of
"Johnson's Cutoff" (now U.S. Route 50) named Fallen Leaf Lake after
his Indian guide. Johnson's first job in the west was in the
government service, carrying the mail on snowshoes from Placerville to
Nevada City, during which time he named the lake "Lake Bigler" in
honor of California’s third governor John Bigler.
In 1853 William Eddy, the surveyor general of California, identified
the lake as Lake Bigler. During the Civil War, Union advocates
objected to the name, because Bigler was an ardent secessionist. Due
to this, the
U.S. Department of the Interior
U.S. Department of the Interior introduced the name Tahoe
in 1862. Both names were in use: the legislature passed legislation
declaring the official name to be Lake Bigler in 1870, while to most
surveys and the general public it was known as Lake Tahoe. The
lake didn't receive its official and final designation as Lake Tahoe
Upon discovery of gold in the
South Fork of the American River
South Fork of the American River in
1848, thousands of gold seekers going west passed near the basin on
their way to the gold fields. European civilization first made its
mark in the
Lake Tahoe basin with the 1858 discovery of the Comstock
Lode, a silver deposit just 15 miles (24 km) to the east in
Virginia City, Nevada. From 1858 until about 1890, logging in the
basin supplied large timbers to shore up the underground workings of
the Comstock mines. The logging was so extensive that loggers cut down
almost all of the native forest.
Lake Tahoe became a transportation hub for the surrounding area as
mining and logging commenced prior to development of railroads. The
first mail delivery was via a sailboat which took a week to visit each
of the lakeside communities. The first steamboat on
Lake Tahoe was
the 42-foot (13 m) paddle wheel tugboat Governor Blasdel towing
log rafts to a sawmill on the south side of Glenbrook Bay from 1863
until her boiler exploded in 1877. The 40-foot (12 m) Truckee and
55-foot (17 m) propeller-driven Emerald were also towing log
rafts in 1870. J.A. Todman brought steam-powered passenger service
Lake Tahoe in 1872 with the 100-foot (30 m) 125-passenger
side-wheel steamer Governor Stanford which reduced the mail delivery
Lake Tahoe to eight hours. Todman expanded service
with steamboats Mamie, Niagara, and Tod Goodwin. Lawrence &
Comstock provided competition with their steel-hulled steamboat Tallac
in 1890 and later purchased Todman's steamboats Mamie and Tod Goodwin.
Carson and Tahoe Lumber and Fluming Company
Carson and Tahoe Lumber and Fluming Company purchased the 83-foot
(25 m) Niagara and built the iron-hulled steamboats Meteor in
1876 and Emerald (II) in 1887. The 75-foot (23 m) Meteor was the
fastest boat on
Lake Tahoe with a speed of 22 miles (35 km) per
Lake Tahoe Railway and Transportation Company
Lake Tahoe Railway and Transportation Company dominated the
passenger and mail route after launch of their 200-passenger steamboat
Tahoe on 24 June 1896. The 154-ton Tahoe was 170 feet (52 m) long
with a slender 18-foot (5.5 m) beam so her 1,200 horsepower
(890 kW) engines could push her over the lake at 18.5 knots. Lake
Tahoe Railway and Transportation Company purchased Tallac and rebuilt
Nevada with length increased by 20 feet (6.1 m) to serve
as a backup steamboat when Tahoe required maintenance.
Tod Goodwin burned at Tallac, and most of the other steamboats were
retired as the sawmills ran out of trees and people began traveling by
automobile. Niagara was scrapped at
Tahoe City in 1900.
Governor Stanford was beached at Glenbrook where its boiler was used
until 1942 heating cottages at Glenbrook Inn and Ranch. Steamboats
continued to carry a mail clerk around
Lake Tahoe until 1934, when the
mail contract was given to the 42-foot (13 m) motorboat Marian B
powered by two
Chevrolet engines. Mail delivery moved ashore after
Marian B was lost on 17 May 1941 with her owner and the mail clerk
attempting mail delivery during a storm. The 60-foot (18 m)
Emerald (II) left
Lake Tahoe in 1935 to become a fishing boat in San
Diego. Historic Tahoe, Nevada, and Meteor were purchased with hope
they might be preserved; but were scuttled in deep water after
deterioration made preservation impractical. The latter two lie in
Glenbrook Bay, but Tahoe sank in deeper water.
Even in the mining era, the potential of the basin as a tourist
destination was recognized.
Tahoe City was founded in 1864 as a resort
community for Virginia City.
Public appreciation of the Tahoe basin grew, and during the 1912, 1913
and 1918 congressional sessions, congressmen tried unsuccessfully to
designate the basin as a national park.
The only outlet of
Lake Tahoe and the headwaters of the Truckee River
Lake Tahoe Dam
Lake Tahoe is a natural lake, it is also used for water storage
Truckee-Carson Irrigation District (TCID). The lake level is
Lake Tahoe Dam
Lake Tahoe Dam built in 1913 at the lake's only outlet,
the Truckee River, at Tahoe City. The 18-foot (5.5 m) high dam
can increase the lake's capacity by 744,600 acre⋅ft
During the first half of the 20th century, development around the lake
consisted of a few vacation homes. The post-World War II population
and building boom, followed by construction of gambling casinos in the
Nevada part of the basin during the mid-1950s, and completion of the
interstate highway links for the
1960 Winter Olympics
1960 Winter Olympics held at Squaw
Valley, resulted in a dramatic increase in development within the
basin. From 1960 to 1980, the permanent residential population
increased from about 10,000 to greater than 50,000, and the summer
population grew from about 10,000 to about 90,000. Since the
1980s, development has slowed due to controls on land use.
Government and politics
After a dispute that included gunshots exchanged between militia, in
Nevada defined a partition that followed
geographical coordinates: the state line runs east of the approximate
center line of the lake; at 39 degrees north latitude, the state line
runs southeasterly towards the Colorado River.
Unbeknownst to the negotiators, this compromise split Lake Tahoe:
two-thirds for California, one-third for Nevada. In
Lake Tahoe is divided between Placer County and El Dorado
County. In Nevada,
Lake Tahoe is divided among Washoe County, Douglas
Carson City (an independent city).
As the population grew and development expanded in the 1960s, the
question of protecting the lake became more imperative. In 1969, the
U.S. Congress and the
Nevada State Legislatures created
a unique compact to share resources and responsibilities. The Compact
Tahoe Regional Planning Agency
Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA), a bi-state
agency charged with environmental protection of the Basin through
land-use regulation and planning. In 1980, the U.S. Congress
amended the Compact with public law 96-551. The law designated a new
agency, the Tahoe Transportation District (TTD), to facilitate and
implement Basin and regional transportation improvements/additions for
the protection, restoration and use of the lake. Schisms between both
agencies and local residents have led to the formation of grass-roots
organizations that hold to even stricter environmentalism.
Lake Tahoe is also the location of several 19th and 20th century
palatial homes of historical significance. The Thunderbird Lodge built
by George Whittel Jr once included nearly 27 miles (43 km) of the
Vikingsholm was the original settlement on Emerald
Bay and included an island teahouse and a 38-room home. The Ehrman
Mansion is a summer home built by a former Wells Fargo president in
Sugar Pine Point and is now a state park.
An example of road runoff with fine sediment at El Dorado Beach.
However, this storm drain was removed during construction. The new
beach now called Lakeview Commons opened in Summer 2012.
Despite land-use planning and export of treated sewage effluent from
the basin, the lake is becoming increasingly eutrophic (having an
excessive richness of nutrients), with primary productivity increasing
by more than 5% annually, and clarity decreasing at an average rate of
0.25 meters per year. Until the early 1980s, nutrient-limitation
studies showed that primary productivity in the lake was
nitrogen-limited. Now, after a half-century of accelerated nitrogen
input (much of it from direct atmospheric deposition), the lake is
phosphorus-limited. Theodore Swift et al., concluded that
"suspended inorganic sediments and phytoplanktonic algae both
contribute significantly to the reduction in clarity, and that
suspended particulate matter, rather than dissolved organic matter,
are the dominant causes of clarity loss." The largest source of fine
sediment particles to
Lake Tahoe is urban stormwater runoff,
comprising 72 percent of the total fine sediment particle load.
Recent research has shown that the urban uplands also provide the
largest opportunity to reduce fine sediment particle and phosphorus
contributions to the lake. Historic clarity of approximately 30 meters
can be achieved with total reduction of approximately 75 percent from
Historically, the clarity of
Lake Tahoe continued to decrease through
2010, when the average Secchi depth, 64.4 feet, was the second lowest
ever recorded (the lowest was 64.1 feet in 1997). This represented a
decrease of 3.7 feet from the previous year. However, the lake's
clarity increased from 2011 to 2014, improving by nearly 20
A water quality study by the Lahontan Water Quality Control Board and
Nevada Division of Environmental Protection determined the
largest source of fine sediment particles: 71 percent is developed
area (urban) erosion and run-off, much of it associated with
transportation infrastructure and services.
Lake Tahoe is a tributary watershed drainage element within the
Truckee River Basin, and its sole outlet is the Truckee River, which
continues on to discharge to Pyramid Lake. Because of the sensitivity
Truckee River water quality (involving two protected species, the
cui-ui sucker fish and the Lahontan cutthroat trout), this
drainage basin has been studied extensively. The primary
investigations were stimulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, who funded the development of the
DSSAM model to analyze water
quality below Lake Tahoe.
Lake Tahoe never freezes. Since 1970, it has mixed to a depth of
at least 1,300 ft (400 m) a total of 6 or 7 times. Dissolved
oxygen is relatively high from top to bottom. Analysis of the
temperature records in
Lake Tahoe has shown that the lake warmed
(between 1969 and 2002) at an average rate of 0.015 °C per year.
The warming is caused primarily by increasing air temperatures, and
secondarily by increasing downward long-wave radiation. The warming
trend is reducing the frequency of deep mixing in the lake, and may
have important effects on water clarity and nutrient cycling.
See also: List of
Lake Tahoe inflow streams
Since the 1960s, the Lake's food web and zooplankton populations have
undergone major changes. In 1963–65, opossum shrimp (Mysis
diluviana) were introduced to enhance the food supply for the
Kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). The shrimp began
feeding on the lake's cladocerans (
Daphnia and Bosmina), and their
populations virtually disappeared by 1971. The shrimp provide a
food resource for salmon and trout, but also compete with juvenile
fish for zooplankton. Since the 1970s, the cladoceran populations have
somewhat recovered, but not to former levels. Since 2006, goldfish
have been observed in the lake, where they have grown to "giant size",
behaving like an invasive species. They may have descended from former
pets which owners dumped or escaped, when used as fishing bait.
In June 2007, the
Angora Fire burned approximately 3,100 acres
(1,300 ha) throughout the
South Lake Tahoe
South Lake Tahoe area. While the impact
of ash on the lake's ecosystem is predicted to be minimal, the impact
of potential future erosion is not yet known.
Emerald Bay, Lake Tahoe
Secret Beach on Lake Tahoe's
Until recently, construction on the banks of the Lake had been largely
under the control of real estate developers. Construction activities
have resulted in a clouding of the lake's blue waters. Currently, the
Tahoe Regional Planning Agency
Tahoe Regional Planning Agency is regulating construction along the
shoreline (and has won two Federal Supreme Court battles over
recent decisions). These regulations are unpopular with many
residents, especially those in the Tahoe Lakefront Homeowners
The League to Save
Lake Tahoe (Keep Tahoe Blue) has been an
environmental watchdog in the
Lake Tahoe Basin
Lake Tahoe Basin for 50 years.
Founded when a proposal to build a four-lane highway around the
lake—with a bridge over the entrance to Emerald Bay—was proposed
in 1957, the League has opposed many development projects in the area,
which it alleges were environmentally harmful. The League embraces
responsible and diversified use of the Lake's resources while
protecting and restoring its natural attributes.
Since 1980, the
Lake Tahoe Interagency Monitoring Program (LTIMP) has
been measuring stream discharge and concentrations of nutrients and
sediment in up to 10 tributary streams in the
Lake Tahoe Basin,
California-Nevada. The objectives of the LTIMP are to acquire and
disseminate the water quality information necessary to support
science-based environmental planning and decision making in the basin.
The LTIMP is a cooperative program with support from 12 federal and
state agencies with interests in the Tahoe Basin. This data set,
together with more recently acquired data on urban runoff water
quality, is being used by the Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control
Board to develop a program (mandated by the Clean Water Act) to limit
the flux of nutrients and fine sediment to the Lake.
UC Davis remains a primary steward of the lake. The UC Davis Tahoe
Environmental Research Center is dedicated to research, education and
public outreach, and to providing objective scientific information for
restoration and sustainable use of the
Lake Tahoe Basin. Each
year, it produces a well-publicized "State of the Lake" assessment
A view from the east shore of Lake Tahoe
Much of the area surrounding
Lake Tahoe is devoted to the tourism
industry and there are many restaurants, ski slopes, golf courses and
casinos catering to visitors.
Ski slopes overlooking Lake Tahoe
Lake Tahoe Gondola Ride
During ski season, thousands of people from all over
California, including Reno, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, San Diego, San
Francisco, and Sacramento, flock to the slopes for downhill skiing.
Lake Tahoe, in addition to its panoramic beauty, is well known for its
Some of the major ski areas in Tahoe include:
Heavenly Mountain Resort: the largest ski area in
Nevada, located near Stateline
Squaw Valley: the second largest ski area, known for its hosting of
the 1960 Winter Olympics, located near Tahoe City
Alpine Meadows: a medium-sized ski area on the north shore only a few
miles from Squaw Valley
Diamond Peak: a small ski area located in Incline Village, Nevada
Northstar California: a popular north shore ski area
Kirkwood Mountain Resort: a ski area which gets more snow than any
other ski area in the Tahoe region
Sierra-at-Tahoe: a medium-sized south shore ski area
Boreal Mountain Resort: a small ski area on Donner Pass
Ski Resort: a medium-sized ski area in Donner Pass
Ski Ranch: a very small ski area on Donner Pass
Homewood Mountain Resort: a medium-sized ski area on the west shore
Ski Resort: a medium-sized ski area north-east of the Lake,
on Slide Mountain
The majority of the ski resorts in the
Lake Tahoe region are on the
northern end of the lake, near Truckee,
California and Reno, Nevada.
Sierra-at-Tahoe and Heavenly are located on the southern
side of the lake, 55–75 miles (90–120 km) from Reno.
Scattered throughout Tahoe are public and private sled parks. Some,
such as Granlibakken are equipped with rope tows to help sledders get
up the hill.
Many ski areas around Tahoe also have snow tubing, such as Squaw
Valley. Throughout Tahoe, cross-country skiing, snowmobile riding and
snowshoeing are also popular.
A sailboat on Lake Tahoe
During late Spring to early Fall, the lake is popular for water sports
and beach activities. The two cities most identified with the Lake
Tahoe tourist area are South Lake Tahoe,
California and the smaller
Stateline; smaller centers on the northern shoreline include Tahoe
City and Kings Beach.
Other popular activities include parasailing, jet ski rentals and
eco-friendly paddle sport rentals. There are rental locations located
around Lake Tahoe. Kayaking and stand up paddle boards have also
become very popular.
Boating is a primary activity in Tahoe in the summer. The lake is home
to one of the most prestigious wooden boat shows in the country, the
Lake Tahoe Concours d'Elegance, held every August. There are lake
front restaurants all over the lake, most equipped with docks and
buoys (See the restaurants section). There are all sorts of boating
events, such as sailboat racing, firework shows over the lake, guided
cruises, and more. As an interstate waterway,
Lake Tahoe is subject to
the United States Coast Guard.
Lake Tahoe is home to Coast Guard
Station Lake Tahoe.
SCUBA diving is popular at Lake Tahoe, with some dive sites offering
dramatic drop-offs or wall dives. Diving at
Lake Tahoe is considered
advanced due to the increased risk of decompression sickness (DCS)
while diving at such a high altitude.
Fred Rogers became the first person to swim the length of Lake Tahoe
in 1955, and Erline Christopherson became the first woman to do so in
Hiking and bicycling
View from the Tahoe Rim Trail
There are numerous hiking and mountain biking trails around the lake.
They range widely in length, difficulty and popularity. One of the
most famous of Tahoe's trails is the Tahoe Rim Trail, a 165-mile
(270-km) trail that circumnavigates the lake. Directly to the west of
the lake is the Granite Chief Wilderness, which provides great hiking
and wilderness camping. Also, to the southwest is the very popular
Desolation Wilderness. One of the most popular trailheads used to
access these popular destinations is Eagle Lake Trailhead, located
near Emerald Bay on Tahoe's west shore. The Flume Trail of the east
shore is one of Mountain Biking Magazine's Top 10 Trails in the U.S.
There are also many paved off-road bicycle paths that meander through
communities on all sides of the lake.
Casinos in Stateline, Nevada
Gambling is legal on the
Nevada side of Lake Tahoe. Casinos, each with
a variety of slot machines and table games, are located on the South
Shore in Stateline, and on the North Shore in Crystal Bay and Incline
Nevada legalized gambling in 1931, the first casino at the lake
had already been open for years. First built on the North Shore in
Crystal Bay by Robert Sherman in 1926, the Calneva cabin became
the property of Norman Henry Biltz and was sold to Bill Graham and Jim
McKay in 1929.
The Calneva was rebuilt after a fire in 1937 and expanded several
times, most noticeably in 1969 when the high-rise hotel was built.
Along the way,
Frank Sinatra owned the property in the early 1960s,
shared his cabins with the likes of
Sam Giancana and Marilyn Monroe,
and sold out at the height of the area's popularity.
Other casinos at the North Shore include the Crystal Bay Club, first
built in 1937 as the Ta-Neva-Ho; the Tahoe Biltmore, and the Nugget.
The Hyatt Regency is found at Incline Village.
At South Shore,
Bill Harrah purchased the Stateline Country Club,
which had stood since 1931 and built Harrah's Tahoe. Other casinos
include Hard Rock Hotel and
Casino Lake Tahoe, Harveys Lake Tahoe,
Montbleu, and the Lakeside Inn.
Lake Tahoe can be reached directly by car, and indirectly by train or
air. The nearest passenger train service is the Amtrak station in
Truckee, and is served by Amtrak's train, the
California Zephyr, which
runs daily between
Chicago and the
San Francisco Bay Area. The closest
scheduled passenger airline service is available via the Reno-Tahoe
International Airport (RNO).
Cave Rock Tunnel
Cave Rock Tunnel on US 50
U.S. Route 50
U.S. Route 50 in South Lake Tahoe
Visitors can reach
Lake Tahoe under ideal conditions within two hours
Sacramento area, one hour from Reno or thirty minutes from
Carson City. In winter months, chains or snow tires are often
necessary to reach Tahoe from any direction. Traffic can be heavy on
weekends due to tourists if not also from weather.
The primary routes to
Lake Tahoe are on Interstate 80 via Truckee,
U.S. Route 50, and
Nevada State Route 431 via Reno. Most of the
highways accessing and encircling
Lake Tahoe are paved two-lane
mountain roads. US 50 is a four-lane highway (from the canyon of the
South Fork American River at Riverton, over the Sierra
Nevada at Echo
Summit, and into the
Lake Tahoe Basin, is a mainly two-lane road)
passing south of the lake and along part of the eastern shore.
California State Route 89 follows the western shore of the lake
through the picturesque wilderness and connects camping, fishing and
hiking locations such as those at Emerald Bay State Park, DL Bliss
State Park and Camp Richardson. Farther along are communities such as
Meeks Bay and Tahoe City. Finally, the highway turns away from the
lake and heads northwest toward Truckee.
California State Route 28 completes the circuit from
Tahoe City around
the northern shore to communities such as Kings Beach, Crystal Bay,
and into Incline Village,
Nevada where the road becomes
Route 28. Route 28 returns along the eastern shore to US 50 near
Major area airports
Reno-Tahoe International Airport/KRNO (Reno, Nevada)
Sacramento International Airport/KSMF (Sacramento, California)
Lake Tahoe Airport/KTVL (South Lake Tahoe, California)
Truckee-Tahoe Airport/KTRK (Truckee, California)
Minden-Tahoe Airport/KMEV (Minden, Nevada)
Carnelian Bay #3
Dollar Point #4
Kings Beach #1
Tahoe City #5
Tahoe Vista #2
Tahoma (partially in El Dorado County) #6
El Dorado County
South Lake Tahoe
South Lake Tahoe #7
Tahoma (partially in Placer County) #6
Carson City #14
Logan Creek #12
Round Hill Village #8
Zephyr Cove #9
Crystal Bay #16
Incline Village #15
In the media
Ponderosa Ranch of the TV series
Bonanza was formerly located on
Nevada side of Lake Tahoe. The opening sequence of the TV
series was filmed at the McFaul Creek Meadow, with
Mount Tallac in the
background. In September 2004 the
Ponderosa Ranch closed its doors,
after being sold to developer David Duffield for an undisclosed
The 1974 film
The Godfather Part II
The Godfather Part II used the lakeside estate Fleur de
Lac as the location of several scenes, including the elaborate First
Communion celebration, the Senator's shakedown attempt of Michael, the
assassination attempt on Michael, Michael disowning Fredo, Carmela
Corleone's funeral, Fredo's death while fishing, and the closing scene
of Michael sitting alone outside. Fleur de Lac, on the western
California shore of Lake Tahoe, was formerly the Henry Kaiser estate.
The surrounding lakeside area has been developed into a private gated
condominium community and some of the buildings of the "Corleone
compound" still exist, including the boathouse.
The 2014 film Last Weekend, starring
Patricia Clarkson and directed by
Tom Dolby and Tom Williams, used the west shore lakefront home of Ray
Dagmar Dolby as the primary location for its interiors and
exteriors. The house, built in 1929, was also the site for the
exteriors for A Place in the Sun, starring
Elizabeth Taylor and
Montgomery Clift. The 1988 film
Things Change was also filmed
List of dams and reservoirs in California
Lake Tahoe inflow streams
List of lakes by volume
List of lakes in California
List of largest reservoirs of California
^ a b c d e f g This article incorporates public domain
material from the United States Geological Survey
document: "Facts About Lake Tahoe". Retrieved October 26,
^ van der Leeden; Troise; Todd (1990), The Water Encyclopedia (2nd
ed.), Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, pp. 198–200
^ a b "Amazing Lake Tahoe".
Lake Tahoe Visitors Authority. Archived
from the original on January 4, 2010. Retrieved October 26,
^ "Water Quality". The League To Save Lake Tahoe. Retrieved October
^ a b "
Lake Tahoe Resorts Winter sports". Porters Tahoe. Archived from
the original on January 3, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
^ Munson, Jeff (October 21, 2008). "In rocky economy, ski-resort jobs
are seen as more than free passes".
Nevada Appeal. Retrieved October
^ a b "The World's Deepest Lakes" (PDF). US Department of the
Interior: National Park Service. Retrieved October 31, 2008.
^ "Deepest Lake in the World Deepest Lake in the United States".
Geology.com. Retrieved October 31, 2008.
Lake Tahoe Trivia" (Press release).
Lake Tahoe Visitors Authority.
June 10, 2005. Archived from the original on February 22, 2009.
Retrieved October 26, 2008.
USGS – National Water Information System". Retrieved
^ Renda, Matthew (December 2016). "A New Year's Deluge". Retrieved
December 22, 2016.
^ Oldow, J.S.; Aiken, C.L.V.; Hare, J. L.; Ferguson, J. F.; Hardyman,
R. F. (January 2001). "Active displacement transfer and differential
block motion within the central Walker Lane, western Great Basin".
Geology. 29 (1): 19–22. Bibcode:2001Geo....29...19O.
^ Unruh, Jeffrey; Humphrey, James; Barron, Andrew (April 2003).
"Transtensional model for the Sierra
Nevada frontal fault system,
eastern California". Geology. 31 (4): 327–330.
^ Perlman, David (September 3, 2012). "New tool to dig up fresh quake
San Francisco Chronicle.
Nevada Fault Map centered at 39°N,120°W". USGS.
Archived from the original on 2011-06-23. Retrieved 2012-09-18.
^ Brothers, D.S.; Kent, G.M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Smith, S. B.; et al.
(April 2009). "New Constraints on Deformation, Slip Rate, and Timing
of the Most Recent Earthquake on the West Tahoe-Dollar Point Fault,
Lake Tahoe Basin, California". Bulletin of the Seismological Society
of America. 99 (2a): 499–519. Bibcode:2009BuSSA..99..499B.
^ Maloney, J.M.; Noble, P.J.; Driscoll, N.W.; Kent, G.M.; et al.
(2013). "Paleoseismic history of the Fallen Leaf segment of the West
Tahoe-Dollar Point fault reconstructed from slide deposits in the Lake
Tahoe Basin, California-Nevada". Geosphere. 9 (4): 1065–1090.
^ "Frequently Asked Questions about
Lake Tahoe and the Basin". Lake
Tahoe Basin Management Unit. Forest Service, U.S. Department of
Agriculture. Archived from the original on May 10, 2009. Retrieved
June 20, 2007.
^ Ichinose, G.A.; Anderson, J.G.; Satake, K.; Schweickert, R.A.;
Lahren, M.M. (April 2000). "The potential hazard from tsunami and
seiche waves generated by large earthquakes within Lake Tahoe,
California-Nevada". Geophysical Research Letters. 27 (8): 1203–1206.
^ Gardner, J.V. (July 2000). "The
Lake Tahoe debris avalanche". 15th
Annual Geological Conference. Geological Society of Australia.
California – Climate Summary". Desert Research Institute.
Retrieved October 31, 2008. (1903–2007 climate data)
^ "Climate Data – North Lahontan Hydrologic Region". State of
California, Department of Water Resources. Retrieved October 31,
2008. (30-year climate data)
^ "Seasonal Temperature and
Precipitation Information". Western
Regional Climate Center. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
^ Ryan L. Lokteff; Brett B. Roper & Joseph M. Wheaton (2013). "Do
Beaver Dams Impede the Movement of Trout?" (PDF). Transactions of the
American Fisheries Society. 142 (4): 1114–1125.
doi:10.1080/00028487.2013.797497. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
^ Eric Collier (1959). Three Against the Wilderness. Victoria, British
Columbia: Touchwood. p. 288. ISBN 1-894898-54-0.
^ "Trees Indigenous to Lake Tahoe". Northstar-at-Tahoe Resort.
Archived from the original on January 3, 2012. Retrieved October 31,
^ "The Nature Conservancy: ''Rorippa subumbellata''". Natureserve.
Retrieved November 15, 2011.
^ Marcia Williamson (Oct 1992). "Tahoe's drama of the kokanee". Sunset
Magazine. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
^ Beier, P; Barrett, RH (1989). "Beaver Distribution in the Truckee
River Basin, California" (PDF).
California Fish and Game. Archived
from the original (PDF) on July 20, 2011. Retrieved January 17,
^ "The Beavers of the Truckee River". Tahoe Arts and Mountain Culture.
July 20, 2009. Retrieved August 16, 2010.
^ Keaven Van Lom (January 16, 2010). "This is Wildlife Management in
the 21st century?". Moonshine Ink. Archived from the original on
January 3, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2010.
^ James, C. D.; Lanman, R. B. (Spring 2012). "Novel physical evidence
that beaver historically were native to the Sierra Nevada". California
Fish and Game. 98 (2): 129–132. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
^ R. B. Lanman; H. Perryman; B. Dolman; Charles D. James (Spring
2012). "The historical range of beaver in the Sierra Nevada: a review
of the evidence".
California Fish and Game. 98 (2): 65–80. Retrieved
^ 2ndNature; Huffman & Carpenter, Inc. (April 2010). North Canyon
Creek Restoration Project: Phase I Final Report (PDF) (Report). U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers
Sacramento District. Retrieved September 6,
^ a b Sarah Muskopf (October 2007). The Effect of Beaver (Castor
canadensis) Dam Removal on Total Phosphorus Concentration in Taylor
Creek and Wetland, South Lake Tahoe,
California (Thesis). Humboldt
State University, Natural Resources. Retrieved 2012-09-29.
^ "At Lake Tahoe, a scuba diver's body is recovered after 17 years".
Los Angeles Times. 2011-08-09.
Lake Tahoe Basin
Lake Tahoe Basin Mgt Unit – History & Culture".
www.fs.usda.gov. Retrieved 2016-01-15.
^ "The Lake of the Sky".
California Department of Parks and
Recreation. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
Lake Tahoe Facts and Figures". Tahoe Regional Planning Association.
Archived from the original on January 3, 2012. Retrieved October 26,
^ Erwin, Gudde (2004).
California Place Names: The origin and
etymology of current geographical names. Berkeley, CA: University of
California Press. p. 121.
^ a b c d This article incorporates public domain
material from the United States Geological Survey
document: "Stream and Ground-Water Monitoring Program, Lake Tahoe
Nevada and California". Retrieved November 24, 2009.
^ a b c d e McKean, Owen F. Railroads and Steamers of Lake Tahoe. San
Mateo, California: Francis Guido. pp. 9,14,15,30&31.
^ a b Noble, Doug. "The Early Steamers on the Lake". Doug Steps Out.
Retrieved 3 September 2017.
^ a b McLaughlin, Mark. "Sierra History: a look at Lake Tahoe's
wonderful wood-powered steamship past". Sierra Sun. Retrieved 3
^ "Water Delivery Projects and Facilities". Lahontan Basin Area
Office. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Archived from the original on
2012-01-03. Retrieved November 24, 2009.
Truckee River Chronology".
Nevada Department of Conservation &
Natural Resources. Archived from the original on August 25, 2010.
Retrieved October 26, 2008.
^ Brean, Henry (April 27, 2009). "Four Corners mistake recalls long
border feud between Nevada, California". Las Vegas Review-Journal.
Archived from the original on 2012-01-03. Retrieved April 27,
^ "Tahoe Regional Planning Agency".
^ "Friends of Lake Tahoe".
^ Lahontan Regional Water Quality Board. "
Lake Tahoe Basin
Characterization & Assessment of Exemplary Programs for Water
Quality Crediting and Trading Feasibility Analysis" (PDF). Water
Quality Crediting and Trading Feasibility Study. Kieser and
Associates. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 3, 2012.
Retrieved December 6, 2011.
^ Swift, Theodore J; Perez-Losada, Joaquim; Schladow, S. Geoffrey;
Reuter, John E; Jassby, Alan D; Goldman, Charles R (2006). "Water
clarity modeling in Lake Tahoe: Linking suspended matter
characteristics to Secchi depth". Aquat. Sci. 68: 1–15.
Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load Report" (PDF). California
Regional Water Quality Control Board, Lahontan Region. 2010.
^ Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, S. G.; Reuter, J. E. (2010). "Effect of
sediment and nutrient loading on
Lake Tahoe optical conditions and
restoration opportunities using a newly developed lake clarity model".
Water Resources Research. 46 (10): n/a. Bibcode:2010WRR....4610505S.
doi:10.1029/2009WR008447. Archived from the original on January 20,
^ "Tahoe: State of the Lake Report" (PDF). UC Davis Tahoe
Environmental Research Center. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF)
^ "Lake Tahoe's clarity shows gains for a second year". Archived from
the original on 2013-03-06.
^ "Drought helps boost Lake Tahoe's clarity".
^ Cripps, Colleen (2011-08-03). "
Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load
Sediment Particles, Nitrogen and Phosphorus" (PDF). Nevada
Department of Conservations and Natural Resources. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 2015-09-24.
^ "Final EPA Approved
Lake Tahoe TMDL Report".
Nevada Bureau of Water
Quality Planning. Archived from the original on 2011-09-16.
^ Gimenez Dixon (1996). "Chasmistes cujus".
IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species. Version 2006. International Union for Conservation
of Nature. Retrieved May 10, 2006. Listed as Critically
Endangered (CR B1+2b v2.3)
Lake Tahoe Facts". Heavenly Mountain Resort. Retrieved October 3,
^ Goldman, C.R.; M.D. Morgan; S.T. Threlkeld; N. Angeli (1979). "A
Population Dynamics Analysis of the
Cladoceran Disappearance from Lake
Tahoe, California-Nevada". Limnology and Oceanography. 24 (2):
^ Laila Kearney.
Goldfish influx threatens to cloud pristine Lake
Tahoe waters. Reuters Feb 22, 2013.
^ Carl T. Hall (June 26, 2007). "Raging Tahoe Fire's Roots: 150 Years
San Francisco Chronicle. p. A–1.
^ "Construction Monitoring". Tahoe Regional Planning Agency. Archived
from the original on 2011-05-14.
^ "About TLOA". Tahoe Lakefront Homeowners Association. Archived from
the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
^ a b "History of The League to Save Lake Tahoe". Keep Tahoe Blue.
Retrieved September 25, 2008.
^ "Tahoe Environmental Research Center".
^ Hartman, Joanna. "Tahoe Coast Guard changes command". tahoe.com.
Sierra Sun. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved
October 26, 2008.
^ Egi, S. M.; Brubakk, Alf O. (1995). "Diving at altitude: a review of
decompression strategies". Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine. 22 (3):
281–300. ISSN 1066-2936. OCLC 26915585. PMID 7580768.
Retrieved March 11, 2009.
^ "Altitude Diving". Retrieved October 26, 2008.
^ "First person to swim length of
Lake Tahoe reflects back on 1955
feat". Tahoe Daily Tribune. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
^ "First woman to swim the length of
Lake Tahoe recalls 1962
adventure". Carson Now.
Nevada News. Retrieved 17
^ Moe, Al W. (2008). The Roots of Reno. p. 65.
^ "Bonanza". TVLand. Viacom International Inc. Retrieved October 31,
^ "Ponderosa Ranch". TV Acres. Archived from the original on
2012-01-03. Retrieved November 15, 2011.
Bonanza – Ponderosa Ranch". GoCalifornia.about.com. September 27,
2004. Retrieved November 15, 2011.
^ "Fleur de Lac Estates". Fleur du Lac Estates Home Owners
Association. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
^ "Last Weekend' revives 1951 film site' –
San Francisco Chronicle".
Retrieved June 1, 2014.
^ Barth, Jack (1991). Roadside Hollywood: The Movie Lover's
State-By-State Guide to Film Locations, Celebrity Hangouts, Celluloid
Tourist Attractions, and More. Contemporary Books. Page 2.
Becker, Andrew. "The naming of Tahoe's mountains". Tahoe.com. Archived
from the original on April 2, 2010. Retrieved November 1, 2008.
Byron, Earl R.; Charles R. Goldman (January 1, 1989). "Land-Use and
Water Quality in Tributary Streams of Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada".
Journal of Environmental Quality. 18 (1): 84–88.
doi:10.2134/jeq1989.00472425001800010015x. Retrieved November 1,
Chang, C. C. Y.; J. S. Kuwabara; S. P. Pasilis (1992). "Phosphate and
iron limitation of phytoplankton biomass in Lake Tahoe". Canadian
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 49 (6): 1206–1215.
Coats, R. N.; Goldman, C. R. (2001). "Patterns of nitrogen transport
in streams of the
Lake Tahoe basin, California-Nevada". Water Resour.
Res. 37 (2): 405–415. Bibcode:2001WRR....37..405C.
Coats, R. N., J. Perez-Losada, G. Schladow, R. Richards and C. R.
Goldman. 2006. The Warming of Lake Tahoe. Climatic Change (In Press).
Crippen, J. R., and B. R. Pavelka. 1970. The
Lake Tahoe basin,
Nevada U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1972.
Gardner, James V.; Larry A. Mayer; John Hughes-Clarke (January 16,
2003). "The bathymetry of Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada". Open-File
Report 98-509. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved November 1,
Goldman, C. R.; Jassby, A.; Powell, T. (1989). "Interannual
fluctuations in primary production: meteorological forcing at two
subalpine lakes". Limnol. Oceanogr. 34 (2): 310–323.
Goldman, C. R.; Jassby, A. D.; Hackley, S. H. (1993). "Decadal,
interannual, and seasonal variability in enrichment bioassays at Lake
Tahoe, California-Nevada, USA". Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 50 (7):
Hatch, L. K.; Reuter, J. E.; Goldman, C. R. (2001). "Stream phosphorus
transport in the
Lake Tahoe Basin, 1989–1996". Environmental
Monitoring and Assessment. 69 (1): 63–83.
doi:10.1023/a:1010752628576. PMID 11393545.
Jensen, Carol A.; North
Lake Tahoe Historical Society (2012). Lake
Tahoe’s West Shore. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Publishing.
Jassby, A. D.; Goldman, C. R.; Powell, T. M. (1992). "Trend,
seasonality, cycle, and irregular fluctuations in primary productivity
at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, USA". Hydrobiol. 246 (3): 195–203.
Jassby, A. D.; Reuter, J. E.; Axler, R. P.; Goldman, C. R.; Hackley,
S. H. (1994). "Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and phosphorus in
the annual nutrient load of
Lake Tahoe (California-Nevada)". Water
Resour. Res. 30 (7): 2207–2216. Bibcode:1994WRR....30.2207J.
Jassby, A. D.; Goldman, C. R.; Reuter, J. E. (1995). "Long-term change
Lake Tahoe (California-Nevada, U.S.A.) and its relation to
atmospheric deposition of algal nutrients". Arch. Hydrobiol. 135:
Jassby, A. D.; Goldman, C. R.; Reuter, J. E.; Richards, R. C. (1999).
"Origins and scale dependence of temporal variability in the
transparency of Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada". Limnol. Oceanog. 44
(2): 282–294. doi:10.4319/lo.1999.44.2.0282.
Jassby, A.; Reuter, J.; Goldman, C. R. (2003). "Determining long-term
water -quality change in the presence of climate variability: Lake
Tahoe (U.S.A.)". Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 60 (12): 1452–1461.
Leonard, R. L.; Kaplan, L. A.; Elder, J. F.; Coats, R. N.; Goldman, C.
R. (1979). "Nutrient Transport in Surface Runoff from a Subalpine
Lake Tahoe Basin, California". Ecological Monographs. 49
(3): 281–310. doi:10.2307/1942486. JSTOR 1942486.
Nagy, M., 2003.
Lake Tahoe Basin
Lake Tahoe Basin Framework Study Groundwater
Lake Tahoe Basin,
California and Nevada. U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, Sacramento, CA.
Naslas, G. D.; Miller, W. W.; Blank, R. R.; Gifford, G. F. (1994).
"Sediment, nitrate, and ammonium in surface runoff from two Tahoe
basin soil types". Water Resour. Bull. 30 (3): 409–417.
Richards, R. C.; Goldman, C. R.; Byron, E.; Levitan, C. (1991). "The
mysids and lake trout of Lake Tahoe: A 25-year history of changes in
the fertility, plankton, and fishery of an alpine lake". Am. Fish.
Soc. Symp. 9: 30–38.
Sahoo, G. B., S. G. Schladow and J. E. Reuter, 2010. Effect of
sediment and nutrient loading on
Lake Tahoe optical conditions and
restoration opportunities using a newly developed lake clarity model
Schuster, S.; Grismer, M. E. (2004). "Evaluation of water quality
projects in the
Lake Tahoe Basin". Environmental Monitoring and
Assessment. 90 (1–3): 225–242.
doi:10.1023/b:emas.0000003591.52435.8d. PMID 15887374.
Scott, E. B. 1957. The Saga of Lake Tahoe. Early Lore and History of
Lake Tahoe Basin
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lake Tahoe.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Lake Tahoe (category)
Lake Tahoe Data Clearinghouse – USGS/Western Geographic Science
Lake Tahoe webpage
Truckee River Watershed Council
Tahoe Institute for Natural Science
Lake Tahoe remote Meteorological Data Sites
Lake Tahoe Watershed-
California Rivers Assessment database
Lake Tahoe at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Lake Tahoe Resource, University of Nevada, Reno Libraries
Images of Lake Tahoe, University of Nevada, Reno Libraries
El Dorado Hills
Gardnerville Ranchos (NV)
South Lake Tahoe
State of California
National Historic Landmarks
National Natural Landmarks
State Historic Landmarks
Index of articles
California Coast Ranges
East Bay (SF Bay Area)
East County (SD)
Greater San Bernardino
Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles Basin
North Bay (SF)
North Coast (SD)
San Fernando Valley
San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Peninsula
San Gabriel Valley
San Joaquin Valley
Santa Clara Valley
Santa Clara River Valley
Santa Clarita Valley
Santa Ynez Valley
South Bay (LA)
South Bay (SD)
South Bay (SF)
Southern Border Region
Los Angeles metropolitan area
San Bernardino-Riverside metropolitan area
San Francisco metropolitan area
San Luis Obispo
State of Nevada
Carson City (capital)
World War II
Black Rock Desert
Las Vegas Valley
Trout Creek Mountains
North Las Vegas