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Lake Biwa
Biwa
(Japanese: 琵琶湖, Hepburn: Biwa-ko) is the largest freshwater lake in Japan, located in Shiga Prefecture
Shiga Prefecture
(west-central Honshu), northeast of the former capital city of Kyoto.[2] Because of its proximity to the ancient capital, references to Lake Biwa
Biwa
appear frequently in Japanese literature, particularly in poetry and in historical accounts of battles.

Contents

1 Name 2 Area and use 3 Natural history 4 Archaeology 5 Environmental legislation

5.1 Eutrophication
Eutrophication
prevention 5.2 Wetlands protection 5.3 Conservation of Reed Vegetation Zones

6 Image gallery 7 See also 8 Explanatory notes 9 References 10 External links

Name[edit] The name Biwako was established in the Edo period. There are various theories about the origin of the name Biwako, but it is generally believed to be so named because of the resemblance of its shape to that of a stringed instrument called the biwa. Kōsō, a learned monk of Enryaku-ji
Enryaku-ji
in the 14th century, gave a clue to the origin of the name Biwako in his writing: "The lake is the Pure land
Pure land
of the goddess Benzaiten
Benzaiten
because she lives on Chikubu Island
Chikubu Island
and the shape of the lake is similar to that of the biwa, her favorite instrument."[3] The lake was formerly known as the Awaumi (淡海, Freshwater
Freshwater
Sea) or the Chikatsu Awaumi (近淡海, Freshwater
Freshwater
Sea Near the Capital). Later the pronunciation Awaumi changed to the modern Ōmi as in the name of Ōmi Province. The lake is also called Nio no Umi (鳰の海, "Little Grebe Lake") in literature. Area and use[edit] The area of this lake is about 670 km². Small rivers drain from the surrounding mountains into Lake Biwa, and its main outlet is the Seta River, which later becomes the Uji River, combining with the Katsura and Kizu to become the Yodo River
Yodo River
and flows into the Seto Inland Sea at Osaka Bay. It serves as a reservoir for the cities of Kyoto
Kyoto
and Ōtsu and is a valuable resource for nearby textile industries. It provides drinking water for about 15 million people in the Kansai region. Lake Biwa
Biwa
is a breeding ground for freshwater fish, including trout, and for the pearl culture industry. The Lake Biwa
Biwa
Canal, built in the late 1890s and later expanded during the Taishō period
Taishō period
played a role of great importance in the rekindling of Kyoto's industrial life, after a steep decline following the transfer of the capital to Tokyo. Lake Biwa
Biwa
is home to many popular beaches along the north-western shore, in particular, for example, Shiga Beach and Omi-Maiko. The Mizunomori Water Botanical Garden
Mizunomori Water Botanical Garden
and The Lake Biwa
Biwa
Museum in Kusatsu are also of interest. The Lake Biwa
Biwa
Marathon takes place in Otsu, the city at the southern end of the lake, annually since 1962. Natural history[edit] Lake Biwa
Biwa
is of tectonic origin and is one of the world's oldest lakes, dating to at least 4 million years ago.[1] This long uninterrupted age has allowed for a notably diverse ecosystem to evolve in the lake. Naturalists have documented more than 1000 species and subspecies in the lake, including about 60 endemic.[1] Lake Biwa is an important place for water birds. About 5,000 water birds visit Lake Biwa
Biwa
every year. There are 46 native fish species and subspecies in the lake,[4] including 11 species and 5 subspecies that are endemic or near-endemic.[1] The endemic species are five cyprinids (Carassius cuvieri, Gnathopogon caerulescens, Ischikauia steenackeri, Opsariichthys uncirostris and Sarcocheilichthys biwaensis), a true loach (Cobitis magnostriata), two gobies (Gymnogobius isaza and an undescribed species of Rhinogobius), two silurid catfish (Silurus biwaensis and S. lithophilus) and a cottid (Cottus reinii).[1][4] The Biwa
Biwa
trout is also endemic to the lake, but some maintain that it is a subspecies of the widespread masu salmon rather than a separate species.[1][4] The remaining endemic fish are subspecies of Carassius auratus, Cobitis minamorii, Sarcocheilichthys variegatus
Sarcocheilichthys variegatus
and Squalidus (chankaensis) biwae.[a][1][4] Lake Biwa
Biwa
is also the home of a large number of molluscs, including 38 freshwater snails (19 endemic) and 16 bivalves (9 endemic).[5] Recently the biodiversity of the lake has suffered greatly due to the invasion of foreign fish, the black bass and the bluegill. Bluegill were presented to the Emperor and later freed in the lake as a food source for other fish. Black bass
Black bass
were introduced as a sport fish. In July 2009, a largemouth bass weighing 22 pounds, 4 ounces (about 10.09 kg) was caught in the lake by Manabu Kurita. It has been officially certified by the International Game Fish Association
International Game Fish Association
(IGFA) to tie the largemouth bass world record held solely by George Perry for 77 years. Archaeology[edit] The Awazu site, a submerged shell-midden of Lake Biwa, is an important archaeological site of Jōmon period. It goes back to the beginning of the Initial Jōmon period
Jōmon period
(ca. 9300 BP). It lies near the southern end of Lake Biwa, close to Otsu City, at a depth of 2 to 3m from the bottom.[6] The site shows the use of plant and animal food resources by Jōmon peoples. It also demonstrates the importance of nut consumption in this period. Shell Midden No. 3 is dated to the Middle Jōmon period. An abundance of horse chestnuts was uncovered here (c. 40% of the total estimated diet). This indicates that, by this later period, a sophisticated processing technology was mastered in order to remove the harmful tannic acid, and make this food safe for consumption.[7] Ishiyama is another such site of early Jōmon period
Jōmon period
on Lake Biwa.[6] Environmental legislation[edit] Various environmental laws cover Lake Biwa: Eutrophication
Eutrophication
prevention[edit] Legislation to prevent eutrophication was enacted in 1981 and first enforced on July 1, 1982; therefore, this day is called "Lake Biwa
Biwa
Day (びわ湖の日, Biwako no Hi)". The legislation established standards for the nitrogen and phosphorus levels for agricultural, industrial, and household water sources emptying into the lake. They also banned people from using and selling synthetic detergents which contain phosphorus. Wetlands protection[edit] The lake was designated as a UNESCO
UNESCO
Ramsar Wetland (1993) in accordance with the Ramsar Convention. The object of this treaty is to protect and sensibly use internationally valuable wetlands. The Kushiro marsh (釧路湿原, Kushiro Shitsugen) in Japan is under this treaty now. Conservation of Reed Vegetation Zones[edit] Reed colonies on the shore form give Lake Biwa
Biwa
its characteristic scenery. The reeds play an important role in purifying water as well as providing habitat for birds and fish. At one time there were large areas of reeds along the shores of Lake Biwa, which local government surveys recently found to have halved in size due to encroaching development. This Shiga Ordinance for the Conservation of Reed Vegetation Zones to protect, grow, and utilize the reed beds has been in force since 1992. Image gallery[edit]

Lake Biwa
Biwa
at Chomeiji-cho, Ōmihachiman

Lake Biwa
Biwa
Canal

Mangetsu-ji
Mangetsu-ji
temple, one of the Eight Views of Omi

A pleasure boat from the Otsu port

Chikubu Island

See also[edit]

Eight Views of Omi Biwako Line Biwako Quasi-National Park Birdman Rally
Birdman Rally
(1977–), the yearly televised homemade glider and human-powered flight competition. Biwa
Biwa
town, a town on the northern shore of Lake Biwa
Biwa
and its name was named after Lake Biwa. F.C. Mi-O Biwako Kusatsu, a football club based in Kusatsu, Shiga, facing the lake. Tourism in Japan Lake Hamana, a lake in Shizuoka Prefecture, its old name was "distant fresh-water sea".

Explanatory notes[edit]

^ The subspecies differentiation may not be recognzed, for example by the current FishBase.

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i Tabata, R.; Kakioka, R.; Tominaga, K.; Komiya, T.; Watanabe, K. (2016). Phylogeny and historical demography of endemic fishes in Lake Biwa: the ancient lake as a promoter of evolution and diversification of freshwater fishes in western Japan. Ecology and Evolution 6(8): 2601–2623. ^ "Biwa, Lake". Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias.  ^ Yoshihiro Kimura (2001). Biwako -sono koshō no yurai- [Lake Biwa, the origin of its name]. Hikone: Sunrise Publishing. ISBN 4-88325-129-2 ^ a b c d Kawanabe, H.; Nishino, M.; and Maehata, M., editors (2012). Lake Biwa: Interactions between Nature and People. pp 119-120. ISBN 978-94-007-1783-1 ^ Segers, H.; and Martens, K; editors (2005). The Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems. p. 46. Developments in Hydrobiology. Aquatic Biodiversity. ISBN 1-4020-3745-7 ^ a b Francesco Menotti, Aidan O'Sullivan, The Oxford Handbook of Wetland Archaeology. OUP Oxford, 2013. ISBN 0199573492 p.181 ^ Habu, Junko; Matsui, Akira; Yamamoto, Naoto; Kanno, Tomonori (2011). "Shell midden archaeology in Japan: Aquatic food acquisition and long-term change in the Jomon culture" (PDF). Quaternary International. 239 (1-2): 19–27. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2011.03.014. ISSN 1040-6182. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lake Biwa.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lake Biwa.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Biwa.

Department of Lake Biwa
Biwa
and Environment, Shiga Prefecture Lake Biwa
Biwa
Environmental Research Institute Lake Biwa
Biwa
Museum Ramsar site database go.biwako - Travel Guide of Shiga Prefecture, Japan Lake Biwa
Biwa
(World Wildlife Fund) Review of Criodrilidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta) including Biwadrilus from Japan Live Webcam of Biwako Japan's Secret Garden NOVA / PBS Fishing World Records

v t e

Lakes in Japan

Chūbu region

Suwa

Hokkaido region

Saroma Kussharo Shikotsu Tōya Notoro Fūren Abashiri Akkeshi Mashū Kutcharo Akan Kuttara

Kansai region

Biwa

Kantō region

Kasumigaura Kitaura Chūzenji Inba

Kyūshū region

Ikeda

San'in region

Nakaumi Lake Shinji

Tōhoku region

Inawashiro Ogawara Towada Hachirō Tazawa Jūsan Hibara

Tōkai region

Hamana

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 25624

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