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La Défense
La Défense
(French: [la de.fɑ̃s]) is a major business district, three kilometres west of the city limits of Paris. It is part of the Paris
Paris
Metropolitan Area in the Île-de- France
France
region, located in the department Hauts-de-Seine
Hauts-de-Seine
spread across part of the commune of Puteaux, as well as parts of Courbevoie, Nanterre
Nanterre
and La Garenne-Colombes. La Défense
La Défense
is Europe's largest purpose-built business district with 560 hectares (1,400 acres) of area, 72 glass and steel buildings (of which 19 are completed skyscrapers), 180,000 daily workers, and 3,500,000 square metres (38,000,000 sq ft) of office space.[1] Around its Grande Arche
Grande Arche
and esplanade ("le Parvis"), La Défense contains many of the Paris
Paris
urban area's tallest high-rises. The district is located at the westernmost extremity of the 10-kilometre-long (6.2 mi) Historical Axis of Paris, which starts at the Louvre
Louvre
in Central Paris
Paris
and continues along the Champs-Élysées, well beyond the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
along the Avenue de la Grande Armée before culminating at La Défense. The district is centred in an orbital motorway straddling the Hauts-de-Seine département municipalities of Courbevoie, Nanterre, and Puteaux. La Défense is primarily a business district and hosts a population of 25,000 permanent residents and 45,000 students.[1][2] La Défense
La Défense
is also visited by 8,000,000 tourists each year[1] and houses an open-air museum.[3]

Contents

1 History 2 Area specifications 3 Open-air museum 4 Tallest buildings

4.1 Completed highrise buildings above 90 m (295 ft) (1967–2014) 4.2 Upcoming highrise buildings (2016–2021) 4.3 Canceled projects

5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

History[edit]

La Grande Arche
Grande Arche
de la Défense and the Yaacov Agam
Yaacov Agam
Fountain (1977). The bronze sculpture on the left, seen from the rear, is La Défense de Paris
Paris
by Louis-Ernest Barrias, after which La Défense
La Défense
is named.

Paris, with the skyscrapers of La Défense
La Défense
in the background and the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
in the foreground

The Grande Arche
Grande Arche
is the central and defining building of La Défense. It is, with the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
de l'Étoile and the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, the third arch on the Historical Axis of Paris.

La Défense
La Défense
is named after the statue La Défense
La Défense
de Paris
Paris
by Louis-Ernest Barrias, which was erected in 1883 to commemorate the soldiers who had defended Paris
Paris
during the Franco-Prussian War. In September 1958, The Public Establishment for Installation of La Défense (fr) (EPAD) buildings (of which the Esso Tower was the very first) were built and began to slowly replace the city's factories, shanties, and even a few farms. The Center of New Industries and Technologies (CNIT) was built and first used in 1958. These "first generation" skyscrapers were all very similar in appearance, limited to a height of 100 metres (330 ft). In 1966, the Nobel Tower was the first office skyscraper built in the area. In 1970, the RER line A railway was opened from La Défense
La Défense
to Étoile.[4] In 1974, a contract for a Défense- Cergy
Cergy
high-speed hovercraft train was signed and soon abandoned. In the early 1970s, in response to great demand, a second generation of buildings began to appear, but the economic crisis in 1973 nearly halted all construction in the area. A third generation of towers began to appear in the early 1980s. The biggest commercial centre in Europe (at the time), the Quatre Temps, was created in 1981. In 1982, the EPAD launched the Tête Défense competition to find a monument to complete the Axe historique, which eventually led to the construction of Grande Arche
Grande Arche
at the west end of the quarter. During the same period, hotels were constructed, the CNIT was restructured, and in 1992, Line 1 of the Paris
Paris
Métro was extended to La Défense, which made the area readily accessible to even more of the city.[citation needed] On Bastille Day
Bastille Day
1990, French electronic composer Jean Michel Jarre staged an ambitious concert at the site, using the Grande Arche
Grande Arche
and three of the area's towers as projection screens, and building a pyramidal stage above the road. The free concert, titled simply Paris la Defense, attracted two million spectators, stretching all the way back to the Arc de Triomphe. This beat Jarre's own previous world record for the largest attendance for a musical concert. After Jean Michel Jarre, German DJ Sash! and the singer La Trec have set at La Défense the videoclip for their song Stay in 1997. After a stagnation in new development in the mid-1990s, La Défense
La Défense
is once again expanding and is now the largest purpose-built business district in Europe. Important corporations headquartered at La Défense
La Défense
include Neuf Cegetel, Société Générale, Total, Aventis, Areva, and Arcelor. The tallest skyscraper, the Tour First
Tour First
belongs to AXA, constructed in 1974. It is 231 metres (758 ft) high, has 50 floors, and is the highest inhabited building in the Paris
Paris
area (a title previously held by the Tour Montparnasse, which was the tallest inhabited building until the Tour First
Tour First
was renovated between 2007 and 2011, bringing it to its current height from a previous 159 metres (522 ft); the tallest structure in Paris
Paris
is the Eiffel Tower). On 9 September 2008, La Défense
La Défense
celebrated its 50th anniversary with a huge fireworks display.[5] In December 2005, Bernard Bled, CEO & Chairman of EPAD (La Defense Management & Development Office) announced an ambitious 9-year development plan called "La Defense 2006–2015".This important modernisation plan has to give a new dimension to the district and focuses on four main axes: regenerate outdated skyscrapers, allow new buildings, improve the balance between offices and residential housing and make the transport of local employees from their homes to La Défense easier. There are 3 aims: building 150,000 square metres (1,600,000 sq ft) of offices within demolition/rebuilding projects, building 300,000 square metres (3,200,000 sq ft) of offices within new projects, and building 100,000 square metres (1,100,000 sq ft) of housing. The government confirmed in July 2006 this plan which has to be carried out around 2015. It is justified by the strong estate pressure, which plays in favour of building new skyscrapers near Paris. Those constructions have also the advantage to be more economical than little buildings. But it will have to overcome some difficulties: French economy faces a short-term slowdown; the government tries to balance tertiary sector employment in the whole region again, because La Défense
La Défense
today concentrates a major part of those jobs; and traffic is already saturated in the district, while it would need huge investments to extend transport infrastructures. It launched high-profile international competitions and/or construction greenlight of several key 300-to-320-metre (980 to 1,050 ft) tall sustainable development-style skyscrapers such as Tour Signal, Tour Phare, Hermitage Plaza, and Tour Generali. During said December 2005 Press Conference, EPAD released to the public an elaborate 3D animation film titled " La Défense
La Défense
2015".

The district at night

Area specifications[edit]

Divided into 4 major sectors 400 acres (1.6 km2) 3,500,000 square metres (38,000,000 sq ft) of offices 1,500 businesses 150,000 employees 20,000 residents 210,000 square metres (2,300,000 sq ft) of shops (including the 140,000 square metres (1,500,000 sq ft) Quatre Temps Shopping Mall) 2,600 hotel rooms 310,000 square metres (3,300,000 sq ft) of flagstone and sidewalk 110,000 square metres (1,200,000 sq ft) of greenery 60 modern art sculptures and monuments

The name of the district comes from the statue of La Défense
La Défense
de Paris which commemorates the Parisian resistance during the Franco-Prussian War.

Central esplanade, view from Grande Arche.

View from Arc de Triomphe.

View from Eiffel Tower.

The Mall "Les Quatre Temps"

Skylight tower.

Open-air museum[edit] Besides the representative architecture, the area also houses an open-air museum with 70 statues and pieces of modern art,[3] including the following works:

César, Thumb (1965) Joan Miró, Two fantastic characters (1976) Alexander Calder, Red Spider (1976) Yaacov Agam, Fountain (1977) Richard Serra, Slat (1982) Shelomo Selinger, The Dance (1983) Bernar Venet, Two Indeterminate Lines (1988) Takis, Bright Trees (1990) Igor Mitoraj, Tindaro (1997) Emily Young, Four Heads (2002) Patrick Blanc, Green wall (2006) Louis-Ernest Barrias, La Défense
La Défense
de Paris
Paris
(1883) François Morellet, La Défonce (1990)[6] Guillaume Bottazzi, Peinture de 216 m² (2014)[7]

Takis, Bright Trees, c. 1990

Tallest buildings[edit]

Tour First

Tour Total

Société Générale
Société Générale
Twin Towers

Completed highrise buildings above 90 m (295 ft) (1967–2014)[edit]

Name Built Use Height Levels Municipality

metres feet

Tour First
Tour First
(formerly tour AXA) 1974/2011 office 231 758 52 Courbevoie

Tour Majunga 2014 office 193 636 47 Puteaux

Tour Total
Tour Total
(Coupole) 1985 office 187 614 48 Courbevoie

Tour GDF Suez (T1) 2008 office 185 607 37 Courbevoie

Tour Areva 1974 office 184 604 44 Courbevoie

Tour Granite
Tour Granite
(Société Générale) 2008 office 183 600 37 Nanterre

Tour CB21
Tour CB21
(formerly tour Gan) 1974 office 179 587 42 Courbevoie

Tour D2 2014 office 171 561 37 Courbevoie

Tour Alicante
Tour Alicante
(Société Générale) 1995 office 167 548 37 Nanterre

Tour Chassagne
Tour Chassagne
(Société Générale) 1995 office 167 548 37 Nanterre

Tour EDF 2001 office 165 541 41 Puteaux

Tour Carpe Diem 2013 office 162 531 38 Courbevoie

Cœur Défense 2001 office 161 528 40 Courbevoie

Tour Adria (Technip) 2002 office 155 509 40 Courbevoie

Tour Égée
Tour Égée
(Ernst&Young) 1999 office 155 509 40 Courbevoie

Tour Ariane 1975 office 152 499 36 Puteaux

Tour Dexia (CBX) 2005 office 142 466 36 Courbevoie

Tour Europlaza 1995 office 135 443 31 Courbevoie

Tour Défense 2000 1974 residential 134 440 47 Puteaux

Tour Eqho (formerly tour Descartes) 1988 office 130 427 40 Courbevoie

Tour Les Poissons 1970 mixed 129.5 425 42 Courbevoie

Tour France 1973 residential 126 413 40 Puteaux

Tour Franklin 1972 office 120 394 33 Puteaux

Tour Sequoia (Bull, Cegetel, SFR) 1990 office 119 390 33 Puteaux

Tour Winterthur 1973 office 119 390 33 Puteaux

Tour CGI (CB16) 2003 office 117 384 32 Courbevoie

Tour Neptune 1972 office 113 371 28 Courbevoie

Préfecture des Hauts-de-Seine 1974 office 113 371 25 Nanterre

Grande Arche 1989 monument, office 110 361 37 Puteaux

Tour Manhattan 1975 office 110 361 32 Courbevoie

Tour Aurore 1970 office 110 361 29 Courbevoie

Tour Eve 1975 mixed 109 358 30 Puteaux

Tour Initiale 1967 office 109 358 30 Puteaux

Tour Nuage 1, Tours Aillaud 1976 residential 105 344 39 Nanterre

Tour Nuage 2, Tours Aillaud 1976 residential 105 344 39 Nanterre

Tour Gambetta 1975 residential 104 341 37 Courbevoie

Tour Cèdre 1998 office 103 338 26 Courbevoie

Tour Opus 12 1973 office 100 328 27 Puteaux

Tour Athéna 1984 office 100 328 25 Puteaux

Tour Europe 1969 office 99 325 28 Courbevoie

Tour AIG 1967 office 99 325 27 Courbevoie

Tour Prisma
Tour Prisma
(Tour Kvaerner) 1998 office 97 318 25 Courbevoie

Tour Atlantique 1970 office 95 312 27 Puteaux

Tour Pascal 1983 office 95 312 27 Puteaux

Tour Pacific 1992 office 90 295 25 Puteaux

Skylight 2017 residential 76 249 19 Puteaux

Upcoming highrise buildings (2016–2021)[edit]

Name Use Height Levels Municipality Status (2016) Estimated Year of Completion

metres feet

Hermitage Plaza II mix 323 1,060 86 Courbevoie Construction start in 2018 2020/2021

Hermitage Plaza I mix 323 1,060 85 Courbevoie Construction start in 2018 2020/2021

The Link office 244 801 52 Puteaux proposed 2021

Tour Hekla office 220 722 41 Puteaux Construction start in May 2018 2020

Tour Sister 1 office 219 718 40 Courbevoie Construction start in September 2018 2021

Tour Air² office 202 663 43 Courbevoie approved[8] 2021

Tour Jardins de l'Arche office & hotel 200 656 54 Nanterre approved 2021

Tour Saint-Gobain office 178 584 39 Courbevoie Under construction 2019

Tour Alto office 160 492 38 Courbevoie Under construction 2020

Tour Trinity office 151 459 32 Courbevoie Under construction 2019

Tour AVA office 142 466 34 Courbevoie approved 2020

Tours Sister 2 office 121 396 26 Courbevoie Construction start in September 2018 2021

Tour Vinci office 108 354 22 Nanterre Under construction 2021

Rose de Cherbourg residence housing 75 246 20 Puteaux Under construction 2018

Canceled projects[edit]

Tour Sans Fins (1989): 425 m (1,394 ft) Tour Generali (2011): 319 m (1,047 ft) Tour Signal (2009): 301 m (988 ft) Tour Phare (2018): 296 m (971 ft)

See also[edit]

Paris
Paris
portal

List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris
Paris
region

References[edit]

^ a b c "La Défense, Tout sur ce quartier d'exception". Ville de Courbevoie. Ce territoire stratégique pour l’économie nationale s’étend sur plus de 560 hectares. Chiffres clés: 180 0000 emplois, 25 000 habitants, 45 000 étudiants, Plus de 8 millions de touristes  ^ Fallon, Steve; Annabel Hart (2006). Paris. Footscray, Victoria: Lonely Planet. p. 155. ISBN 1-74059-849-0.  ^ a b La Défense
La Défense
> Artworks: Guide 2013. Leaflet published by Defacto, Établissement public de gestion du quartier d'affaires de la Défense. ^ "Portrait of the RER A
RER A
- RATP". www.ratp.fr. Retrieved 2018-01-31.  ^ La Défense : 50 ans d’histoire 9 November 2008, Danielle Birck (in French) ^ "La Défonce Defacto - Quartier d'affaires de la Defense". Ladefense.fr. Retrieved 2016-02-20.  ^ "Une oeuvre géante de Guillaume Bottazzi
Guillaume Bottazzi
à La Défense
La Défense
Defacto - Quartier d'affaires de la Defense". Ladefense.fr. 2014-09-30. Retrieved 2016-02-20.  ^ L’Epad signe cinq nouvelles tours à la Défense[permanent dead link] 27 January 2010 (in French)

Further reading[edit]

Schaugg, Johannes: High-Rise Buildings – La Défense, Books on Demand 2009, ISBN 978-3-8391-4523-4

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to La Défense.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for La Défense.

Satellite image from Google Maps la Défense de Paris Site officiel de l'EPAD (Établissement Public pour l'Aménagement de la Défense) (in French) Connecting-Paris, web site created by the Chamber of commerce and industry of Paris
Paris
to help companies setting up in La Defense (in English) Expatriates Magazine, A printed publication distributed within various corporations situated in La Defense helping international employees integrate within the workplace and city (in English) Les bâtiments de la Défense (in French) Structurae: Structural engineering and architecture guide to Paris-La Défense (in English) Défense Network

Coordinates: 48°53′30.27″N 2°14′27.00″E / 48.8917417°N 2.2408333°E / 48.8917417; 2.2408333

v t e

La Défense

Skyscrapers
Skyscrapers
and complexes

Tour Adria Tours Aillaud Tour Areva Tour Ariane Tour Athéna Tour Atlantique
Tour Atlantique
(FR) Tour Aurore Tour Carpe Diem Tour CB21 Tour CBX Tour Cèdre
Tour Cèdre
(FR) Tour Chartis (FR) Tour D2 Cœur Défense Tour Défense 2000 Tour EDF Tour Égée Tour Eqho Tour Europe
Tour Europe
(FR) Tour Europlaza Tour Ève (FR) Tour First Tour France Tour Franklin Tour Gambetta
Tour Gambetta
(FR) Tour GAN Eurocourtage (FR) Grande Arche Tour Granite Tour Initiale Tour Les Poissons Tour Majunga Tour Manhattan
Tour Manhattan
(FR) Tour Neptune
Tour Neptune
(FR) Tour Opus 12 Tour Pascal
Tour Pascal
(FR) Préfecture des Hauts-de-Seine Tour Sequoia Tours Société Générale
Société Générale
(Alicante and Chassagne) Tour T1 Tour Total Esso Tower (demolished)

Planned

Tour Generali (cancelled) Hermitage Plaza Phare Tower Tour Signal (cancelled)

Other landmarks

Center of New Industries and Technologies

ESSEC Business School

Parvis de la Défense (FR)

Paris
Paris
Métro stations

Esplanade
Esplanade
de La Défense La Défense
La Défense
Grande Arche
Grande Arche
(Gare de La Défense)

This list is incomplete.

v t e

Tourism in Paris

Landmarks

Arc de Triomphe Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
du Carrousel Arènes de Lutèce Bourse Catacombs Conciergerie Eiffel Tower Flame of Liberty Grand Palais
Grand Palais
and Petit Palais Institut de France Jeanne d'Arc Les Invalides Louvre
Louvre
Pyramid Luxor Obelisk Odéon Opéra Bastille Opéra Garnier Panthéon Philharmonie de Paris Porte Saint-Denis Porte Saint-Martin Sorbonne Tour Montparnasse

Museums

Bibliothèque nationale Carnavalet Centre Pompidou/Beaubourg Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie Jeu de Paume Louis Vuitton Foundation Musée des Arts Décoratifs Musée des Arts et Métiers Musée d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaïsme Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris Musée Cognacq-Jay Musée Grévin Musée Guimet Maison de Victor Hugo Musée Jacquemart-André Musée du Louvre Musée Marmottan Monet Musée de Montmartre Musée National d'Art Moderne Musée national Eugène Delacroix Musée national Gustave Moreau Musée national des Monuments Français Muséum national d'histoire naturelle Musée national du Moyen Âge Musée de l'Orangerie Musée d'Orsay Musée Pasteur Musée Picasso Musée du quai Branly Musée Rodin Palais de la Légion d'Honneur

Musée de la Légion d'honneur

Musée de la Vie Romantique

Religious buildings

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral American Cathedral American Church Chapelle expiatoire Grand Mosque Grand Synagogue La Madeleine Notre-Dame de Paris Notre-Dame-de-Bonne-Nouvelle Notre-Dame-de-Lorette Notre-Dame-des-Victoires Sacré-Cœur Saint Ambroise Saint-Augustin Saint-Étienne-du-Mont Saint-Eustache Saint-François-Xavier Saint-Germain-des-Prés Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois Saint-Gervais-Saint-Protais Saint-Jacques Tower Saint-Jean-de-Montmartre Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis Saint-Pierre de Montmartre Saint-Roch Saint-Sulpice Saint-Vincent-de-Paul Sainte-Chapelle Sainte-Clotilde Sainte-Trinité Temple du Marais Val-de-Grâce

Hôtels particuliers and palaces

Élysée Palace Hôtel de Beauvais Hôtel de Charost Hôtel de Crillon Hôtel d'Estrées Hôtel de la Païva Hôtel de Pontalba Hôtel de Sens Hôtel de Soubise Hôtel de Sully Hôtel de Ville Hôtel Lambert Hôtel Matignon Luxembourg Palace
Luxembourg Palace
(Petit Luxembourg) Palais Bourbon Palais de Justice Palais-Royal

Areas, bridges, streets and squares

Avenue Foch Avenue George V Champ de Mars Champs-Élysées Covered passages

Galerie Véro-Dodat Choiseul Panoramas Galerie Vivienne Havre Jouffroy Brady

Latin Quarter Le Marais Montmartre Montparnasse Place Dauphine Place de la Bastille Place de la Concorde Place de la Nation Place de la République Place Denfert-Rochereau Place des États-Unis Place des Pyramides Place des Victoires Place des Vosges Place du Carrousel Place du Châtelet Place du Tertre Place Saint-Michel Place Vendôme Pont Alexandre III Pont d'Iéna Pont de Bir-Hakeim Pont des Arts Pont Neuf Rive Gauche Rue de Rivoli Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré Saint-Germain-des-Prés Trocadéro

Parks and gardens

Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Jardin d'Acclimatation Jardin du Luxembourg Parc des Buttes Chaumont Parc Montsouris Tuileries Garden

Cemeteries

Montmartre
Montmartre
Cemetery Montparnasse
Montparnasse
Cemetery Passy Cemetery Père Lachaise Cemetery Picpus Cemetery

Région parisienne

Chantilly La Défense

Grande Arche

Disneyland Paris Écouen Fontainebleau France
France
Miniature Malmaison Musée de l’air et de l’espace Musée Fragonard d'Alfort Parc Astérix Provins Rambouillet La Roche-Guyon Basilica of St Denis Saint-Germain-en-Laye Sceaux Stade de France U Arena Vaux-le-Vicomte Palace and Gardens of Versailles Vincennes

Events and traditions

Bastille Day
Bastille Day
military parade Fête de la Musique Nuit Blanche Paris
Paris
Air Show Paris-Plages Republican Guard

Other

Le Bateau-Lavoir La Ruche Café des 2 Moulins Café Procope Les Deux Magots Maxim's Moulin de la Galette Moulin Rouge

Related

Paris
Paris
Musées Axe historique

Paris
Paris
Métro Bateaux Mouches

v t e

Courbevoie

Areas

La Défense Bécon (FR)

Primary and secondary schools

Lycée Paul Lapie de Courbevoie Lycée Paul Painlevé Groupe scolaire Montalembert Lycée Lucie Aubrac

Landmarks

Tour Adria Tour Areva Tour Aurore Tour Carpe Diem Tour CB21 Tour CBX Tour Cèdre
Tour Cèdre
(FR) Tour Chartis (FR) Cœur Défense Tour D2 Tour Égée Tour Eqho Tour Europe
Tour Europe
(FR) Tour Europlaza Tour First Tour Gambetta
Tour Gambetta
(FR) Tour GAN Eurocourtage (FR) Tour Les Poissons Tour Manhattan
Tour Manhattan
(FR) Tour Neptune
Tour Neptune
(FR) Tour T1 Tour Total Esso Tower (demolished)

Planned

Tour Generali (cancelled) Hermitage Plaza Phare Tower

Paris
Paris
Métro stations

Esplanade
Esplanade
de La Défense

Transilien
Transilien
stations

Gare de Courbevoie Gare de Bécon-les-Bruyères (Gare de Bécon-les-Bruyères)

This list is incomplete.

v t e

Nanterre

Areas

La Défense Quartier du Mont-Valérien (FR) Quartier du Parc Nord (FR)

Primary and secondary schools

Lycée Joliot-Curie de Nanterre Lycée professionnel Louise-Michel Lycée professionnel Paul-Langevin Lycée professionnel Claude-Chappe

Colleges and universities

Paris
Paris
West University Nanterre
Nanterre
La Défense

Landmarks

Tours Aillaud Tour Granite Préfecture des Hauts-de-Seine Tours Société Générale Nanterre
Nanterre
Cathedral Palais des Sports Maurice Thorez Théâtre Nanterre-Amandiers U Arena Centre d'accueil et de soins hospitaliers de Nanterre
Nanterre
(FR) Maison René Ginouvès d'archéologie et d'ethnologie (FR) Place de la Boule (FR) Pont ferroviaire des Anglais (FR)

Paris
Paris
RER stations

Gare de Nanterre
Nanterre
– Université Nanterre-Préfecture Nanterre
Nanterre
– Ville

Culture

Nanterre
Nanterre
92 Racing 92

This list is incomplete.

v t e

Puteaux

Areas

La Défense

Primary and secondary schools

Le Lycée Général et Technologique Agora Le Lycée Professionnel Lucien-Voilin

Landmarks

Tour AGF - Athéna (FR) Tour Atlantique
Tour Atlantique
(FR) Tour Ariane Center of New Industries and Technologies

ESSEC Business School

Tour Défense 2000 Tour EDF Tour Ève (FR) Tour France Tour Franklin Grande Arche Tour Initiale Tour Majunga Opus 12 Tower Tour Pascal
Tour Pascal
(FR) Tour Sequoia Notre-Dame de Pentecôte (FR) Parvis de la Défense (FR)

Planned

Tour Signal (cancelled)

Paris
Paris
Métro stations

Esplanade
Esplanade
de La Défense La Défense
La Défense
Grande Arche
Grande Arche
(Gare de La Défense)

Transilien
Transilien
stations

Gare de Puteaux

This list is incomplete.

Authority control

GND: 4273906-8 BNF:

.