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KUSHINAGAR, KUSINAGAR or KUSINARA is a pilgrimage town and a Notified Area Council in the Kushinagar district of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh located around NH-28 , and is 52 km east of Gorakhpur city. It is an important Buddhist pilgrimage site, where Buddhists believe Gautama Buddha attained Parinirvana after his death. Outside India, it is an International Buddhist Pilgrimage Centre. The followers of Buddhism, especially from Asian countries, wish to visit this place at least once in their lifetime.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Demographics * 3 History * 4 Location of Gautama Buddha\'s death and parinirvana * 5 Geography * 6 Tourism * 7 Government and politics * 8 Notable People From Kushinagar * 9 Education * 10 Gallery * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 See also * 14 External links

ETYMOLOGY

According to one theory, Kushwati was capital of Kosala Kingdom and according to Ramayana it was built by King Kush , son of Rama , protagonist of the epic Ramayana. While according to Buddhist tradition _Kushawati_ was named prior to the king Kush. The naming of Kushwati is believed to be due to abundance of Kush grass found in this region.

DEMOGRAPHICS

As of 2011 India census , Kushinagar had a population of 22,214, with 3462 households. Males constitute 52% (11,502 Men) of the population and females 48% (10,712 Women). Kushinagar has an average literacy rate of 78.43%, higher than the national average of 74%, male literacy is 85%, and female literacy is 72%. In Kushinagar, 11% of the population is under 10 years of age. Schedule Caste (SC) constitutes 5.03% while Schedule Tribe (ST) were 2.39% of total population in Kushinagar Nagar Panchayat.

HISTORY

The present Kushinagar is identified with KUSHAWATI (in pre-Buddha period) and KUSHINARA (in post-Buddha period). Kushinara was the capital of Mallas which was one of the sixteen mahajanpads of the 6th Century BCE. Since then, it remained an integral part of the erstwhile empires of Maurya , Shunga , Kushana , Gupta and Harsha dynasties.

In the medieval period, Kushinagar had passed under the suzerainty of Kultury Kings. Kushinara continued to be a living city till the 12th century CE and was thereafter lost into oblivion. Padrauna is believed to be ruled over by a Rajput adventurer, Madan Singh, in the 15th century CE.

However, modern Kushinagar came into prominence in the 19th Century with archeological excavations carried out by Alexander Cunningham , the first Archeological Surveyor of India and later followed by C.L. Carlleyle who exposed the main stupa and also discovered a 6.10 meters long statue of reclining Buddha in 1876. Excavations continued in the early twentieth century under J. Ph. Vogel . He conducted archaeological campaigns in 1904-5, 1905-6 and 1906-7, uncovering a wealth of Buddhist materials.

Chandra Swami, a Burmese monk, came to India in 1903 and made "Mahaparinirvana Temple" into a living shrine.

After independence, Kushinagar remained the part of district Deoria . On 13 May 1994, it came into being as a new district of Uttar Pradesh .

LOCATION OF GAUTAMA BUDDHA\'S DEATH AND PARINIRVANA

Buddha's cremation stupa, Kushinagar.

In 1896, Waddell suggested that the site of the death and parinirvana of Gautama Buddha was in the region of Rampurva . However, according to _Maha-parinirvana Sutta_, the Buddha made his journey to Kushinagar, died there and wherein he was cremated. Modern scholarship, based on archaeological evidence, believes that the Buddha died in Kushinagar, close to the modern Kasia (Uttar Pradesh).

Ashoka built a stupa and pilgrimage site to mark Buddha's parinirvana in Kushinagara. The Hindu kings of Gupta dynasty period (4th to 7th century CE) helped greatly enlarge the Nirvana stupa and Kushinagar site, building a temple with reclining Buddha. This site was abandoned by Buddhist monks around 1200 CE, who fled to escape the invading Muslim army, after which the site decayed over the Islamic rule in India that followed. The British archaeologist Alexander Cunningham rediscovered Kushinagara in the late 19th century, and his colleague A. C. L. Carlleyle unearthed the 1,500-year-old Buddha image. The site has since then become an important pilgrimage site for Buddhists. Archaeological evidence from the 3rd century BCE suggests that the Kushinagara site was an ancient pilgrimage site.

GEOGRAPHY

Kushinagar is situated at 53 km east from Gorakhpur on the National Highway -28, lies between latitude 26° 45´ N and 83° 24´ E. Gorakhpur is the main railway terminus for Kushinagar while air strip of U.P. Civil Aviation is available in Kasia, 5 km. from Kushinagar.

TOURISM

Golden Statue of Buddha in Wat Thai Kushinara Temple.

PARINIRVANA STUPA The Parinirvana Temple with the Parinirvana Stupa , Kushinagar

The reclining Nirvana statue of the Buddha is inside the Parinirvana Stupa . Statue is 6.10 metres long and is made of monolith red - sand stone. It represents the "Dying Buddha" reclining on his right side with his face towards the west. It is placed on a large brick-pedestal with stone-posts at the corners.

NIRVANA CHAITYA (MAIN STUPA)

Nirvana Chaitya is located just behind the Main Parinirvana Temple. It was excavated by Carlleyle in the year 1876. During excavations, a copper-plate was found, which contained the text of the "Nidana-Sutra" which concluded the statement that plate had been deposited in the "Nirvana-Chaitya" by one Haribala, who also installed the great Nirvana Statue of Buddha in the temple front.

RAMABHAR STUPA Ramabhar Stupa, also called a Mukutbandhan-Chaitya, is the cremation -place of Buddha. This Site is 1.5 km east of the main Nirvana Temple on the Kushinagar-Deoria road.

MATHA KUAR SHRINE A Colossal statue of Lord Buddha is installed, which is carved out of one block which represents Buddha seated under the " Bodhi Tree" in a pose known as " Bhumi Sparsh Mudra " (Earth touching attitude). The inscription at the base of statue is datable to the 10th or 11th Century A.D.

OTHER MAJOR PLACES

* Indo-Japan-Sri Lanka Temple: Indo-Japan-Sri Lanka temple is a marvel of Buddhist architectural grandeur of modern times. * Wat Thai Temple: It is a huge complex built in a typical Thai- Buddhist architectural fashion. * Ruins "> Stupa ruins in Kushinagar.

Kushinagar comes under Kushi Nagar (Lok Sabha constituency) for Indian general elections . Current Member of Parliament from this constituency is Rajesh Pandey of Bharatiya Janata Party who defeated R. P. N. Singh of Indian National Congress in Indian general elections, 2014 .

The current Member of legislative assembly(MLA) from Kushinagar Assembly constituency is Rajnikant Mani Tripathi of Bharatiya Janata Party .

NOTABLE PEOPLE FROM KUSHINAGAR

* Sachchidananda Vatsyayan 'Agyeya' (सच्चिदानंद हीरानंद वात्स्यायन 'अज्ञेय') was a notable Indian Hindi Writer. * Ram Nagina Mishra was a former Loksabha M.P. from Kushinagar. * Baleshwar Yadav was a former Loksabha M.P. from Kushinagar. * Rajesh Pandey is a member of 16th Lok Sabha from Kushi Nagar (Lok Sabha constituency) and also served as a Member of Legislative Council in Uttar Pradesh. * R. P. N. Singh was former member of parliament from Kushi Nagar (Lok Sabha constituency) from Indian National Congress. He also served as Minister of State for Road and Transport, Minister of State for Petroleum and Natural Gas in Dr. Manmohan Singh Cabinet. He was also member of many parliamentary committees.

EDUCATION

Kushinagar has made a lot of progress in education in recent times. Since last decade - dozens of private and governmental institutes have been launched at this little town. Here is a list of all educational institutes at Kushinagar:

GOVERNMENTAL INSTITUTES

* Buddha Post Graduate College, Kushinagar * Buddha Intermediate College, Kushinagar

POLYTECHNIC COLLEGES

* Mooti Chand Polytechnic Institute, Kurmauta, Kushinagar

OTHER INSTITUTES

* Buddha Central Academy, Kasia, Kushinagar * Saraswati Shishu Mandir, Kasia, Kushinagar * VIEIT Computer Education NH-28, Gorakhpur Road Kushinagar * Rahul Public School, Kushinagar * Rahul Shishu Shiksha Niketan, Kushinagar * Swargiya Foolmati Devi Kushinagar Public School, Kushinagar * Linh-Son Buddhist Intermediate College, Kushinagar * Gyanlok College for Government Services, Kushinagar * Nav Jeevan Mission School, Kasia, Kushinagar * St. Xavier's High School, Kasia, Kushinagar * Bright children's academy, Kasia, Kushinagar * St. Joseph's school, Salemgarh, Kushinagar * Gyan Bhoomi International School, NH-28, Kushinagar * St. Thereses School, Padrauna, Kushinagar * Malati Pandey Girls Inter College, Bhaluhi Madari Patti, Kasia, Kushinagar * Holy Mother's English School, Gaura Khas, Kasaia Road * Green Land Public School, Kasia * Quantom Public School, Kasia * S.D. Public School, Babhnauli

MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS AND HOSPITALS IN KUSHINAGAR

There are two governmental and several private hospitals and clinics available at Kushinagar and Kasia. The popular ones are:

* Governmental Aayurvedic Hospital, Mahaparinirvana Temple road * Buddha National Hospital, NH 28 * Government Hospital, Kasia * Qazi Nursing Home, Kasia * al-Shifa Medical College, Kasia * Vartika Medical Center, Kasia * Hitashi hospital, gorakhpur road, kasia * Sanjeevni Hospital, sapha road, kasia * Jeevan jyoti chikitsalaya, kasia * Hansraj memorial hospital, NH-28 * Holy Mother's English School, Kasaia Road, Gaura Khas * Janta Hospital, Kuasia

GALLERY

*

Mahasukhamdada Chin Thargyi Pagoda (Burmese Temple) *

Wat Thai Temple *

Buddha Relic Distribution Site *

Buddha's body was kept at this location for 1 week, after he attained Parinirvana . *

Gautam Buddh's statue in Parinirvana; at the Mahaparinirvana Temple. *

Ramabhar Stupa was built over a portion of the Buddha's ashes on the spot where the he was cremated by the ancient Malla people. *

Relief on Base of Buddhist Statue. *

Stone plaque pointing towards Buddha Relic distribution site.

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ " Kushinagar City Census". census2011. Retrieved 17 July 2015. * ^ W. Owen Cole, Peggy Morgan _Six Religions in the Twenty-First Century_ 2000 - Page 204 "Kushinara. Here, near modern Kasia in Uttar Pradesh, is the site of the Buddha's death. A temple commemorates the Buddha's final ..." * ^ _A_ _B_ "Kushinagar". official government website of Kushinagar. Retrieved 17 July 2015. * ^ Census of India: Population Finder, http://censusindia.gov.in/PopulationFinder/View_Village_Population.aspx?pcaid=1249&category=N.P. * ^ Vogel J Ph. (1950). "Some Buddhist Monasteries in Ancient India". _Journal of the Ceylon branch of the Royal Asiatic Society_. 1: 27–32. * ^ " Kushinagar History". kushinagar.nic.in. Retrieved 18 July 2015. * ^ "A Tibetan Guide-book to the Lost Sites of the Buddha's Birth and Death", L. A. Waddell . Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal , 1896, p. 279. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Lars Fogelin (2015). _An Archaeological History of Indian Buddhism_. Oxford University Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-19-994822-2 . * ^ John Guy (1991). "The Mahabodhi temple". _The Burlington Magazine_. 133 (1059): 356–357. JSTOR 884751 . * ^ United Nations (2003). _Promotion of Buddhist Tourism Circuits in Selected Asian Countries_. United Nations Publications. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-92-1-120386-8 . * ^ Kevin Trainor (2004). _Buddhism: The Illustrated Guide_. Oxford University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-19-517398-7 .

* ^ Elizabeth Lyons; Heather Peters; Chʻeng-mei Chang (1985). _Buddhism: History and Diversity of a Great Tradition_. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-934718-76-9 . ; Fred S. Kleiner (2009). _Gardner\'s Art through the Ages: Non-Western Perspectives_. Cengage. pp. 13, 31. ISBN 0-495-57367-1 . * ^ Huntington, John C (1986), "Sowing the Seeds of the Lotus" (PDF), _Orientations_, September 1986: 47, archived from the original (PDF) on Nov 28, 2014 * ^ Akira Hirakawa; Paul Groner (1993). _A History of Indian Buddhism: From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna_. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 101. ISBN 978-81-208-0955-0 . * ^ Gina Barns (1995). "An Introduction to Buddhist Archaeology". _World Archaeology_. 27 (2): 166–168. * ^ _A_ _B_ Robert Stoddard (2010). "The Geography of Buddhist Pilgrimage in Asia". _Pilgrimage and Buddhist Art_. Yale University Press. 178: 3–4. * ^ Richard H. Robinson; Sandra Ann Wawrytko; Ṭhānissaro Bhikkhu (1996). _The Buddhist Religion: A Historical Introduction_. Thomson. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-534-20718-2 . * ^ Mark Juergensmeyer; Wade Clark Roof (2011). _Encyclopedia of Global Religion_. SAGE Publications. p. 148. ISBN 978-1-4522-6656-5 . * ^ Asher, Frederick (2009). "From place to sight: locations of the Buddha´s life". _Artibus Asiae_. 69 (2): 244. * ^ Himanshu Prabha Ray (2014). _The Return of the Buddha: Ancient Symbols for a New Nation_. Routledge. pp. 74–75, 86. ISBN 978-1-317-56006-7 . * ^ Lars Fogelin (2006). _Archaeology of Early Buddhism_. AltaMira Press. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-0-7591-1444-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ " Kushinagar geography". kushinagr.nic.in. Retrieved 18 July 2015. * ^ "Kushinagar". onefivenine. Retrieved 18 July 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ "Places in Kushinagar". kushinager.nic.in. Retrieved 17 July 2015. * ^ " Kushinagar Loksabha". elections. Retrieved 18 July 2015.

FURTHER READING

* A Literary History of Deoria ">

* v * t * e

Buddhism topics

* Glossary * Index * Outline

FOUNDATIONS

* Three Jewels

* Buddha * Dharma * Sangha

* Four Noble Truths * Noble Eightfold Path * Nirvana * Middle Way

THE BUDDHA

* Tathāgata * Birthday * Four sights * Physical characteristics * Footprint * Relics * Iconography in Laos and Thailand * Films * Miracles

* Family

* Suddhodāna (father) * Māyā (mother) * Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) * Yasodhara (wife) * Rāhula (son) * Ānanda (cousin) * Devadatta (cousin)

* Places where the Buddha stayed * Buddha in world religions

KEY CONCEPTS

* Avidyā (Ignorance) * Bardo * Bodhicitta * Bodhisattva * Buddha-nature * Dhamma theory * Dharma * Enlightenment * Five hindrances * Indriya * Karma * Kleshas * Mind Stream * Parinirvana * Pratītyasamutpāda * Rebirth * Saṃsāra * Saṅkhāra * Skandha * Śūnyatā * Taṇhā (Craving) * Tathātā * Ten Fetters

* Three marks of existence

* Impermanence * Dukkha * Anatta

* Two truths doctrine

COSMOLOGY

* Ten spiritual realms

* Six realms

* Heaven * Human realm * Asura realm * Hungry Ghost realm * Animal realm * Hell

* Three planes of existence

PRACTICES

* Bhavana * Bodhipakkhiyādhammā

* Brahmavihara

* Mettā * Karuṇā * Mudita * Upekkha

* Dāna * Devotion * Dhyāna * Faith * Five Strengths * Iddhipada

* Meditation

* Mantras * Kammaṭṭhāna * Recollection * Smarana * Anapanasati * Samatha * Vipassanā ( Vipassana movement ) * Shikantaza * Zazen * Kōan * Mandala * Tonglen * Tantra * Tertön * Terma

* Merit

* Mindfulness

* Satipatthana

* Nekkhamma * Pāramitā * Paritta

* Puja

* Offerings * Prostration * Chanting

* Refuge

* Satya

* Sacca

* Seven Factors of Enlightenment

* Sati * Dhamma vicaya * Pīti * Passaddhi

* Śīla

* Five Precepts * Bodhisattva vow * Prātimokṣa

* Threefold Training

* Śīla * Samadhi * Prajñā

* Vīrya

* Four Right Exertions

NIRVANA

* Bodhi * Bodhisattva * Buddhahood * Pratyekabuddha

* Four stages of enlightenment

* Sotāpanna * Sakadagami * Anāgāmi * Arhat

MONASTICISM

* Bhikkhu * Bhikkhuni * Śrāmaṇera * Śrāmaṇerī * Anagarika * Ajahn * Sayadaw * Zen master * Rōshi * Lama * Rinpoche * Geshe * Tulku * Householder * Upāsaka and Upāsikā

* Śrāvaka

* The ten principal disciples

* Shaolin Monastery

MAJOR FIGURES

* Gautama Buddha * Kaundinya * Assaji * Sāriputta * Mahamoggallāna * Mulian * Ānanda * Mahākassapa * Anuruddha * Mahākaccana * Nanda * Subhuti * Punna * Upali * Mahapajapati Gotamī * Khema * Uppalavanna * Asita * Channa * Yasa * Buddhaghoṣa * Nagasena * Angulimala * Bodhidharma * Nagarjuna * Asanga * Vasubandhu * Atiśa * Padmasambhava * Nichiren * Songtsen Gampo * Emperor Wen of Sui * Dalai Lama * Panchen Lama * Karmapa * Shamarpa * Naropa * Xuanzang * Zhiyi

TEXTS

* Tripiṭaka * _ Madhyamakālaṃkāra _ * Mahayana sutras * Pāli Canon * Chinese Buddhist canon * Tibetan Buddhist canon

BRANCHES

* Theravada

* Mahayana

* Chan Buddhism

* Zen * Seon * Thiền

* Pure Land * Tiantai * Nichiren * Madhyamaka * Yogachara

* Navayana

* Vajrayana

* Tibetan * Shingon * Dzogchen

* Early Buddhist schools * Pre-sectarian Buddhism * Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

COUNTRIES

* Afghanistan * Bangladesh * Bhutan * Cambodia * China * India * Indonesia * Japan * Korea * Laos * Malaysia * Maldives * Mongolia * Myanmar * Nepal * Pakistan * Philippines

* Russia

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* Singapore * Sri Lanka * Taiwan * Thailand * Tibet * Vietnam

* Middle East

* Iran

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* Argentina * Australia * Brazil * France * United Kingdom * United States * Venezuela

HISTORY

* Timeline * Ashoka * Buddhist councils

* History of Buddhism in India

* Decline of Buddhism in India

* Great Anti- Buddhist Persecution * Greco- Buddhism * Buddhism and the Roman world * Buddhism in the West * Silk Road transmission of Buddhism * Persecution of Buddhists * Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal * Buddhist crisis * Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism * Buddhist modernism * Vipassana movement * 969 Movement * Women in Buddhism

PHILOSOPHY

* Abhidharma * Atomism * Buddhology * Creator * Economics * Eight Consciousnesses * Engaged Buddhism * Eschatology * Ethics * Evolution * Humanism * Logic * Reality * Secular Buddhism * Socialism * The unanswered questions

CULTURE

* Architecture

* Temple * Vihara * Wat * Stupa * Pagoda * Candi * Dzong architecture * Japanese Buddhist architecture * Korean Buddhist temples * Thai temple art and architecture * Tibetan Buddhist architecture

* Art

* Greco- Buddhist

* Bodhi Tree * Budai * Buddharupa * Calendar * Cuisine * Funeral

* Holidays

* Vesak * Uposatha * Magha Puja * Asalha Puja * Vassa

* Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi * Kasaya * Mahabodhi Temple

* Mantra

* Om mani padme hum

* Mudra * Music

* Pilgrimage

* Lumbini * Maya Devi Temple * Bodh Gaya * Sarnath * Kushinagar

* Poetry * Prayer beads * Prayer wheel

* Symbolism

* Dharmachakra * Flag * Bhavacakra * Swastika * Thangka

* Temple of the Tooth * Vegetarianism

MISCELLANEOUS

* Abhijñā * Amitābha

* Avalokiteśvara

* Guanyin

* Brahmā * _ Dhammapada _ * Dharma talk * Hinayana * Kalpa * Koliya * Lineage * Maitreya * Māra * Ṛddhi

* Sacred languages

* Pali * Sanskrit

* Siddhi * Sutra * Vinaya

COMPARISON

* Bahá\'í Faith

* Christianity

* Influences * Comparison

* East Asian religions * Gnosticism * Hinduism * Jainism * Judaism * Psychology * Science * Theosophy * Violence * Western philosophy

LISTS

* Bodhisattvas * Books

* Buddhas

* named

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* Category * Portal

* v * t * e

Cities and towns in Kushinagar district

KUSHINAGAR

* Hata * Kaptanganj * Khadda * Kushinagar * Padrauna * Ramkola * Sewarhi

OTHER DISTRICTS

* Agra * Aligarh * Allahabad * Ambedkar Nagar * Amethi * Amroha * Auraiya * Azamgarh * Badaun * Bagpat * Bahraich * Ballia * Balrampur * Banda * Barabanki * Bareilly * Basti * Bhimnagar * Bijnor * Bulandshahr * Chandauli * Chitrakoot * Deoria * Etah * Etawah * Faizabad * Farrukhabad * Fatehpur * Firozabad * Gautam Buddha Nagar * Ghaziabad * Ghazipur * Gonda * Gorakhpur * Hamirpur * Hardoi * Hathras * Jalaun * Jaunpur * Jhansi * Kannauj * Kanpur Nagar * Kanshi Ram Nagar * Kaushambi * Lakhimpur Kheri * Lalitpur * Lucknow * Maharajganj * Mahoba * Mainpuri * Mathura * Mau * Meerut * Mirzapur * Moradabad * Muzaffarnagar * Panchsheel Nagar * Pilibhit * Prabuddhanagar * Pratapgarh * Raebareli * Ramabai Nagar * Rampur * Saharanpur * Sant Kabir Nagar * Sant Ravidas Nagar * Shahjahanpur * Shravasti * Siddharthnagar * Sitapur * Sonbhadra * Sultanpur * Unnao * Varanasi

* v * t * e

Gorakhpur division topics

GENERAL

* Purvanchal * Awadh * Sohagi Barwa Sanctuary

MYTHOLOGY, HISTORY

* Nawab of Awadh * Kushinagar * Parinirvana

DISTRICTS

* Deoria * Gorakhpur * Kushinagar * Maharajganj

RIVERS, DAMS, LAKES

* Ghaghara * West Rapti

LANGUAGES, PEOPLE

* Bhojpuri * Hindustani * Standard Hindi

TRANSPORT

* NH 28 * NH 28B * NH 29 * NH 233B

LOK SABHA CONSTITUENCIES

* Deoria * Gorakhpur * Bansgaon * Kushi Nagar * Maharajganj

SEE ALSO

* Cities and towns in Deoria district * Cities and towns in Gorakhpur district * Cities and towns in Kushinagar district * Cities and towns in Maharajganj district * Villages in Deoria district * Villages in Gorakhpur district * Villages in Maharajganj district * People from Deoria * People from Gorakhpur * People from Kushinagar * People from Maharajganj

OTHER DIVISIONS

* Agra * Aligarh * Allahabad * Azamgarh * Bareilly * Basti * Chitrakoot * Devipatan * Faizabad * Jhansi * Kanpur * Lucknow * Meerut * Mirzapur * Moradabad * Saharanpur * Varanasi

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 236183785 * GND : 7746634-2

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