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KUFIC is the oldest calligraphic form of the various Arabic
Arabic
scripts and consists of a modified form of the old Nabataean script . Kufic developed around the end of the 7th century in Kufa
Kufa
, Iraq, from which it takes its name, and other centres.

CONTENTS

* 1 Usage

* 1.1 Ornamental use

* 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links

USAGE

Kufic
Kufic
script used in a copy of the Qur\'an

Kufic
Kufic
was prevalent in manuscripts from the 7th to 10th centuries. Until about the 11th century it was the main script used to copy the Qur'an. Professional copyists employed a particular form of kufic for reproducing the earliest surviving copies of the Qur'an, which were written on parchment and date from the 8th to 10th centuries.

ORNAMENTAL USE

Kufic
Kufic
is commonly seen on Seljuk coins and monuments and on early Ottoman coins. Its decorative character led to its use as a decorative element in several public and domestic buildings constructed prior to the Republican period in Turkey
Turkey
.

The current flag of Iraq (2008) includes a kufic rendition of the takbir . Similarly, the flag of Iran
Iran
(1980) has the takbir written in white square kufic script a total of 22 times on the fringe of both the green and red bands.

Square or geometric Kufic
Kufic
is a very simplified rectangular style of Kufic
Kufic
widely used for tiling. In Iran
Iran
sometimes entire buildings are covered with tiles spelling sacred names like those of God, Muhammad and Ali in square Kufic, a technique known as banna\'i .

" Pseudo-Kufic ", also "Kufesque", refers to imitations of the Kufic script, made in a non- Arabic
Arabic
context, during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
or the Renaissance
Renaissance
: "Imitations of Arabic
Arabic
in European art are often described as pseudo-Kufic, borrowing the term for an Arabic
Arabic
script that emphasizes straight and angular strokes, and is most commonly used in Islamic architectural decoration".

Part of a series on

ARAB CULTURE

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Mashrabiya
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Windcatcher
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Maqsurah
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Dikka
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Iwan
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Qubba
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Sebil
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Ribat

Art

CALLIGRAPHY

* Naskh * Diwani
Diwani
* Ruq\'ah * Thuluth
Thuluth
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Muhaqqaq
* Maghrebi * Kufic * Mashq
Mashq
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Black Stone

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Mashriq
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Keffiyeh
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Turban
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Thawb
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Abaya
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Jilbāb
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Mashriq
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Zajal
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Basit
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Arabic
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Muwashshah
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Druze

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* v * t * e

CALLIGRAPHY

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Arabic
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* v * t * e

GALLERY

*

Page from a Qur'an
Qur'an
in Kufic
Kufic
style, 8th century (Surah 15: 67–74)

*

Kufic
Kufic
script from an early Qur\'an manuscript , 8th-9th century. (Surah 7: 86–87) *

Manuscript of the Surat Maryam of the Qur'an; Kufic
Kufic
script on gazelle skin, 9th century. (Surah 19: 83–86). *

The leaves from this Qur'an
Qur'an
written in gold and contoured with brown ink have a horizontal format. (9th century) *

Bowl with Kufic
Kufic
Inscription, 9th century - Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum
*

Bowl with Kufic
Kufic
Calligraphy
Calligraphy
, 10th century - Brooklyn Museum. *

Folio of a Qur\'an in kufic style, ink, color and gold, 11th century, Iran
Iran
. (Surah 92: 1–5) *

11th-century gold Fatimid armlet, inscribed with good wishes in the Kufic
Kufic
script, (Syria). *

Kufic
Kufic
alphabet, from Fry\'s Pantographia (1799) *

Geometric Kufic
Kufic
sample ( Surah 112 , al-Ikhlas or "The Surah of Monotheism", of the Qur\'an ), read clockwise, starting at bottom left. *

Geometric Kufic
Kufic
from the Bou Inania Madrasa (Meknes) ; the text reads بركة محمد or barakat muḥammad, i.e. Muhammad's blessing. *

Another example of geometric or square Kufic
Kufic
script, showing four instances of the name Muhammad; often used as a tilework pattern in Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture
*

Inscription in Kufic
Kufic
(743). The Walters Art Museum . *

Banna'i on a minaret – a repetitive pattern of square Kufic inscriptions. *

Drawing of an inscription of Basmala
Basmala
in Kufic
Kufic
script, 9th century. The original is in the Islamic Museum in Cairo (Inventar-Nr. 7853) *

The flag of Iraq (2008) *

The flag of Iran
Iran
(1980) *

Arabic
Arabic
text of the Shahada
Shahada
in square Kufic
Kufic
script, shown as buildings topped with minarets .

SEE ALSO

* Languages portal

* Bab Agnaou
Bab Agnaou
* Persian calligraphy
Persian calligraphy

NOTES

* ^ A B " Arabic
Arabic
scripts". British Museum. Retrieved 13 March 2013. * ^ ؟ * ^ "The Spirit of Islam: Experiencing Islam through Calligraphy". UBC Museum of Anthropology. Retrieved 13 March 2013. * ^ Jonathan M. Bloom; Sheila Blair (2009). The Grove encyclopedia of Islamic art
Islamic art
and architecture. Oxford University Press. pp. 101, 131, 246. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1 . Retrieved 4 January 2012. * ^ Mack, p.51

REFERENCES

* Mack, Rosamond E. Bazaar to Piazza: Islamic Trade and Italian Art, 1300–1600, University of California Press, 2001 ISBN 0-520-22131-1 * Wolfgang Kosack : Islamische Schriftkunst des Kufischen. Geometrisches Kufi in 593 Schriftbeispielen. Deutsch – Kufi – Arabisch. Christoph Brunner, Basel 2014, ISBN 978-3-906206-10-3 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons