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Kufic
Kufic
is the oldest calligraphic form of the various Arabic
Arabic
scripts and consists of a modified form of the old Nabataean script. Kufic developed around the end of the 7th century in Kufa, Iraq, from which it takes its name, and other centres.[1]

Contents

1 Usage

1.1 Ornamental use

2 Gallery 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Usage[edit]

Kufic
Kufic
script used in a copy of the Qur'an

Kufic
Kufic
was prevalent in manuscripts from the 7th to 10th centuries.[citation needed] Until about the 11th century it was the main script used to copy the Qur'an.[1] Professional copyists employed a particular form of kufic for reproducing the earliest surviving copies of the Qur'an, which were written on parchment and date from the 8th to 10th centuries.[2] Ornamental use[edit] Kufic
Kufic
is commonly seen on Seljuk coins and monuments and on early Ottoman coins. Its decorative character led to its use as a decorative element in several public and domestic buildings constructed prior to the Republican period in Turkey. The current flag of Iraq (2008) includes a kufic rendition of the takbir. Similarly, the flag of Iran
Iran
(1980) has the takbir written in white square kufic script a total of 22 times on the fringe of both the green and red bands. Square or geometric Kufic
Kufic
is a very simplified rectangular style of Kufic
Kufic
widely used for tiling. In Iran
Iran
sometimes entire buildings are covered with tiles spelling sacred names like those of God, Muhammad and Ali in square Kufic, a technique known as banna'i.[3] "Pseudo-Kufic", also "Kufesque",[citation needed] refers to imitations of the Kufic
Kufic
script, made in a non- Arabic
Arabic
context, during the Middle Ages or the Renaissance: "Imitations of Arabic
Arabic
in European art are often described as pseudo-Kufic, borrowing the term for an Arabic script that emphasizes straight and angular strokes, and is most commonly used in Islamic architectural decoration".[4]

Part of a series on

Arab culture

Architecture

Styles

Architecture of ancient Yemen Nabataean architecture Umayyad architecture Abbasid architecture Fatimid architecture Moorish architecture Mamluk architecture

Features

Ablaq Hypostyle Mashrabiya Iwan Liwan Riwaq Qadad Moroccan riad Sahn Tadelakt Vaulting Voussoir Multifoil arch Horseshoe arch Arabic
Arabic
dome Alfiz Arabesque Banna'i Girih Islamic calligraphy Islamic geometric patterns Islamic interlace patterns Mocárabe Muqarnas Nagash painting Socarrat Yeseria Zellige Reflecting pool Howz Mosaic Windcatcher Gardens

Types

Madrasa Maqam Mazar Mosque Tekyeh Zawiya Sebil Shadirvan Bazaar Caravanserai Dar al-Shifa Kasbah Medina quarter Souq Hammam Well house Albarrana tower Alcazaba Alcázar Bab Qalat Ribat

art

Styles

Art of ancient Yemen Nabataean art Umayyad art Abbasid art Moorish art Fatimid art Mamluk art

Types

Arabic
Arabic
calligraphy Arabic
Arabic
miniature Arabic
Arabic
pottery Arabic
Arabic
embroidery Arabic
Arabic
hardstone carving Arabic
Arabic
ivory carving Arabic
Arabic
Metalwork Palestinian wood carving Arabic
Arabic
garden Arabic
Arabic
glass Arab carpet Arabic
Arabic
graffiti

Features

Arabic
Arabic
geometric patterns Arabic
Arabic
interlace patterns Arabesque Girih
Girih
tiles Pseudo-Arabic Damask Kiswah Banna'i Zellige Mocárabe Muqarnas Damascus steel Hedwig glass

Gastronomy

Khalij (Arabian Peninsula) Mashriq (Levant) Arab Mawsit (Egypt) Arab Maghrib (North Africa)

Dress

Headwear

Keffiyeh Agal Taqiyah Tarboush (fez) Turban Litham Tantour Battoulah Madhalla Haik

Clothing

Thawb Bisht Jellabiya Abaya Bedlah Sirwal Kaftan Djellaba Takchita Burnous Izaar Fouta towel Macawis Robe of honour Durra'ah Tiraz

Music

Theory

Arabic
Arabic
maqam Arab tone system Rhythm in Arabian music Taqsim Jins Lazma Teslim Quarter tone Algerian scale Arabic
Arabic
musical instruments Arabic music
Arabic music
theorists Great Book of Music

Genres

Arabic
Arabic
pop Arabic
Arabic
hip hop Arabic
Arabic
rock Arabic
Arabic
jazz Classical Arab music Opera Al Jeel Khaliji Raï

Art music

Taqsim Andalusian classical music Muwashshah Andalusi nubah Malhun Qudud Halabiya Maqam al-iraqi Qasidah Dulab Sama'i Bashraf Tahmilah Dawr Layali Mawwal Waslah

Folk

Ataaba Zajal Mawwal Fijiri Chaabi (Algeria) Chaabi (Morocco) Gnawa Mezwed Baladi Shaabi Raï Fann at-Tanbura Samri Bedouin Liwa Sawt

Dance

Belly dance Dabke Raqs Sharqi Baladi Almeh Khaleegy Ouled Nail Shamadan Deheyeh Hagallah Schikhatt Guedra Yowla Ardah Al Ayala Samri Tahtib Mizmar Liwa Tanoura Zār

Literature

Language

Old Classical Modern

Prose

Epic literature Saj (ryhmed prose) Maqama Love in Arabic
Arabic
literature Arabic
Arabic
erotic literature Arabic
Arabic
Grimoires Literary_criticism Arabic
Arabic
short story Tabaqat Tezkire Rihla Mirrors for princes

Islamic

Quran Tafsir Hadith Sīra Fiqh Aqidah

Poetry

Anthologies Poets

Genres

Madih Hija Rithā' Waṣf Ghazal Khamriyyah Tardiyyah Khawal Fakhr Hamasa

Forms

Diwan Qasida Muwashshah Urjūza Mathnawi Rubaʿi Nasīb Riddles Kharja Zajal Mawwal Nabati Ghinnawa Humayni Modern Arabic
Arabic
poetry

Arabic
Arabic
prosody

Beit Ṭawīl Madīd Basīṭ Kamil Wāfir Hazaj Rajaz Ramal Munsariħ Khafīf Muqtaḍab Mujtathth Muḍāriʿ Sarīʿ Mutaqārib Mutadārik

Science

Arabic
Arabic
chemistry Arabic
Arabic
astrology Arabic
Arabic
astronomy Arabic
Arabic
geography Arabic
Arabic
Golden Age Arabic
Arabic
mathematics Arabic
Arabic
medicine Arabic
Arabic
psychology Arabic
Arabic
technology

Philosophy

Early Arabic
Arabic
Philosophy Islamic Aristotelianism Islamic Platonism Islamic Logic Kalam Sufi philosophy Farabism Avicennism Averroism Identityism Theoretical mysticism

Concepts

Al-aql al-faal Aql bi-l-fi'l Al-Insān al-Kāmil Dhati Peace Arcs of Descent and Ascent Asabiyyah Haal Irfan Nafs Qadar Qalb Wahdat al-mawjud

Texts

Liber de Causis The Theology of Aristotle Al-isharat The Book of the Apple Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity The Incoherence of the Philosophers The Incoherence of the Incoherence Hayy ibn Yaqdhan Theologus Autodidactus On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy Muqaddimah Sicilian Questions Fusus al-Hikam

Mythology

Jinn Ifrit Marid Ghoul Nasnas Qareen Hinn Qutrub Dandan Roc Karkadann Ababil Buraq Bahamut Falak Shadhavar Atlantis of the Sands Iram of the Pillars Shaddad Kujata Magic carpet Wāḳwāḳ Mount Qaf Luqman Zulfiqar Houri Beast of the Earth She-Camel of God Zarqa al Yamama Shams al-Ma'arif Book of Idols Book of Wonders One Thousand and One Nights

Fictional Arab people

Ra's al Ghul Aladdin Sindbad Abdul Alhazred Ali Baba Battal Gazi Hayy ibn Yaqdhan Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad Othello Princess Jasmine Layla and Majnun King Marsile Kara Ben Nemsi Palamedes Talia al Ghul

Spirituality

North Arabian deities

Al-‘Uzzá Al-Lat Manāt Dushara Chaabou Manaf Nuha Al-Kutbay Asira Awal Azizos Bajir Quzah Manāt Manāt A'ra Abgal Aglibol Allah Al-Qaum Atarsamain Baalshamin Bēl Hubal Suwa' Theandrios Wadd Malakbel Orotalt Ruda Sa'd Yarhibol Isāf and Nā'ila

South Arabian deities

Almaqah Amm Anbay Athtar Salman Dhat-Badan Haubas Ta'lab Qaynan Basamum Dhul Khalasa Haukim Nasr Sīn Ya'uq Yaghūth Yatha

v t e

Calligraphy

Arabic Chinese Georgian Indian Islamic Japanese Korean Mongolian Persian Tibetan Western

v t e

Gallery[edit]

Page from a Qur'an
Qur'an
in Kufic
Kufic
style, 8th century (Surah 15: 67–74)

Kufic
Kufic
script from an early Qur'an
Qur'an
manuscript, 8th-9th century. (Surah 7: 86–87)

Manuscript of the Surat Maryam of the Qur'an; Kufic
Kufic
script on gazelle skin, 9th century. (Surah 19: 83–86).

The leaves from this Qur'an
Qur'an
written in gold and contoured with brown ink have a horizontal format. (9th century)

Bowl with Kufic
Kufic
Inscription, 9th century - Brooklyn Museum

Bowl with Kufic
Kufic
Calligraphy, 10th century - Brooklyn Museum.

Folio of a Qur'an
Qur'an
in kufic style, ink, color and gold, 11th century, Iran. (Surah 92: 1–5)

11th-century gold Fatimid armlet, inscribed with good wishes in the Kufic
Kufic
script, (Syria).

Kufic
Kufic
alphabet, from Fry's Pantographia
Fry's Pantographia
(1799)

Geometric Kufic
Kufic
sample (Surah 112, al-Ikhlas or "The Surah of Monotheism", of the Qur'an), read clockwise, starting at bottom left.

Geometric Kufic
Kufic
from the Bou Inania Madrasa
Madrasa
(Meknes); the text reads بركة محمد or barakat muḥammad, i.e. Muhammad's blessing.

Another example of geometric or square Kufic
Kufic
script, showing four instances of the name Muhammad; often used as a tilework pattern in Islamic architecture

Inscription in Kufic
Kufic
(743). The Walters Art Museum.

Banna'i
Banna'i
on a minaret – a repetitive pattern of square Kufic inscriptions.

Drawing of an inscription of Basmala
Basmala
in Kufic
Kufic
script, 9th century. The original is in the Islamic Museum in Cairo (Inventar-Nr. 7853)

The flag of Iraq (2008)

The flag of Iran
Iran
(1980)

Arabic
Arabic
text of the Shahada
Shahada
in square Kufic
Kufic
script, shown as buildings topped with minarets.

See also[edit]

Languages portal

Bab Agnaou Persian calligraphy

Notes[edit]

^ a b " Arabic
Arabic
scripts". British Museum. Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ "The Spirit of Islam: Experiencing Islam through Calligraphy". UBC Museum of Anthropology. Archived from the original on 8 November 2002. Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ Jonathan M. Bloom; Sheila Blair (2009). The Grove encyclopedia of Islamic art and architecture. Oxford University Press. pp. 101, 131, 246. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1. Retrieved 4 January 2012.  ^ Mack, p.51

References[edit]

Mack, Rosamond E. Bazaar
Bazaar
to Piazza: Islamic Trade and Italian Art, 1300–1600, University of California Press, 2001 ISBN 0-520-22131-1 Wolfgang Kosack: Islamische Schriftkunst des Kufischen. Geometrisches Kufi in 593 Schriftbeispielen. Deutsch – Kufi – Arabisch. Christoph Brunner, Basel 2014, ISBN 978-3-906206-10-3.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kufic
Kufic
style.

Square Kufic
Kufic
lectures: alphabet (stylized), examples, square designs Kufic
Kufic
manuscript alphabet On The Origins Of The Kufic
Kufic
Script Kufic
Kufic
Script Square Kufic
Kufic
Script Square Kufic Square Kufic
Kufic
explained

v t e

Arabic
Arabic
language

Overviews

Language Alphabet History Romanization Numerology Influence on other languages

Alphabet

Nabataean alphabet Perso- Arabic
Arabic
alphabet Ancient North Arabian Ancient South Arabian script

Zabūr script

Arabic
Arabic
numerals Eastern numerals Arabic
Arabic
Braille

Algerian

Diacritics

i‘jām Tashkil Harakat Tanwin Shaddah

Hamza Tāʾ marbūṭah

Letters

ʾAlif Bāʾ Tāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Ṯāʾ Ǧīm Ḥāʾ Ḫāʾ Dāl Ḏāl Rāʾ Zāy Sīn Šīn Ṣād Ḍād Ṭāʾ Ẓāʾ ʿAyn Ġayn Fāʾ Qāf Kāf Lām Mīm Nūn Hāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Wāw Yāʾ Hamza

Notable varieties

Ancient

Proto-Arabic Old Arabic Ancient North Arabian Old South Arabian

Standardized

Classical Modern Standard Maltese[a]

Regional

Nilo-Egyptian Levantine Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian dialects Hilalian dialects Moroccan Darija Tunisian Arabic Sa'idi Arabic

Mesopotamian Peninsular

Yemeni Arabic Tihamiyya Arabic

Sudanese Chadian Modern South Arabian

Ethnic / religious

Judeo-Arabic

Pidgins/Creoles

Juba Arabic Nubi language Babalia Creole Arabic Maridi Arabic Maltese

Academic

Literature Names

Linguistics

Phonology Sun and moon letters ʾIʿrāb (inflection) Grammar Triliteral root Mater lectionis IPA Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

Calligraphy Script

Diwani Jawi script Kufic Rasm Mashq Hijazi script Muhaqqaq Thuluth Naskh (script) Ruqʿah script Taʿlīq script Nastaʿlīq script Shahmukhī script Sini (script)

Technical

Arabic
Arabic
keyboard Arabic script
Arabic script
in Unicode ISO/IEC 8859-6 Windows-1256 MS-DOS codepages

708 709 710 711 720 864

Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

aSociolinguistically not Arabic

v t e

Islamic calligraphy

Styles

Arabic

Hijazi Jeli Thuluth Kufic
Kufic
(Geometric Kufic) Maghrebi Muhaqqaq Mashq Naskh Thuluth

Ottoman

Diwani Tawqi
Tawqi
(Tevki) Ruq'ah

Persian

Nasta'liq Taʿlīq

Others

Sini

Objects

Arabic
Arabic
calligraffiti Arabic
Arabic
miniature Basmala Islamic calligram Firman Hilya Islamic illuminated manuscript Mughal miniature Muraqqa Ottoman illumination Ottoman miniature Persian miniature Tughra Islamic zoomorphism

Calligraphers

List of Arabic
Arabic
calligraphers List of Ottoman calligraphers List of Persian calligraphers

Tools Techniques

Kashida Qalam Word heaping

Organizations

Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation Museum of Turkish Calligraphy
Calligraphy
Art Society of Iranian Calligraphists

Influences

Pseudo-Kufic

Pa

.