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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

KOTOR ( Montenegrin Cyrillic : Котор, pronounced ) is a coastal town in Montenegro
Montenegro
. It is located in a secluded part of the Gulf of Kotor
Kotor
. The city has a population of 13,510 and is the administrative center of Kotor Municipality .

The old Mediterranean
Mediterranean
port of Kotor
Kotor
is surrounded by fortifications built during the Venetian period. It is located on the Bay of Kotor (Boka Kotorska), one of the most indented parts of the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
. Some have called it the southern-most fjord in Europe, but it is a ria , a submerged river canyon. Together with the nearly overhanging limestone cliffs of Orjen
Orjen
and Lovćen , Kotor
Kotor
and its surrounding area form an impressive and picturesque Mediterranean
Mediterranean
landscape.

In recent years, Kotor
Kotor
has seen an increase in tourists, many of them coming by cruise ship . Visitors are attracted by the natural environment of the Gulf of Kotor and by the old town of Kotor. Kotor is part of the World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
dubbed the Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor
Kotor
. The fortified city of Kotor
Kotor
was also included in UNESCO
UNESCO
's World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
list as part of Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar in 2017.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography * 2 Climate

* 3 History

* 3.1 Roman era * 3.2 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 3.3 Venetian and Ottoman rule * 3.4 Habsburg and Napoleonic rule * 3.5 World War II

* 4 Main sights * 5 Culture

* 6 Demographics

* 6.1 The ethnic composition of the settlements (2003)

* 7 Transport * 8 Twin towns * 9 References * 10 External links

GEOGRAPHY

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It is located in a secluded part of the Gulf of Kotor .

CLIMATE

Kotor
Kotor
has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa).

CLIMATE DATA FOR KOTOR

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 9 (48) 10 (50) 13 (55) 16 (61) 21 (70) 24 (75) 28 (82) 28 (82) 24 (75) 19 (66) 14 (57) 10 (50) 18 (64.3)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 2 (36) 2 (36) 4 (39) 7 (45) 10 (50) 14 (57) 17 (63) 16 (61) 14 (57) 10 (50) 6 (43) 2 (36) 8.7 (47.8)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 151 (5.94) 135 (5.31) 121 (4.76) 115 (4.53) 86 (3.39) 66 (2.6) 42 (1.65) 59 (2.32) 104 (4.09) 151 (5.94) 194 (7.64) 174 (6.85) 1,398 (55.02)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 13 13 13 13 11 10 7 7 8 11 14 13 133

Source: weather2travel.com

HISTORY

Entrance of old town Kotor
Kotor
with post-World War II sign "What belongs to others we don't want, ours we don't give."

ROMAN ERA

Kotor, first mentioned in 168 BC, was settled during Ancient Roman times, when it was known as Acruvium, ASCRIVIUM, or ASCRUVIUM (Ancient Greek : Ἀσκρήβιον) and was part of the Roman province of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
.

MIDDLE AGES

Kotor
Kotor
has been fortified since the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when Emperor Justinian built a fortress above Acruvium in 535, after expelling the Ostrogoths . This town was named as Kotor
Kotor
in 9th century. According to this source, in appointing the future town of Kotor, at the time the Hungarians
Hungarians
often burst into the Bosnian Kingdom and that are repeatedly ravaged the territory of the Bosnian town of Kotor, which is the second book of Geography Gerard Rudniger marked as VESEKATRO, "which is close to Banja Luka
Banja Luka
". It is possible that the vase derives from the notion of vassal (lat. vassallus, vassus = servant, from vassal of king of the Franks, and later other European rulers, who gets possession of the king as "leno" or feud) and possessive adjective cataro(= katar). One can not exclude the possibility that the Vasekatro was a refuge and/or settlement of Katars because they have the same root of vase Latin
Latin
term for the noun vase (vasis, pl. vāsa, vasōrum = vessel, war machine), and GUARANTOR, or ENDORSER (= văs, vădis).

The noblemen of the Bosnian Kotor, called Nendor, Miroslav, and Vuksan, along with some others, when he heard that the walls a new town on the sea, and they went with all his assets of high value in gold and silver to a known location, since the Bosnian Kingdom was rich in minerals of precious metal (gold , silver etc). When, according to Mihajlo Solinjanin (in the description of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
), arrived in Risan
Risan
, announced their intention to raise the fortress in which to be sure. When they learned citizens of the settlement Ascrivium, urged that the planned cost of investing in the construction of a current city, "and that combined live as true friends and citizens".

"Bosnians, who are usually like, not accepting this proposal immediately but a few days later said, that they are willing to comply with their request, but under the condition that the new city called the name of their homeland, Kotor. These are not accepted by Ascrivians, or later (says Solinjanin), under the influence of its bishops are agreed to throw the draw, and so they decide what name to call the city. And Draw outbursts in favor of Kotor's Bosnians."

The city (probably Ascrivium) was plundered by the Saracens
Saracens
in 840. Kotor
Kotor
was one of the more influential Dalmatian city-states of romanized Illyrians throughout the Middle Ages, and until the 11th century the Dalmatian language was spoken in Kotor. The city was part of Byzantine Dalmatia
Dalmatia
in that period.

In 1002, the city suffered damage under the occupation of the First Bulgarian Empire , and in the following year it was ceded to Serbia
Serbia
by the Bulgarian Tsar Samuil . However, the local population resisted the pact and, taking advantage of its alliance with the Republic of Ragusa , only submitted in 1184, while maintaining its republican institutions and its right to conclude treaties and engage in war. It was already an episcopal see, and, in the 13th century, Dominican and Franciscan
Franciscan
monasteries were established to check the spread of Bogomilism
Bogomilism
.

During the Nemanjić dynasty -era, the city was autonomous. 1371 it came under suzerenity of Hungarian king who ruled Croatia and Hungary, and 1384. it became part of Kingdom of Bosnia under king Tvrtko I until 1420. The city acknowledged the suzerainty of the Republic of Venice in 1420. In the 14th century, commerce in Kotor
Kotor
competed with that of the nearby Republic of Ragusa and of the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
.

VENETIAN AND OTTOMAN RULE

Venetian fortifications of Kotor
Kotor

The city was part of the Venetian Albania province of the Venetian Republic from 1420 to 1797. It was besieged by the Ottomans in 1538 and 1657. Four centuries of Venetian domination have given the city the typical Venetian architecture, that contributed to make Kotor
Kotor
a UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage site. Maritime Gate in the city walls.

In the 14th- and 15th centuries, there was an influx of settlers from the oblasts of Trebinje
Trebinje
(the region around forts Klobuk Ledenica and Rudina) and the Hum lands ( Gacko and Dabar ) to Kotor. The Italian name of the city is Càttaro. Under Venetian rule, Kotor
Kotor
was besieged by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1538 and 1657, endured the plague in 1572, and was nearly destroyed by earthquakes in 1563 and 1667. It was also ruled by Ottomans at brief periods.

HABSBURG AND NAPOLEONIC RULE

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Napoleonic coins were minted in 1813 in Kotor
Kotor

After the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797, it passed to the Habsburg Monarchy . However, in 1805, it was assigned to the French Empire 's client state, the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
by the Treaty of Pressburg , although in fact held by a Russian squadron under Dmitry Senyavin . After the Russians retreated, Kotor
Kotor
was united in 1806 with this Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
and then in 1810 with the French Empire's Illyrian Provinces
Illyrian Provinces
. Kotor
Kotor
was captured by the British in an attack on the Bay led by Commodore John Harper in the brig sloop HMS Saracen (18 guns). To seal off Kotor, residents along the shore literally pulled the ship in windless conditions with ropes. The Saracen's crew later hauled naval 18-pounder guns above Fort St. John, the fortress near Kotor, and were reinforced by Captain William Hoste with his ship HMS Bacchante (38 guns). The French garrison had no alternative but to surrender, which it did on 5 January 1814.

It was restored to the Habsburg Monarchy by the Congress of Vienna . Until 1918, the town, then known as Cattaro, was head of the district of the same name, one of the 13 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Kingdom of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
.

In World War I
World War I
, Kotor
Kotor
was one of three main bases of the Austro-Hungarian Navy
Austro-Hungarian Navy
and homeport to the Austrian Fifth Fleet, consisting of pre-dreadnought battleships and light cruisers. The area was the site of some of the fiercest battles between local Montenegrin Slavs and Austria-Hungary . After 1918, the city became a part of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and officially became known as Kotor.

WORLD WAR II

Between 1941 and 1943 the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
annexed the area of Kotor which became one of three provinces of the Italian Governorate of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
- the Province of Cattaro had an area of 1,075 km2 (415 sq mi) and population of 128,000.

MAIN SIGHTS

KOTOR

UNESCO
UNESCO
WORLD HERITAGE SITE

LOCATION Kotor Municipality , Kingdom of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
, Montenegro
Montenegro

COORDINATES 42°25′31″N 18°46′16″E / 42.42539°N 18.771191°E / 42.42539; 18.771191

AREA 335 km2 (3.61×109 sq ft)

CRITERIA i, ii, iii, iv

REFERENCE 125

INSCRIPTION 1979 (3rd Session )

EXTENSIONS 1979-2003

WEBSITE www.opstinakotor.com

Location of Kotor
Kotor

Kotor
Kotor
has one of the best preserved medieval old towns in the Adriatic and is a UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage site . It is home to numerous sights, such as the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon in the old town (built in 1166), and the ancient walls which stretch for 4.5 km (3 mi) directly above the city. Sveti Đorđe and Gospa od Škrpijela islets off the coast of Perast
Perast
are also among the tourism destinations in the vicinity of Kotor.

CULTURE

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Square of Arms

Kotor
Kotor
hosts several summer events, such as the Summer Carnival or Bokeljska Noć. Together with Budva
Budva
, and the small town of Tuzi , near Podgorica
Podgorica
, the city hosted the Federation of European Carnival Cities (FECC) World Carnival City Congress in May 2009.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Kotor
Kotor
is the administrative centre of Kotor
Kotor
municipality, which includes the towns of Risan
Risan
and Perast
Perast
, as well as many small hamlets around the Bay of Kotor , and has a population of 22,601.

The town of Kotor
Kotor
itself has 961 inhabitants, but the administrative limits of the town encompass only the area of the Old Town. The urban area of Kotor
Kotor
also includes Dobrota (8,819) and Škaljari (3,807), bringing the population of Kotor's urban area close to 13,000 inhabitants. The total number rises to around 15,000 if the neighbouring hamlets of Muo, Prčanj
Prčanj
and Stoliv are included. The entire population of Kotor Municipality was 22,947, as of the 2003 census.

Ethnic composition of the municipality in 2011:

ETHNICITY NUMBER PERCENTAGE

Montenegrins 11,047 48.88%

Serbs
Serbs
6,910 30.57%

Croats
Croats
1,553 6.87%

other/undeclared 3,091 13.68%

TOTAL 22,601 100%

According to documents from 1900, Kotor
Kotor
had 7,617 Catholics, and 7,207 Orthodox Christians. Kotor
Kotor
is still the seat of the Catholic Bishopric of Kotor
Kotor
, which covers the entire gulf. In 2011, 78% citizens of Kotor
Kotor
were Orthodox Christians , while 13% were listed as Roman Catholic.

THE ETHNIC COMPOSITION OF THE SETTLEMENTS (2003)

Relative ethnic majority:

MONTENEGRINS

POPULATED PLACE TOTAL MONTENEGRINS SERBS CROATS UNDECIDED OTHERS

Bigova 114 8 97 2 3 4

Bratešići 52 11 30 1 - 10

Bunovići 1 - 1 - - -

Čavori 2 2 - - - -

Dobrota 8.169 4,428 2,067 535 801 338

Donji Morinj 261 68 161 11 7 14

Donji Orahovac 257 104 124 7 17 5

Donji Stoliv 336 95 84 54 70 33

Dragalj 32 1 31

Dražin Vrt 59 35 23

1

Dub 248 52 160 5 23 8

Glavati 160 51 79 1 29

Glavatičići 69 2 67

Gornji Morinj 16 4 11

1

Gornji Orahovac 36 4 28

4

Gornji Stoliv 10 10

Gorovići 44 14 30

Han 60 3 54

1 2

Kavač 443 168 90 111 44 30

Knežlaz 26 11 15

Kovači 81 26 48

6 1

Kolužunj 7 5

2

Kostanjica 127 49 34 7 16 21

Kotor 1,331 630 309 116 197 79

Krimovica 55 4 49

1 1

Kubasi 24

22

2

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