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Kotor
Kotor
(Montenegrin Cyrillic: Котор, pronounced [kɔ̌tɔr]; Italian: Cattaro) is a coastal town in Montenegro. It is located in a secluded part of the Gulf of Kotor. The city has a population of 13,510 and is the administrative center of Kotor
Kotor
Municipality. The old Mediterranean
Mediterranean
port of Kotor
Kotor
is surrounded by fortifications built during the Venetian period. It is located on the Bay of Kotor (Boka Kotorska), one of the most indented parts of the Adriatic Sea. Some have called it the southern-most fjord in Europe, but it is a ria, a submerged river canyon. Together with the nearly overhanging limestone cliffs of Orjen
Orjen
and Lovćen, Kotor
Kotor
and its surrounding area form an impressive landscape. In recent years,[when?] Kotor
Kotor
has seen an increase in tourists, many of them coming by cruise ship. Visitors are attracted by the natural environment of the Gulf of Kotor
Gulf of Kotor
and by the old town of Kotor. Kotor is part of the World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
dubbed the Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor. The fortified city of Kotor
Kotor
was also included in UNESCO's World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
list as part of Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar in 2017.[1]

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Climate

2 History

2.1 Roman era 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 Venetian and Ottoman rule 2.4 Habsburg and Napoleonic rule 2.5 World War II

3 Main sights 4 Culture 5 Local government 6 Demographics 7 Transport 8 Twin towns 9 References 10 External links

Geography[edit]

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Kotor
Kotor
is located in a secluded part of the beautiful Gulf of Kotor which was fortified in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to prevent enemy invasion from the sea. The gulf is presently under further development as a favorite tourist and resort destination in the eastern Mediterranean.

Gulf of Kotor
Gulf of Kotor
inlet fortification.

Narrow passage through the inlet to the Gulf of Kotor.

Island fortification in the Gulf of Kotor.

Geography around the Gulf of Kotor.

Developments around the Gulf of Kotor.

Climate[edit] Kotor
Kotor
has a mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa), that's very close to a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa), since precipitation is relatively abundant even during summer.

Climate data for Kotor

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 11.2 (52.2) 11.8 (53.2) 14.6 (58.3) 17.8 (64) 22.4 (72.3) 26.0 (78.8) 29.5 (85.1) 29.6 (85.3) 26.2 (79.2) 21.3 (70.3) 15.8 (60.4) 12.2 (54) 19.9 (67.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 7.6 (45.7) 10.0 (50) 13.0 (55.4) 17.2 (63) 20.8 (69.4) 23.7 (74.7) 23.6 (74.5) 20.5 (68.9) 16.3 (61.3) 11.5 (52.7) 8.0 (46.4) 14.9 (58.8)

Average low °C (°F) 2.0 (35.6) 3.4 (38.1) 5.4 (41.7) 8.3 (46.9) 12.1 (53.8) 15.6 (60.1) 18.0 (64.4) 17.7 (63.9) 14.9 (58.8) 11.3 (52.3) 7.2 (45) 3.8 (38.8) 10.0 (50)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 158 (6.22) 141 (5.55) 125 (4.92) 118 (4.65) 81 (3.19) 62 (2.44) 36 (1.42) 55 (2.17) 106 (4.17) 157 (6.18) 203 (7.99) 183 (7.2) 1,425 (56.1)

Source: Climate-Data.org [2]

History[edit] The exact time of foundation of the first settlement is not known. According to some sources, the oldest settled area dates 2 milleniums back, and its current name stems from the word Dekatera (from the old Greek Katareo meaning hot[citation needed]).

Entrance of old town Kotor
Kotor
with post-World War II sign "What belongs to others we don't want, ours we don't give."

Roman era[edit] The town was first mentioned in 168 BC, was settled during Ancient Roman times, when it was known as Acruvium, Ascrivium, or Ascruvium (Ancient Greek: Ἀσκρήβιον) and was part of the Roman province of Dalmatia.[3] Middle Ages[edit] The town has been fortified since the early Middle Ages, when Emperor Justinian built a fortress above Ascrivium in 535, after expelling the Ostrogoths. Ascrivium was plundered by the Saracens
Saracens
in 840. It was further fortified towards the peak of Saint Ivan by Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos in 10th century. It was one of the more influential Dalmatian city-states of romanized Illyrians throughout the early Middle Ages, and until the 11th century the Dalmatian language
Dalmatian language
was still spoken in Kotor. The city was part of Byzantine Dalmatia
Dalmatia
in that period, and the modern name of Kotor
Kotor
probably originated in the Byzantine name for the town: Dekatera or Dekaderon. In 1002, the city suffered damage under the occupation of the First Bulgarian Empire, and in the following year it was ceded to Duklja
Duklja
by the Bulgarian Tsar Samuil. Duklja, or Dioclea, was a vassal duchy of Byzantium at the time. The local population resisted the pact and, taking advantage of its alliance with Dubrovnik, maintained its high autonomy. During this time, the small romanized Illyrian population of Kotor
Kotor
was slowly assimilated by a significant Slav population coming from neighboring areas. Duklja, the biggest Serb duchy at the time, gradually became more powerful under Vojislavljević dynasty
Vojislavljević dynasty
and eventually independent from Byzantium in 1042. The city remained autonomous up until Duklja
Duklja
was once again subdued by Byzantium in 1143. The city was conquered in 1185 by Stefan Nemanja, the ruler of the Grand Principality of Serbia
Grand Principality of Serbia
and founder of the Nemanjić dynasty. At that time Kotor
Kotor
was already an episcopal see subordinated to the archbishopric of Bari, and in 13th century, Dominican and Franciscan monasteries were established to check the spread of Bogomilism. Under the rule of the Nemanjić Kotor
Kotor
became a partially autonomous city, enjoying many privileges and maintaining its republican institutions. This is backed by a statute from 1301, which demonstrates that Kotor had the status of a city under Serbian rule. In the 14th century the commerce of Cattaro, as named in Latin scripts (in Serbian Котор, град краљев/Kotor, city of the King), rivaled that of Republic of Ragusa, and caused the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
to be envious. Kotor
Kotor
remained the most important trading port of subsequent Serb states – Kingdom of Serbia and Serbian Empire, up to its downfall in 1371. After the fracturing of the Serbian Empire, the city was taken by the Kingdom of Hungary, only to change hands repeatedly between them and the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
in the period between 1371–1384. After that, Kotor
Kotor
was held by Kingdom of Bosnia
Kingdom of Bosnia
under Tvrtko I Kotromanić
Tvrtko I Kotromanić
between 1384–1391. The king of Bosnia, who claimed the Serbian throne, minted his coins in Kotor. After the death of Tvrtko in 1391, Kotor
Kotor
became fully independent, until the administration, wary of the looming Ottoman danger, asked the Venice for protection. The city acknowledged the suzerainty of the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
in 1420. Venetian and Ottoman rule[edit]

Venetian fortifications of Kotor

The city was part of the Venetian Albania
Venetian Albania
province of the Venetian Republic from 1420 to 1797. It was besieged by the Ottomans in 1538 and 1657. Four centuries of Venetian domination have given the city the typical Venetian architecture, that contributes to make Kotor
Kotor
a UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage site.[4]

Maritime Gate in the city walls.

In the 14th- and 15th centuries, there was an influx of settlers from the oblasts of Trebinje
Trebinje
(the region around forts Klobuk Ledenica and Rudina) and the Hum lands ( Gacko
Gacko
and Dabar) to Kotor.[5] The Italian name of the city is Càttaro. Under Venetian rule, Kotor
Kotor
was besieged by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1538 and 1657, endured the plague in 1572, and was nearly destroyed by earthquakes in 1563 and 1667. It was also ruled by Ottomans at brief periods.[6] Habsburg and Napoleonic rule[edit]

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Napoleonic coins were minted in 1813 in Kotor

After the Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
in 1797, it passed to the Habsburg Monarchy. However, in 1805, it was assigned to the French Empire's client state, the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
by the Treaty of Pressburg, although in fact held by a Russian squadron under Dmitry Senyavin. After the Russians retreated, Kotor
Kotor
was united in 1806 with this Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
and then in 1810 with the French Empire's Illyrian Provinces. Kotor
Kotor
was captured by the British in an attack on the Bay led by Commodore John Harper in the brig sloop HMS Saracen (18 guns). To seal off Kotor, residents along the shore literally pulled the ship in windless conditions with ropes. The Saracen's crew later hauled naval 18-pounder guns above Fort St. John, the fortress near Kotor, and were reinforced by Captain William Hoste with his ship HMS Bacchante (38 guns). The French garrison had no alternative but to surrender, which it did on 5 January 1814. It was restored to the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
by the Congress of Vienna. Until 1918, the town, then known as Cattaro, was head of the district of the same name, one of the 13 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Kingdom of Dalmatia.[7] In World War I, Kotor
Kotor
was one of three main bases of the Austro-Hungarian Navy
Austro-Hungarian Navy
and homeport to the Austrian Fifth Fleet, consisting of pre-dreadnought battleships and light cruisers. The area was the site of some of the fiercest battles between local Montenegrin Slavs and Austria-Hungary. After 1918, the city became a part of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and officially became known as Kotor. World War II[edit] Between 1941 and 1943 the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
annexed the area of Kotor which became one of three provinces of the Italian Governorate of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
– the Province of Cattaro
Province of Cattaro
had an area of 1,075 km2 (415 sq mi) and population of 128,000.[8] Main sights[edit]

Kotor

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Part of Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor

Criteria Cultural: i, ii, iii, iv

Reference 125

Inscription 1979 (3rd Session)

Area 14,600 ha

Buffer zone 36,491 ha

Kotor
Kotor
has one of the best preserved medieval old towns in the Adriatic and is a UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage site.[4] It is home to numerous sights, such as the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon
Cathedral of Saint Tryphon
in the old town (built in 1166), and the ancient walls which stretch for 4.5 km (3 mi) directly above the city. Sveti Đorđe and Gospa od Škrpijela islets off the coast of Perast
Perast
are also among the tourism destinations in the vicinity of Kotor. Culture[edit]

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Square of Arms

Kotor
Kotor
hosts several summer events, such as the Summer Carnival or Bokeljska Noć. Together with Budva, and the small town of Tuzi, near Podgorica, the city hosted the Federation of European Carnival Cities (FECC) World Carnival City Congress in May 2009. Local government[edit] The municipal parliament consists of 33 deputies elected directly for a five-year term. Following the last local election held on 16 October 2016, the ruling DPS lost its absolute majority, the new local government being formed by a coalition of opposition parties.

Party/Coalition Seats Local government

Democratic Party of Socialists

12 / 33

Opposition

Democratic Montenegro

5 / 33

Government

Democratic Front

5 / 33

Government

Social Democratic Party

3 / 33

Government

Socialist People's Party

3 / 33

Government support

Social Democrats

2 / 33

Opposition

United Reform Action

1 / 33

Government

Liberal Party

1 / 33

Opposition

Croatian Civic Initiative

1 / 33

Opposition

Demographics[edit] Kotor
Kotor
is the administrative centre of Kotor
Kotor
municipality, which includes the towns of Risan
Risan
and Perast, as well as many small hamlets around the Bay of Kotor, and has a population of 22,601.[9] The town of Kotor
Kotor
itself has 961 inhabitants, but the administrative limits of the town encompass only the area of the Old Town. The urban area of Kotor
Kotor
also includes Dobrota
Dobrota
(8,819) and Škaljari
Škaljari
(3,807), bringing the population of Kotor's urban area close to 13,000 inhabitants. The total number rises to around 15,000 if the neighbouring hamlets of Muo, Prčanj
Prčanj
and Stoliv are included. The entire population of Kotor Municipality
Kotor Municipality
was 22,947, as of the 2003 census. Ethnic composition of the municipality in 2011:[9]

Ethnicity Number Percentage

Montenegrins 11,047 48.88%

Serbs 6,910 30.57%

Croats 1,553 6.87%

other/undeclared 3,091 13.68%

Total 22,601 100%

According to documents from 1900, Kotor
Kotor
had 7,617 Catholics, and 7,207 Orthodox Christians. Kotor
Kotor
is still the seat of the Catholic
Catholic
Bishopric of Kotor, which covers the entire gulf. In 2011, 78% citizens of Kotor were Orthodox Christians, while 13% were listed as Roman Catholic.

Serbian Orthodox church
Serbian Orthodox church
of St. Nicholas

Montenegrin Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
of St. Peter of Cetinje

Church of Our Lady of Health

Cathedral of Saint Tryphon
Cathedral of Saint Tryphon
(Sv. Tripun)

Blessed Ozana Church

Transport[edit] Kotor
Kotor
is connected to the Adriatic Motorway
Adriatic Motorway
and the rest of the coast and inland Montenegro
Montenegro
by Vrmac Tunnel. Inland is reachable by detouring from Adriatic motorway at Budva
Budva
or Sutomore
Sutomore
(through Sozina tunnel). There is also a historic road connecting Kotor
Kotor
with Cetinje, which has views of Kotor
Kotor
bay. Tivat Airport
Tivat Airport
is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) away, and there are regular flights to Belgrade, Moscow
Moscow
and Paris
Paris
and dozens of charter planes land daily on Tivat
Tivat
airport during the summer season. Podgorica
Podgorica
Airport is 65 kilometres (40 mi) away, and it has regular flights to major European destinations throughout the year. Twin towns[edit]

Szeged, Hungary Santa Barbara, United States

References[edit]

^ Centre, UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage. "Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 11 July 2017.  ^ "Climate: Kotor". January 10, 2018.  ^ Jackson, Hamilton (2010). The Shores of the Adriatic (Illustrated Edition). Echo Library. p. 269. ISBN 978-1-4068-6761-9. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ a b "Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor". Unesco World Heritage Convention. Retrieved 5 December 2016.  ^ Tošić, Đuro. Trebinjci i Zahumljani u srednjovjekovnom Kotoru Archived 2012-03-17 at the Wayback Machine., work in Istraživanja, 2005, br. 16, pp. 221–27. ^ " Kotor
Kotor
– Town in Montenegro
Montenegro
– Sightseeing and Landmarks". Thousand Wonders. Retrieved 2016-12-29.  ^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm KLEIN, 1967 ^ Rodogno, Davide (2003). Il nuovo ordine mediterraneo. Turin: Bollati Boringhieri.  ^ a b "Montenegrin 2011 census". Monstat. 2011. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kotor.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kotor.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia
Collier's Encyclopedia
article Cattaro.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Cattaro.

Official website Visit-Montenegro: Kotor-History UNESCO: Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor Boka Kotorska Photo Gallery Tourist Presentation of Kotor Old Town Map (1944px × 2592px 851.58 Kb JPG)

v t e

Seats of Montenegrin Municipalities

Andrijevica Bar Berane Bijelo Polje Budva Cetinje Danilovgrad Gusinje Herceg Novi Kolašin Kotor Mojkovac Nikšić Petnjica Plav Pljevlja Plužine Podgorica Rožaje Šavnik Tivat Ulcinj Žabljak

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 137836313 GND: 4032572-6 BNF:

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