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Koblenz
Koblenz
(German: [ˈkoːblɛnts] ( listen); French: Coblence), spelled Coblenz[2] before 1926, is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine
Rhine
where it is joined by the Moselle. Koblenz
Koblenz
was established as a Roman military post by Drusus around 8 BC. Its name originates in the Latin
Latin
(ad) cōnfluentēs, meaning "(at the) confluence".[3] The actual confluence is today known as the "German Corner", a symbol of German reunification
German reunification
that features an equestrian statue of Emperor William I. The city celebrated its 2000th anniversary in 1992. After Mainz
Mainz
and Ludwigshafen
Ludwigshafen
am Rhein, it is the third largest city in Rhineland-Palatinate, with a population of c. 106,000 (2006). Koblenz lies in the Rhineland.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient era 1.2 Middle Ages 1.3 Modern era

2 Main sights

2.1 Fortified cities 2.2 Other sights 2.3 Electoral palace 2.4 William I monument

3 Incorporated villages 4 Economy

4.1 Transport

4.1.1 Roads 4.1.2 Railways

5 Education 6 Twin towns – sister cities 7 Popular culture 8 Notable people 9 References

9.1 Notes

10 Bibliography 11 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Koblenz
Koblenz
history

Koblenz
Koblenz
in the 16th century

Palace of the archbishop-electors of Trier.

Josef Friedrich Matthes
Josef Friedrich Matthes
in 1923 in Koblenz
Koblenz
during the short lived Rhenish Republic

Ancient era[edit] Around 1000 BC, early fortifications were erected on the Festung Ehrenbreitstein
Ehrenbreitstein
hill on the opposite side of the Moselle. In 55 BC, Roman troops commanded by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
reached the Rhine
Rhine
and built a bridge between Koblenz
Koblenz
and Andernach. About 9 BC, the "Castellum apud Confluentes", was one of the military posts established by Drusus. Remains of a large bridge built in 49 AD by the Romans are still visible. The Romans built two castles as protection for the bridge, one in 9 AD and another in the 2nd century, the latter being destroyed by the Franks
Franks
in 259. North of Koblenz
Koblenz
was a temple of Mercury and Rosmerta
Rosmerta
(a Gallo-Roman deity), which remained in use up to the 5th century.

Map of the Koblenz
Koblenz
region.

Middle Ages[edit] With the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the city was conquered by the Franks
Franks
and became a royal seat. After the division of Charlemagne's empire, it was included in the lands of his son Louis the Pious (814). In 837, it was assigned to Charles the Bald, and a few years later it was here that Carolingian heirs discussed what was to become the Treaty of Verdun
Treaty of Verdun
(843), by which the city became part of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
under Lothair I. In 860 and 922, Koblenz
Koblenz
was the scene of ecclesiastical synods. At the first synod, held in the Liebfrauenkirche, the reconciliation of Louis the German
Louis the German
with his half-brother Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald
took place. The city was sacked and destroyed by the Norsemen
Norsemen
in 882. In 925, it became part of the eastern German Kingdom, later the Holy Roman Empire.

Fortress (Festung) Ehrenbreitstein
Ehrenbreitstein
in the background.

In 1018, the city was given by the emperor Henry II to the archbishop-elector of Trier
Trier
after receiving a charter. It remained in the possession of his successors until the end of the 18th century, having been their main residence since the 17th century. Emperor Conrad II was elected here in 1138. In 1198, the battle between Philip of Swabia and Otto IV took place nearby. In 1216, prince-bishop Theoderich von Wied
Theoderich von Wied
donated part of the lands of the basilica and the hospital to the Teutonic Knights, which later became the Deutsches Eck. In 1249–1254, Koblenz
Koblenz
was given new walls by Archbishop Arnold II of Isenburg; and it was partly to overawe the turbulent citizens that successive archbishops built and strengthened the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein
Ehrenbreitstein
that still dominates the city. Modern era[edit] The city was a member of the league of the Rhenish cities which rose in the 13th century. The Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
founded the Bailiwick of Koblenz
Koblenz
in or around 1231. Koblenz
Koblenz
attained great prosperity and it continued to advance until the disaster of the Thirty Years' War brought about a rapid decline. After Philip Christopher, elector of Trier, surrendered Ehrenbreitstein
Ehrenbreitstein
to the French, the city received an imperial garrison in 1632. However, this force was soon expelled by the Swedes, who in their turn handed the city over again to the French. Imperial forces finally succeeded in retaking it by storm in 1636. In 1688, Koblenz
Koblenz
was besieged by the French under Marshal de Boufflers, but they only succeeded in bombing the Old City (Altstadt) into ruins, destroying among other buildings the Old Merchants' Hall (Kaufhaus), which was restored in its present form in 1725. The city was the residence of the archbishop-electors of Trier
Trier
from 1690 to 1801.

Since 2010 the Koblenz cable car
Koblenz cable car
has been Germany's biggest aerial tramway

In 1786, the last archbishop-elector of Trier, Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony, greatly assisted the extension and improvement of the city, turning the Ehrenbreitstein
Ehrenbreitstein
into a magnificent baroque palace. After the fall of the Bastille in 1789, the city became, through the invitation of the archbishop-elector's chief minister, Ferdinand Freiherr von Duminique, one of the principal rendezvous points for French émigrés. The archbishop-elector approved of this because he was the uncle of the persecuted king of France, Louis XVI. Among the many royalist French refugees who flooded into the city were Louis XVI's two younger brothers, the Comte de Provence and the Comte d'Artois. In addition, Louis XVI's cousin, Prince Louis Joseph de Bourbon, prince de Condé, arrived and formed an army of young aristocrats willing to fight the French Revolution
French Revolution
and restore the Ancien Régime. The Army of Condé
Army of Condé
joined with an allied army of Prussian and Austrian soldiers led by Duke Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand of Brunswick in an unsuccessful invasion of France
France
in 1792. This drew down the wrath of the First French Republic
First French Republic
on the archbishop-elector; in 1794, Coblenz was taken by the French Revolutionary army under Marceau (who was killed during the siege), and, after the signing of the Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(1801) it was made the capital of the new French départment of Rhin-et-Moselle. In 1814, it was occupied by the Russians. The Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
assigned the city to Prussia, and in 1822, it was made the seat of government for the Prussian Rhine Province. After World War I, France
France
occupied the area once again. In defiance of the French, the German populace of the city insisted on using the more German spelling of Koblenz
Koblenz
after 1926. During World War II
World War II
it was the location of the command of German Army Group B and like many other German cities, it was heavily bombed and rebuilt afterwards. Between 1947 and 1950, it served as the seat of government of Rhineland-Palatinate. The Rhine
Rhine
Gorge was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 2002, with Koblenz
Koblenz
marking the northern end.

Fortress Ehrenbreitstein
Ehrenbreitstein
as seen from Koblenz.

HDR Panorama of Koblenz
Koblenz
from Metternich.

Largest groups of foreign residents

Nationality Population (2017)

 Turkey 3,005

 Poland 1,278

 Bulgaria 996

 Romania 780

 Ukraine 627

 Italy 613

 Russia 600

 Syria 595

Main sights[edit] Fortified cities[edit]

Basilica of St. Castor

Stolzenfels Castle

US Air Force bombing in 1944

Panoramic View at Koblenz
Koblenz
with monument at Deutsches Eck

Main article: Koblenz
Koblenz
Fortress Its defensive works are extensive, and consist of strong forts crowning the hills encircling the city to the west, and the citadel of Ehrenbreitstein
Ehrenbreitstein
on the opposite bank of the Rhine. The old city was triangular in shape, two sides being bounded by the Rhine
Rhine
and Mosel and the third by a line of fortifications. The latter were razed in 1890, and the city was permitted to expand in this direction. The Koblenz Hauptbahnhof
Koblenz Hauptbahnhof
(central station) was built on a spacious site outside the former walls at the junction of the Cologne- Mainz
Mainz
railway and the strategic Metz- Berlin
Berlin
line. In April 2011 Koblenz-Stadtmitte station was opened in the inner city to coincide with the opening of the Federal Garden Show 2011. The Rhine
Rhine
is crossed by the Pfaffendorf Bridge, originally the location of a rail bridge, but now a road bridge and, a mile south of city, by the Horchheim Railway Bridge, consisting of two wide and lofty spans carrying the Lahn Valley Railway, part of the Berlin
Berlin
railway referred to above. The Moselle
Moselle
is spanned by a Gothic freestone bridge of 14 arches, erected in 1344, two modern road bridges and also by two railway bridges. Since 1890, the city has consisted of the Altstadt (old city) and the Neustadt (new city) or Klemenstadt. Of these, the Altstadt is closely built and has only a few fine streets and squares, while the Neustadt possesses numerous broad streets and a handsome frontage along the Rhine. Other sights[edit] In the more ancient part of Koblenz
Koblenz
stand several buildings which have a historical interest. Prominent among these, near the point of confluence of the rivers, is the Basilica of St. Castor
Basilica of St. Castor
or Kastorkirche, dedicated to Castor of Karden, with four towers. The church was founded in 836 by Louis the Pious, but the present Romanesque building was completed in 1208, the Gothic vaulted roof dating from 1498. In front of the church of Saint Castor stands a fountain, erected by the French in 1812, with an inscription to commemorate Napoleon's invasion of Russia. Not long after, Russian troops occupied Koblenz; and St. Priest, their commander, added in irony these words: "Vu et approuvé par nous, Commandant russe de la Ville de Coblence: Janvier 1er, 1814." In this quarter of the city, too, is the Liebfrauenkirche, a fine church (nave 1250, choir 1404–1431) with lofty late Romanesque towers; the castle of the electors of Trier, erected in 1280, which now contains the municipal picture gallery; and the family house of the Metternichs, where Prince Metternich, the Austrian statesman, was born in 1773. Also notable is the church of St. Florian, with a two towers façade from c. 1110. The former Jesuit College is a Baroque edifice by J.C. Sebastiani (1694–1698) serves as the current City Hall. Near Koblenz
Koblenz
is the Lahneck Castle
Lahneck Castle
near Lahnstein, open to visitors from 1 April to 31 October. The city is close to the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
earthworks at Goloring, a possible Urnfield
Urnfield
calendar constructed some 3000 years ago. Electoral palace[edit] Main article: Electoral Palace (Koblenz) In the modern part of the city lies the palace (Residenzschloss), with one front looking towards the Rhine, the other into the Neustadt. It was built in 1778–1786 by Clemens Wenceslaus, the last elector of Trier, following a design by the French architect P.M. d'Ixnard. In 1833, the palace was used as a barracks, and became a terminal post for the optical telecommunications system that originated in Potsdam. Today, the elector's former palace is a museum. Among other exhibits, it contains some Gobelin
Gobelin
tapestries. From it some gardens and promenades (Kaiserin Augusta Anlagen) stretch along the bank of the Rhine, and in them is a memorial to the poet Max von Schenkendorf. A statue to the empress Augusta, whose favourite residence was Coblenz, stands in the Luisenplatz. William I monument[edit] The Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
were given an area for their Deutschherrenhaus Bailiwick right at the confluence of the Rhine
Rhine
and Mosel, which became known as German Corner (Deutsches Eck). In 1897, a monument to German Emperor
German Emperor
William I of Germany, mounted on a 14-metre-high horse, was inaugurated there by his grandson Wilhelm II. The architect was Bruno Schmitz, who was responsible for a number of nationalistic German monuments and memorials. The German Corner is since associated with this monument, the (re) foundation of the German Empire and the German refusal of any French claims to the area, as described in the song "Die Wacht am Rhein" together with the "Wacht am Rhein" called "Niederwalddenkmal" some 30 kilometres (19 miles) upstream. During World War II, the statue was destroyed by US artillery. The French occupation administration intended the complete destruction of the monument and wanted to replace it with a new one. In 1953, Bundespräsident Theodor Heuss
Theodor Heuss
re-dedicated the monument to German unity, adding the signs of the remaining western federal states as well as the ones of the lost areas in the East. A Flag of Germany has flown there since. The Saarland
Saarland
was added four years later after the population had voted to join Germany. In the 1980s, a film clip of the monument was often shown on late night TV when the national anthem was played to mark the end of the day, a practise which was discontinued when nonstop broadcasting became common. On 3 October 1990, the very day the former GDR states joined, their signs were added to the monument. As German unity was considered complete and the areas under Polish administration were ceded to Poland, the monument lost its official active purpose, now only reminding of history. In 1993, the flag was replaced by a copy of the statue, donated by a local couple. The day chosen for the reinstatement of the statue, however, caused controversy as it coincided with Sedantag
Sedantag
(Sedan Day) (2 September 1870) a day of celebration remembering Germany's victory over France in the Battle of Sedan.[4] The event was widely celebrated from the 1870s until the 1910s. Incorporated villages[edit] Formerly separate villages now incorporated into the jurisdiction of the city of Koblenz

Date Village Area

Date Village Area

1 July 1891 Neuendorf and Lützel 547 hectares (2.1 sq mi)

7 June 1969 Kesselheim ?

1 April 1902 Moselweiß 382 hectares (1.5 sq mi)

7 June 1969 Kapellen-Stolzenfels ?

1 October 1923 Wallersheim 229 hectares (0.88 sq mi)

7 November 1970 Arenberg-Immendorf ?

1 July 1937 Asterstein (part of Pfaffendorf) ?

7 November 1970 Arzheim 487 hectares (1.9 sq mi)

1 July 1937 Ehrenbreitstein 120 hectares (0.46 sq mi)

7 November 1970 Bubenheim 314 hectares (1.2 sq mi)

1 July 1937 Horchheim 772 hectares (3.0 sq mi)

7 November 1970 Güls and Bisholder ?

1 July 1937 Metternich 483 hectares (1.9 sq mi)

7 November 1970 Lay ?

1 July 1937 Niederberg 203 hectares (0.78 sq mi)

7 November 1970 Rübenach ?

1 July 1937 Pfaffendorf and Asterstein 369 hectares (1.4 sq mi)

Economy[edit]

Koblenz, as seen from the International Space Station

Königsbacher
Königsbacher
brewery

Koblenz
Koblenz
is a principal seat of the Mosel and Rhenish wine trade, and also does a large business in the export of mineral waters. Its manufactures include automotive parts (braking systems – TRW Automotive, gas springs and hydraulic vibration dampers – Stabilus), aluminium coils (Aleris Aluminum), pianos, paper, cardboard, machinery, boats, and barges. Since the 17th century, it has been home to the Königsbacher
Königsbacher
brewery (the Old Brewery in Koblenz's city centre, and now a plant in Koblenz-Stolzenfels). It is an important transit centre for the Rhine
Rhine
railways and for the Rhine
Rhine
navigation. The headquarters of the German Army Forces Command
German Army Forces Command
is located in the city. Since September 19, 2012 an Amazon logistics centre is in service.[5] It is located some 15 kilometres (9 miles) outside the city at the Autobahnkreuz Koblenz. Transport[edit]

Road map

Map of railways in greater Koblenz

Roads[edit] To the west of the town is the autobahn A 61, connecting Ludwigshafen and Mönchengladbach, to the north is the east-west running A 48, connecting the A 1, Saarbrücken-Cologne, with the A 3, Frankfurt-Cologne. The city is also on various federal highways 9, 42, 49, 416, 258 and 327. The Glockenberg Tunnel connects the Pfaffendorf Bridge to the B 42. The following bridges cross:

the Rhine: Bendorf Autobahn
Autobahn
Bridge, Pfaffendorf Bridge, Horchheim Rail Bridge, South Bridge the Moselle: Balduin Bridge, Mosel Rail Bridge, Europe Bridge, Koblenz Barrage, Kurt-Schumacher Bridge, Güls Rail Bridge

Railways[edit] Koblenz
Koblenz
Hbf is an Intercity-Express
Intercity-Express
stop on the West Rhine
Rhine
Railway between Bonn
Bonn
and Mainz
Mainz
and is also served by trains on the East Rhine Railway Wiesbaden–Cologne. Koblenz
Koblenz
is the beginning of the Moselle line to Trier
Trier
(and connecting to Luxemburg and Saarbrücken) and the Lahn Valley Railway
Lahn Valley Railway
to Limburg and Gießen. The other stations in Koblenz
Koblenz
are Koblenz-Ehrenbreitstein, Koblenz-Güls, Koblenz-Lützel, Koblenz-Moselweiß and Koblenz
Koblenz
Stadtmitte, which opened on 14 April 2011. Education[edit] The campus Koblenz
Koblenz
of University of Koblenz and Landau
University of Koblenz and Landau
is located in the city. The University of Applied Sciences Koblenz
Koblenz
(German: Hochschule Koblenz) is also located in the city. Twin towns – sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Koblenz
Koblenz
is twinned with:[6]

Nevers, France, since 1963 Haringey, London, United Kingdom, since 1969 Norwich, United Kingdom, since 1978 Maastricht, Netherlands, since 1981 Novara, Italy, since 1991 Austin, Texas, United States, since 1992 Petah Tikva, Israel, since 2000 Varaždin, Croatia, since 2007

Popular culture[edit] In Philip Reeve's series The Mortal Engines Quartet, Koblenz, as Panzerstadt Koblenz, is a member of the Traktionstadtsgesellschaft, a fictional league of German traction cities formed to combat the ruthless advance of the Anti-tractionists, thousands of years in the future. In John Christopher's post-apocalyptic series The Tripods, one of the three domed cities built by the alien invaders is located close to Koblenz; it is the setting of most of the second novel, The City of Gold and Lead. The children's toy yo-yo was nicknamed de Coblenz (Koblenz) in 18th century France, referring to the large number of noble French émigrées then living in the city.[7] Notable people[edit]

Cathinka Buchwieser
Cathinka Buchwieser
(1789–1828), operatic soprano and actress Milo Emil Halbheer (1910–1978), artist

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Coblenz". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 621–622. 

Notes[edit]

^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland mit Bevölkerung am 31. Dezember 2015" (PDF). Statistisches Bundesamt
Statistisches Bundesamt
(in German). 2016.  ^ Other historical spellings include Covelenz and Cobelenz. In the local dialect the name is Kowelenz. ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Coblenz". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 612.  ^ Jefferies, Matthew, Imperial Culture in Germany, 1871–1918 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2003) ^ http://www.rhein-zeitung.de/regionales_artikel,-Bei-Amazon-in-Koblenz-arbeiten-bald-3000-Leute-_arid,494182.html (Rhein-Zeitung newspaper, in German language) ^ "Städtepartnerschaften von Koblenz" (in German). Stadt Koblenz. Retrieved 2015-02-18.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-13. Retrieved 2010-01-17.  National Yo-Yo Museum, California

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Koblenz External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Koblenz.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Koblenz.

Official website Koblenz
Koblenz
– Germany’s most beautiful “corner” (in English) Koblenz
Koblenz
City Panoramas – Panoramic views and virtual tours Official Town map of Koblenz
Koblenz
(needs Java and JavaScript) Richard Stillwell, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1976: "Ad Confluentes (Koblenz), Germany Online Magazin Koblenz

v t e

Cities in Germany
Germany
by population

1,000,000+

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich

500,000+

Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart

200,000+

Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal

100,000+

Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Electoral Rhenish Circle
Electoral Rhenish Circle
(1512–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire

Electorates

Cologne Mainz Palatinate Trier

Other territories

Arenberg Beilstein Koblenz Nieder-Isenburg Rheineck Thurn and Taxis

Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the State of Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
in Germany

Urban districts

Frankenthal Kaiserslautern Koblenz Landau Ludwigshafen Mainz Neustadt Pirmasens Speyer Trier Worms Zweibrücken

Rural districts

Ahrweiler Altenkirchen Alzey-Worms Bad Dürkheim Bad Kreuznach Bernkastel-Wittlich Birkenfeld Bitburg-Prüm Cochem-Zell Donnersbergkreis Germersheim Kaiserslautern Kusel Mainz-Bingen Mayen-Koblenz Neuwied Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis Rhein-Lahn-Kreis Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis Südliche Weinstraße Südwestpfalz Trier-Saarburg Vulkaneifel Westerwaldkreis

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125496444 LCCN: n81032661 GND: 4031410-8 BNF: cb1250

.