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KNOXVILLE is a city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Tennessee
Tennessee
, and the county seat of Knox County . The city had an estimated population of 186,239 in 2016 and a population of 178,874 as of the 2010 census , making it the state's third largest city after Nashville and Memphis . Knoxville
Knoxville
is the principal city of the Knoxville
Knoxville
Metropolitan Statistical Area , which, in 2016, was 868,546, up 0.9 percent, or 7,377 people, from to 2015. The KMSA is, in turn, the central component of the Knoxville-Sevierville-La Follette Combined Statistical Area, which, in 2013, had a population of 1,096,961.

First settled in 1786, Knoxville
Knoxville
was the first capital of Tennessee. The city struggled with geographic isolation throughout the early 19th century. The arrival of the railroad in 1855 led to an economic boom. During the Civil War, the city was bitterly divided over the secession issue, and was occupied alternately by both Confederate and Union armies. Following the war, Knoxville
Knoxville
grew rapidly as a major wholesaling and manufacturing center. The city's economy stagnated after the 1920s as the manufacturing sector collapsed, the downtown area declined and city leaders became entrenched in highly partisan political fights. Hosting the 1982 World\'s Fair helped reinvigorate the city, and revitalization initiatives by city leaders and private developers have had major successes in spurring growth in the city, especially the downtown area.

Knoxville
Knoxville
is the home of the flagship campus of the University of Tennessee
Tennessee
, whose sports teams, called the "Volunteers" or "Vols", are extremely popular in the surrounding area. Knoxville
Knoxville
is also home to the headquarters of the Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley Authority , the Tennessee Supreme Court 's courthouse for East Tennessee
Tennessee
and the corporate headquarters of several national and regional companies. As one of the largest cities in the Appalachian region, Knoxville
Knoxville
has positioned itself in recent years as a repository of Appalachian culture and is one of the gateways to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Great Smoky Mountains National Park
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Early history * 1.2 Settlement * 1.3 Antebellum Knoxville
Knoxville
* 1.4 The U.S. Civil War * 1.5 Reconstruction and the Industrial Age * 1.6 The Progressive Era and the Great Depression
Great Depression
* 1.7 Modern day

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Topography * 2.2 Climate * 2.3 Metropolitan Area

* 3 Cityscape

* 3.1 Architecture

* 3.2 Neighborhoods

* 3.2.1 List of notable neighborhoods

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Crime

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Major corporations * 5.2 Real estate * 5.3 Finance * 5.4 Manufacturing * 5.5 Retail * 5.6 Technology and research

* 6 Culture

* 6.1 Events * 6.2 Sites of interest

* 7 Media * 8 References in popular culture * 9 Sports * 10 Government

* 11 Education

* 11.1 Primary and secondary education * 11.2 Libraries

* 12 Infrastructure

* 12.1 Health * 12.2 Utilities

* 13 Transportation

* 13.1 Highways * 13.2 Mass transit * 13.3 Airports * 13.4 Railroads * 13.5 River transport

* 14 Sister cities
Sister cities
* 15 See also * 16 Notes * 17 References * 18 Further reading * 19 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Knoxville, Tennessee
Tennessee
See also: Timeline of Knoxville, Tennessee
Tennessee

EARLY HISTORY

The first people to form substantial settlements in what is now Knoxville
Knoxville
arrived during the Woodland period
Woodland period
(c. 1000 B.C. – A.D 1000). One of the oldest artificial structures in Knoxville
Knoxville
is a burial mound constructed during the early Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
period (c. A.D. 1000-1400). The earthwork mound is now surrounded by the University of Tennessee
Tennessee
campus. Other prehistoric sites include an Early Woodland habitation area at the confluence of the Tennessee River and Knob Creek (near the Knox-Blount county line), and Dallas Phase Mississippian villages at Post Oak Island (also along the river near the Knox-Blount line), and at Bussell Island (at the mouth of the Little Tennessee
Tennessee
River near Lenoir City).

By the 18th century, the Cherokee
Cherokee
had become the dominant tribe in the East Tennessee
Tennessee
region, although they were consistently at war with the Creek and Shawnee
Shawnee
. The Cherokee
Cherokee
people called the Knoxville area kuwanda'talun'yi, which means "Mulberry Place." Most Cherokee habitation in the area was concentrated in the Overhill settlements along the Little Tennessee
Tennessee
River , southwest of Knoxville.

The first Euro-American traders and explorers were recorded as arriving in the Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley in the late 17th century. There is significant evidence that Hernando de Soto visited Bussell Island in 1540. The first major recorded Euro-American presence in the Knoxville
Knoxville
area was the Timberlake Expedition , which passed through the confluence of the Holston and French Broad into the Tennessee River in December 1761. Henry Timberlake , who was en route to the Overhill settlements along the Little Tennessee
Tennessee
River, recalled being pleasantly surprised by the deep waters of the Tennessee
Tennessee
after having struggled down the relatively shallow Holston for several weeks.

SETTLEMENT

The home of James White in Downtown Knoxville
Knoxville

The end of the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
and confusion brought about by the American Revolution led to a drastic increase in Euro-American settlement west of the Appalachians. By the 1780s, Euro-American settlers were already established in the Holston and French Broad valleys. The U.S. Congress ordered all illegal settlers out of the valley in 1785, but with little success. As settlers continued to trickle into Cherokee
Cherokee
lands, tensions between the settlers and the Cherokee
Cherokee
rose steadily.

In 1786, James White , a Revolutionary War officer, and his friend James Connor built White\'s Fort near the mouth of First Creek, on land White had purchased three years earlier. In 1790, White's son-in-law, Charles McClung
Charles McClung
—who had arrived from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
the previous year—surveyed White's holdings between First Creek and Second Creek for the establishment of a town. McClung drew up 64 0.5-acre (0.20 ha) lots. The waterfront was set aside for a town common. Two lots were set aside for a church and graveyard (First Presbyterian Church, founded 1792). Four lots were set aside for a school. That school was eventually chartered as Blount College and it served as the starting point for the University of Tennessee, which uses Blount College's founding date of 1794, as its own. Also in 1790, President George Washington
George Washington
appointed North Carolina surveyor William Blount governor of the newly created Territory South of the River Ohio . Statue representing the signing of the Treaty of the Holston in Downtown Knoxville
Knoxville

One of Blount's first tasks was to meet with the Cherokee
Cherokee
and establish territorial boundaries and resolve the issue of illegal settlers. This he accomplished almost immediately with the Treaty of Holston , which was negotiated and signed at White's Fort in 1791. Blount originally wanted to place the territorial capital at the confluence of the Clinch River
Clinch River
and Tennessee
Tennessee
River (now Kingston ), but when the Cherokee
Cherokee
refused to cede this land, Blount chose White's Fort, which McClung had surveyed the previous year. Blount named the new capital Knoxville
Knoxville
after Revolutionary War general and Secretary of War Henry Knox
Henry Knox
, who at the time was Blount's immediate superior.

Problems immediately arose from the Holston Treaty. Blount believed that he had "purchased" much of what is now East Tennessee
Tennessee
when the treaty was signed in 1791. However, the terms of the treaty came under dispute, culminating in continued violence on both sides. When the government invited the Cherokee's chief Hanging Maw for negotiations in 1793, Knoxville
Knoxville
settlers attacked the Cherokee
Cherokee
against orders, killing the chief's wife. Peace was renegotiated in 1794.

ANTEBELLUM KNOXVILLE

The Craighead-Jackson House in Knoxville, built in 1818

Knoxville
Knoxville
served as capital of the Southwest Territory
Southwest Territory
and as capital of Tennessee
Tennessee
(admitted as a state in 1796) until 1817, when the capital was moved to Murfreesboro . Early Knoxville
Knoxville
has been described as an "alternately quiet and rowdy river town." Early issues of the Knoxville Gazette
Knoxville Gazette
—the first newspaper published in Tennessee—are filled with accounts of murder, theft, and hostile Cherokee
Cherokee
attacks. Abishai Thomas, a friend of William Blount, visited Knoxville
Knoxville
in 1794 and wrote that, while he was impressed by the town's modern frame buildings, the town had "seven taverns" and no church.

Knoxville
Knoxville
initially thrived as a way station for travelers and migrants heading west. Its location at the confluence of three major rivers in the Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley brought flatboat and later steamboat traffic to its waterfront in the first half of the 19th century, and Knoxville
Knoxville
quickly developed into a regional merchandising center. Local agricultural products—especially tobacco, corn, and whiskey—were traded for cotton, which was grown in the Deep South
Deep South
. The population of Knoxville
Knoxville
more than doubled in the 1850s with the arrival of the East Tennessee
Tennessee
and Georgia Railroad in 1855.

Among the most prominent citizens of Knoxville
Knoxville
during the Antebellum years was James White's son, Hugh Lawson White
Hugh Lawson White
(1773–1840). White first served as a judge and state senator, before being nominated by the state legislature to replace Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
in the U.S. Senate in 1825. In 1836, White ran unsuccessfully for president, representing the Whig Party.

THE U.S. CIVIL WAR

Engraving showing Confederate troops firing at Union supporter Charles Douglas on Gay Street in Knoxville
Knoxville
in late 1861 See also: Knoxville Campaign

Anti-slavery and anti-secession sentiment ran high in East Tennessee in the years leading up to the U.S. Civil War . William "Parson" Brownlow , the radical publisher of the Knoxville
Knoxville
Whig , was one of the region's leading anti-secessionists (although he strongly defended the practice of slavery). Blount County, just south of Knoxville, had developed into a center of abolitionist activity, due in part to its relatively large Quaker faction and the anti-slavery president of Maryville College
Maryville College
, Isaac Anderson. The Greater Warner Tabernacle AME Zion Church, Knoxville
Knoxville
was reportedly a station on the underground railroad .

Business interests, however, guided largely by Knoxville's trade connections with cotton-growing centers to the south, contributed to the development of a strong pro-secession movement within the city. The city's pro-secessionists included among their ranks Dr. J.G.M. Ramsey, a prominent historian whose father had built the Ramsey House in 1797.

Thus, while East Tennessee
Tennessee
and greater Knox County voted decisively against secession in 1861, the city of Knoxville
Knoxville
favored secession by a 2-1 margin. In late May 1861, just before the secession vote, delegates of the East Tennessee
Tennessee
Convention met at Temperance Hall in Knoxville
Knoxville
in hopes of keeping Tennessee
Tennessee
in the Union . After Tennessee voted to secede the following month, the convention met in Greeneville and attempted to create a separate Union-aligned state in East Tennessee. Photograph showing the aftermath of the Siege of Knoxville, December 1863

In July 1861, after Tennessee
Tennessee
had joined the Confederacy , General Felix Zollicoffer
Felix Zollicoffer
arrived in Knoxville
Knoxville
as commander of the District of East Tennessee. While initially lenient toward the city's Union sympathizers, Zollicoffer instituted martial law in November of that year after pro-Union guerillas burned seven of the city's bridges. The command of the district passed briefly to George Crittenden
George Crittenden
and then to Kirby Smith
Kirby Smith
, the latter launching an unsuccessful invasion of Kentucky in August 1862. In early 1863, General Simon Buckner
Simon Buckner
took command of Confederate forces in Knoxville. Anticipating a Union invasion, Buckner fortified Fort Loudon (in West Knoxville, not to be confused with the colonial fort to the southwest) and began constructing earthworks throughout the city. However, the approach of stronger Union forces under Ambrose Burnside
Ambrose Burnside
in the summer of 1863 forced Buckner to evacuate Knoxville
Knoxville
before the earthworks were completed.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to KNOXVILLE DURING THE CIVIL WAR .

Burnside arrived in early September 1863. Like the Confederates, he immediately began fortifying the city. The Union forces rebuilt Fort Loudon and erected 12 other forts and batteries flanked by entrenchments around the city. Burnside moved a pontoon bridge upstream from Loudon , allowing Union forces to cross the river and build a series of forts along the heights of South Knoxville, including Fort Stanley and Fort Dickerson.

As Burnside was fortifying Knoxville, the Confederate army defeated the Union forces at the Battle of Chickamauga
Battle of Chickamauga
(near the Tennessee-Georgia line) and subsequently laid siege to Chattanooga . On November 3, 1863, the Confederates dispatched General James Longstreet to attack Burnside at Knoxville. Longstreet initially wanted to attack the city from the south, but lacking the means to carry the necessary pontoon bridges, he was forced to cross the river further downstream at Loudon (November 14) and march against the city's heavily fortified western section. On November 15, General Joseph Wheeler
Joseph Wheeler
unsuccessfully attempted to dislodge Union forces in the heights of South Knoxville, and the following day Longstreet failed to cut off retreating Union forces at Campbell\'s Station (now Farragut). On November 18, Union General William P. Sanders
William P. Sanders
was mortally wounded while conducting delaying maneuvers west of Knoxville, and Fort Loudon was renamed Fort Sanders in his honor. On November 29, after a two-week siege, the Confederates attacked Fort Sanders, but retreated after a fierce 20-minute engagement. On December 4, when word of the Confederate setback at Chattanooga had reached Longstreet, he abandoned his attempts to take Knoxville
Knoxville
and retreated into winter quarters at Russellville . He rejoined the Army of Northern Virginia the following Spring.

RECONSTRUCTION AND THE INDUSTRIAL AGE

Early-1900s photograph of the Republic Marble Quarry near Knoxville
Knoxville

After the war, northern investors such as the brothers Joseph and David Richards helped Knoxville
Knoxville
recover relatively quickly. Joseph and David Richards convinced 104 Welsh immigrant families to migrate from the Welsh Tract in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
to work in a rolling mill then co-owned by Thomas Walker. These Welsh families settled in an area now known as Mechanicsville . The Richards brothers also co-founded the Knoxville
Knoxville
Iron Works beside the L"> Child labor at Knoxville Knitting Works, photographed by Lewis Wickes Hine
Lewis Wickes Hine
in 1910

Other companies that sprang up during this period were Knoxville Woolen Mills, Dixie Cement, and Woodruff's Furniture. Between 1880 and 1887, 97 factories were established in Knoxville, most of them specializing in textiles, food products, and iron products. By the 1890s, Knoxville
Knoxville
was home to more than 50 wholesaling houses, making it the third largest wholesaling center by volume in the South. The Candoro Marble Works, established in the community of Vestal in 1914, became the nation's foremost producer of pink marble and one of the nation's largest marble importers. In 1896, Knoxville
Knoxville
celebrated its achievements by creating its own flag. The Flag of Knoxville, Tennessee
Tennessee
represents the city's progressive growth due to agriculture and industry.

In 1869, Thomas Humes, a Union-sympathizer and president of East Tennessee
Tennessee
University, secured federal wartime restitution funding, and state-designated Morrill Act funding to expand the college, which had been occupied by both armies during the war. In 1879, the school changed its name to the University of Tennessee, hoping to secure more funding from the Tennessee
Tennessee
state legislature. Charles Dabney , who became president of the university in 1887, overhauled the faculty and established a law school in an attempt to modernize the scope of the university.

The post-war manufacturing boom brought thousands of immigrants to the city. The population of Knoxville
Knoxville
grew from around 5,000 in 1860 to 32,637 in 1900. West Knoxville
Knoxville
was annexed in 1897, and over 5,000 new homes were built between 1895 and 1904.

In 1901, train robber Kid Curry (whose real name was Harvey Logan), a member of Butch Cassidy
Butch Cassidy
's Wild Bunch was captured after shooting two deputies on Knoxville's Central Avenue. He escaped from the Knoxville Jail and rode away on a horse stolen from the sheriff.

THE PROGRESSIVE ERA AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION

Kingston Pike, circa 1910.

The growing city of Knoxville
Knoxville
hosted the Appalachian Exposition in 1910 and again in 1911, and the National Conservation Exposition
National Conservation Exposition
in 1913. The latter is sometimes credited with giving rise to the movement to create a national park in the Great Smoky Mountains, some 20 miles (32 km) south of Knoxville. Around this time, a number of affluent Knoxvillians began purchasing summer cottages in Elkmont , and began to pursue the park idea more vigorously. They were led by Knoxville
Knoxville
businessman Colonel David C. Chapman
David C. Chapman
, who, as head of the Great Smoky Mountains
Great Smoky Mountains
Park Commission, was largely responsible for raising the funds for the purchase of the property that became the core of the park. The Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Great Smoky Mountains National Park
opened in 1933. Gay Street in the early 1900s

Knoxville's reliance on a manufacturing economy left it particularly vulnerable to the effects of the Great Depression
Great Depression
. The Tennessee Valley also suffered from frequent flooding, and millions of acres of farmland had been ruined by soil erosion. To control flooding and improve the economy in the Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley, the federal government created the Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley Authority in 1933. Beginning with Norris Dam , TVA constructed a series of hydroelectric and other power plants throughout the valley over the next few decades, bringing flood control, jobs, and electricity to the region. The Federal Works Projects Administration , which also arrived in the 1930s, helped build McGhee-Tyson Airport and expand Neyland Stadium
Neyland Stadium
. TVA's headquarters, which consists of two twin high rises built in the 1970s, were among Knoxville's first modern high-rise buildings.

In 1948, the soft drink Mountain Dew
Mountain Dew
was first marketed in Knoxville, originally designed as a mixer for whiskey . Around the same time, John Gunther
John Gunther
dubbed Knoxville
Knoxville
the "ugliest city" in America in his best-selling book Inside U.S.A. Gunther's description jolted the city into enacting a series of beautification measures that helped improve the appearance of the Downtown area.

MODERN DAY

Research laboratory at U.T. in the early 1940s

Knoxville's textile and manufacturing industries largely fell victim to foreign competition in the 1950s and 1960s, and after the establishment of the Interstate Highway
Interstate Highway
system in the 1960s, the railroad—which had been largely responsible for Knoxville's industrial growth—began to decline. The rise of suburban shopping malls in the 1970s drew retail revenues away from Knoxville's Downtown area. While government jobs and economic diversification prevented widespread unemployment in Knoxville, the city sought to recover the massive loss of revenue by attempting to annex neighboring communities in Knox County. These annexation attempts often turned combative, and several attempts to merge the Knoxville
Knoxville
and Knox County governments failed though the school boards merged on July 1, 1987. The Sterchi Lofts building, formerly Sterchi Brothers Furniture store, the most prominent building on Knoxville's "100 Block"

With annexation attempts stalling, Knoxville
Knoxville
initiated several projects aimed at boosting revenue in the Downtown area. The 1982 World\'s Fair —the most successful of these projects—became one of the most popular world's fairs in U.S. history with 11 million visitors. The fair's energy theme was selected due to Knoxville
Knoxville
being the headquarters of the Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley Authority and for the city's proximity to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
. The Sunsphere
Sunsphere
, a 266-foot (81 m) steel truss structure topped with a gold-colored glass sphere, was built for the fair and remains one of Knoxville's most prominent structures, along with the adjacent Tennessee
Tennessee
Amphitheater which underwent a renovation that was completed in 2008.

Ever since, Knoxville's downtown has been developing, with the opening of the Women's Basketball Hall of Fame
Women's Basketball Hall of Fame
and the Knoxville Convention Center, redevelopment of Market Square, a new visitors center, a regional history museum , a Regal Cinemas theater, several restaurants and bars, and many new and redeveloped condominiums. Since 2000, Knoxville
Knoxville
has successfully brought business back to the downtown area. The arts in particular have begun to flourish; there are multiple venues for outdoor concerts, and Gay St. hosts a new arts annex and gallery surrounded by many studios and new business as well. The Tennessee
Tennessee
and Bijou Theaters underwent renovation, providing a good basis for the city and its developers to re-purpose the old downtown, and they have had great success to date revitalizing this once great section of Tennessee.

GEOGRAPHY

TOPOGRAPHY

Downtown Knoxville, with the Great Smoky Mountains
Great Smoky Mountains
rising in the distance, viewed from Sharp\'s Ridge

According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
, the city has a total area of 104.2 square miles (269.8 km2), of which 98.5 square miles (255.2 km2) is land and 5.6 square miles (14.6 km2), or 5.42%, is water. Elevations range from just over 800 feet (240 m) along the riverfront to just over 1,000 feet (300 m) on various hilltops in West Knoxville, with the downtown area resting at just over 900 feet (270 m). High points include Sharp\'s Ridge in North Knoxville
Knoxville
at 1,391 feet (424 m) and Brown Mountain in South Knoxville
Knoxville
at 1,260 feet (380 m). House Mountain , the highest point in Knox County at 2,064 feet (629 m), is located east of the city near Mascot .

Knoxville
Knoxville
is situated in the Great Appalachian Valley
Great Appalachian Valley
(known locally as the Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley), about halfway between the Great Smoky Mountains to the east and the Cumberland Plateau
Cumberland Plateau
to the west. The Great Valley is part of a subrange of the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
known as the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians
Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians
, which is characterized by long, narrow ridges, flanked by broad valleys. Prominent Ridge-and-Valley structures in the Knoxville
Knoxville
area include Sharp's Ridge
Sharp's Ridge
and Beaver Ridge in the northern part of the city, Brown Mountain in South Knoxville, parts of Bays Mountain
Bays Mountain
just south of the city, and parts of McAnnally Ridge in the northeastern part of the city.

The Tennessee
Tennessee
River , which slices through the downtown area, is formed in southeastern Knoxville
Knoxville
at the confluence of the Holston River , which flows southwest from Virginia, and the French Broad River , which flows west from North Carolina. The section of the Tennessee
Tennessee
River that passes through Knoxville
Knoxville
is part of Fort Loudoun Lake, an artificial reservoir created by TVA's Fort Loudoun Dam
Fort Loudoun Dam
about 30 miles (48 km) downstream in Lenoir City
City
. Notable tributaries of the Tennessee
Tennessee
in Knoxville
Knoxville
include First Creek and Second Creek, which flow through the downtown area, Third Creek, which flows west of U.T., and Sinking Creek, Ten Mile Creek, and Turkey Creek, which drain West Knoxville.

CLIMATE

Knoxville
Knoxville
falls in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification Cfa), although it is not quite as hot as areas to the south and west due to the higher elevations. Summers are the warmest time of year, with the daily average temperature in July at 78.4 °F (25.8 °C), and an average of 36 days per year with temperatures reaching 90 °F (32 °C). Winters are generally much cooler and less stable, with occasional small amounts of snow. January has a daily average temperature of 38.2 °F (3.4 °C), although in most years there is at least one day (average 5.3) where the high remains at or below freezing. The record high for Knoxville
Knoxville
is 105 °F (41 °C) on June 30 and July 1, 2012 , while the record low is −24 °F (−31 °C) on January 21, 1985 . Annual precipitation averages just under 48 in (1,220 mm), and normal seasonal snowfall is 6.5 in (17 cm); however, usually no snow occurs outside of January and February. The one-day record for snowfall is 17.5 in (44 cm), which occurred on February 13, 1960.

CLIMATE DATA FOR KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE (MCGHEE TYSON AIRPORT ), 1981−2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1871–PRESENT

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 77 (25) 83 (28) 88 (31) 93 (34) 96 (36) 105 (41) 105 (41) 102 (39) 103 (39) 94 (34) 85 (29) 80 (27) 105 (41)

AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 47.3 (8.5) 52.3 (11.3) 61.4 (16.3) 70.3 (21.3) 78.1 (25.6) 85.4 (29.7) 88.2 (31.2) 87.8 (31) 81.8 (27.7) 71.2 (21.8) 60.4 (15.8) 49.8 (9.9) 69.5 (20.8)

AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 29.2 (−1.6) 32.4 (0.2) 39.2 (4) 47.3 (8.5) 56.2 (13.4) 64.7 (18.2) 68.7 (20.4) 67.8 (19.9) 60.4 (15.8) 48.5 (9.2) 39.0 (3.9) 31.7 (−0.2) 48.8 (9.3)

RECORD LOW °F (°C) −24 (−31) −10 (−23) 1 (−17) 22 (−6) 32 (0) 42 (6) 49 (9) 49 (9) 35 (2) 24 (−4) 5 (−15) −6 (−21) −24 (−31)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) 4.32 (109.7) 4.26 (108.2) 4.34 (110.2) 4.01 (101.9) 4.51 (114.6) 3.81 (96.8) 5.08 (129) 3.27 (83.1) 3.24 (82.3) 2.51 (63.8) 4.01 (101.9) 4.50 (114.3) 47.86 (1,215.6)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL INCHES (CM) 2.7 (6.9) 1.6 (4.1) 0.9 (2.3) 0.5 (1.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) trace 0.8 (2) 6.5 (16.5)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 11.2 11.0 12.0 10.7 11.4 11.4 11.3 8.8 7.7 8.2 9.9 11.6 125.2

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 0.1 IN) 1.5 1.2 0.6 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.8 4.2

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 71.7 68.0 64.8 63.3 70.8 73.5 75.7 76.3 76.1 73.0 71.8 72.9 71.5

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 135.8 145.3 208.9 256.6 287.2 291.1 287.3 278.0 232.3 217.2 151.7 122.5 2,613.9

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 44 48 56 65 66 67 65 67 62 62 49 40 59

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)

METROPOLITAN AREA

Main article: Knoxville Metropolitan Area
Knoxville Metropolitan Area

Knoxville
Knoxville
is the central city in the Knoxville
Knoxville
Metropolitan Area, an Office of Management and Budget
Office of Management and Budget
(OMB) -designated metropolitan statistical area (MSA) that covers Knox, Anderson , Blount , Campbell, Grainger, Loudon , Morgan, Roane and Union counties. MSAs consist of a core urban center and the outlying communities and rural areas with which it maintains close economic ties. They are not administrative divisions, and should not be confused with a consolidated city-county government, which Knoxville
Knoxville
and Knox County lack.

The Knoxville
Knoxville
Metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
includes unincorporated communities such as Halls Crossroads , Powell , Karns , Corryton , Concord , and Mascot , which are located in Knox County outside of Knoxville's city limits. Along with Knoxville, major municipalities in the Knoxville Metropolitan Area include Alcoa , Maryville , Lenoir City
City
, Loudon , Farragut , Oak Ridge , Clinton , and Maynardville . As of 2012, the population of the Knoxville Metropolitan Area
Knoxville Metropolitan Area
was 837,571.

Additionally, the Knoxville
Knoxville
MSA is the chief component of the larger OMB-designated Knoxville
Knoxville
- Sevierville
Sevierville
-La Follette TN Combined Statistical Area (CSA). The CSA also includes the Morristown Metropolitan Statistical Area
Metropolitan Statistical Area
(Hamblen , Grainger , and Jefferson counties) and the Sevierville
Sevierville
(Sevier County ), La Follette (Campbell County ), Harriman (Roane County ), and Newport (Cocke County ) Micropolitan Statistical Areas . Municipalities in the CSA, but not the Knoxville
Knoxville
MSA, include Morristown, Rutledge , Dandridge , Jefferson City
City
, Sevierville, Gatlinburg , Pigeon Forge , LaFollette, Jacksboro , Harriman, Kingston , Rockwood , and Newport. The combined population of the CSA as of the 2000 Census
Census
was 935,659. Its estimated 2008 population was 1,041,955.

Georgia Tech
Georgia Tech
researchers have mapped the Knoxville
Knoxville
MSA as one of the 18 'Major Cities' in the Piedmont Atlantic Megaregion.

CITYSCAPE

ARCHITECTURE

Downtown Knoxville, viewed from the south waterfront

Knoxville's two tallest buildings are the 27-story First Tennessee Plaza and the 24-story Riverview Tower
Riverview Tower
, both on Gay Street. Other prominent high-rises include the Tower at Morgan Hill (21 stories), the Andrew Johnson Building (18), the Knoxville
Knoxville
Hilton (18), the General Building
General Building
(15), the Holston (14), the TVA Towers (12), and Sterchi Lofts (12). The city's most iconic structure is arguably the Sunsphere
Sunsphere
, a 266-foot (81 m) steel truss tower built for the 1982 World's Fair and, with the Tennessee
Tennessee
Amphitheater , one of only two structures that remain from that World's Fair.

The downtown area contains a mixture of architectural styles from various periods, ranging from the hewn-log James White House (1786) to the modern Knoxville
Knoxville
Museum of Art (1990). Styles represented include Greek Revival (Old City
City
Hall ), Victorian (Hotel St. Oliver and Sullivan's Saloon), Gothic (Church Street Methodist Church and Ayres Hall ), Neoclassical (First Baptist Church), and Art Deco
Art Deco
(Knoxville Post Office ). Gay Street, Market Square, and Jackson Avenue contain numerous examples of late-19th and early-20th century commercial architecture.

Residential architecture tends to reflect the city's development over two centuries. Blount Mansion (1791), in the oldest part of the city, is designed in a vernacular Georgian style. " Streetcar
Streetcar
suburbs" such as Fourth and Gill , Parkridge , and Fort Sanders , developed in the late 19th century with the advent of trolleys , tend to contain large concentrations of Victorian and Bungalow
Bungalow
/Craftsman -style houses popular during this period. Early automobile suburbs, such as Lindbergh Forest
Lindbergh Forest
and Sequoyah Hills , contain late-1920s and 1930s styles such as Tudor Revival , English Cottage, and Mission Revival. Neighborhoods developed after World War II typically consist of Ranch-style houses .

Knoxville
Knoxville
is home to the nation's largest concentration of homes designed by noted Victorian residential architect George Franklin Barber , who lived in the city. Other notable local architects include members of the Baumann family , Charles I. Barber (son of George), R. F. Graf
R. F. Graf
, and more recently, Bruce McCarty
Bruce McCarty
. Nationally renowned architects with works still standing in the city include Alfred B. Mullett (Greystone ), John Russell Pope
John Russell Pope
(H.L. Dulin House), and Edward Larrabee Barnes
Edward Larrabee Barnes
( Knoxville
Knoxville
Museum of Art).

NEIGHBORHOODS

Knoxville
Knoxville
is roughly divided into the Downtown area and sections based on the four cardinal directions: North Knoxville
Knoxville
, South Knoxville
Knoxville
, East Knoxville
Knoxville
, and West Knoxville
Knoxville
. Downtown Knoxville traditionally consists of the area bounded by the river on the south, First Creek on the east, Second Creek on the west, and the railroad tracks on the north, though the definition has expanded to include the U.T. campus and Fort Sanders neighborhood, and several neighborhoods along or just off Broadway south of Sharp's Ridge
Sharp's Ridge
("Downtown North"). While primarily home to the city's central business district and municipal offices, the Old City
City
and Gay Street are mixed residential and commercial areas.

South Knoxville
Knoxville
consists of the parts of the city located south of the river, and includes the neighborhoods of Vestal, Lindbergh Forest, Island Home Park
Island Home Park
, Colonial Hills, and Old Sevier. This area contains major commercial corridors along Chapman Highway and Alcoa Highway.

West Knoxville
Knoxville
generally consists of the areas west of U.T., and includes the neighborhoods of Sequoyah Hills , West Hills , Bearden , Cumberland Estates
Cumberland Estates
, Westmoreland, Suburban Hills, Cedar Bluff, Rocky Hill, and Ebenezer. This area, concentrated largely around Kingston Pike, is home to thriving retail centers such as West Town Mall .

East Knoxville
Knoxville
consists of the areas east of First Creek and the James White Parkway, and includes the neighborhoods of Parkridge, Burlington, Morningside, and Five Points. This area, concentrated along Magnolia Avenue, is home to Chilhowee Park
Chilhowee Park
and Zoo Knoxville
Knoxville
.

North Knoxville
Knoxville
consists of the areas north of Sharp's Ridge, namely the Fountain City
City
and Inskip-Norwood areas. This area's major commercial corridor is located along Broadway.

List Of Notable Neighborhoods

* Bearden * Chilhowee Park
Chilhowee Park
* Colonial Village * Cumberland Estates
Cumberland Estates
* Emory Place * Fort Sanders * Fountain City
City
* Fourth & Gill * Island Home Park
Island Home Park
* Lindbergh Forest
Lindbergh Forest
* Lonsdale * Mechanicsville * North Hills * Oakwood-Lincoln Park * Old City
City
* Old North Knoxville
Knoxville
* Parkridge * Rocky Hill * Sequoyah Hills * South Knoxville
Knoxville
* West Hills

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1850 2,076

1870 8,682

1880 9,693

11.6%

1890 22,535

132.5%

1900 32,637

44.8%

1910 36,346

11.4%

1920 77,818

114.1%

1930 105,802

36.0%

1940 111,580

5.5%

1950 124,769

11.8%

1960 111,827

−10.4%

1970 174,587

56.1%

1980 175,045

0.3%

1990 165,121

−5.7%

2000 173,890

5.3%

2010 178,874

2.9%

EST. 2016 186,239

4.1%

Sources:

As of the census of 2010, the population of Knoxville
Knoxville
was 178,874, a 2.9% increase from 2000. The median age was 32.7, with 19.1% of the population under the age of 18, and 12.6% over the age of 65. The population was 48% male and 52% female. The population density was 1,815 persons per square mile.

The racial and ethnic composition of the city was 76.1% white , 17.1% black , 0.4% Native American , 1.6% Asian , and 0.2% Pacific Islander . Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.6% of the population. People reporting more than one race comprised 2.5% of the population.

Data collected by the Census
Census
from 2005 to 2009 reported 83,151 households in Knoxville, with an average of 2.07 persons per household. The home ownership rate was 51%, and 74.7% of residents had been living in the same house for more than one year. The median household income was $32,609, and the per capita income was $21,528. High school graduates comprised 83.8% of persons 25 and older, and 28.3% had earned a bachelor's degree or higher. The city's poverty rate was 25%, compared with 16.1% in Tennessee
Tennessee
and 15.1% nationwide.

According to the opinion of the Economic Research Institute in a 2006 study, Knoxville
Knoxville
was identified as the most affordable U.S. city for new college graduates, based on the ratio of typical salary to cost of living. In 2014, Forbes
Forbes
ranked Knoxville
Knoxville
one of the top five most affordable cities in the United States.

CRIME

FBI Uniform Crime Reports
Uniform Crime Reports
for Knoxville
Knoxville
for the year of 2009:

CITY OF KNOXVILLE ONLY KNOXVILLE MSA RATE PER 100,000 INHABITANTS

Violent Crime 1,966 3,471 494.4

Murder & Non-negligent Manslaughter 22 31 4.4

Rape 147 238 33.9

Robbery 660 929 132.3

Aggravated Assault 1,137 2,273 323.8

Property Crime 11,821 24,783 3,530.20

Burglary 2,589 6,724 957.8

Larceny/Theft 8,553 16,623 2,637.80

Motor Vehicle Theft 679 1,436 204.5

ECONOMY

After the arrival of the railroads in the 1850s, Knoxville
Knoxville
grew to become a major wholesaling and manufacturing center. Following the collapse of the city's textile industry in the 1950s, Knoxville's economy grew more diversified. In 2011, 15.9% of the Knoxville Metropolitan Statistical Area
Metropolitan Statistical Area
's (MSA) work force was employed by government entities, while 14.1% were employed in the professional service sector, 14% worked in education or health care, 12.7% were employed in the retail sector, 10.5% worked in leisure and hospitality, and 8.9% worked in the manufacturing sector. The region had an unemployment rate of 7.9% in 2011.

In the 2010 ACCRA Cost of Living Index , Knoxville
Knoxville
was rated 89.6 (the national average was 100). Kiplinger ranked Knoxville
Knoxville
at #5 in its list of Best Value Cities 2011 citing "college sports, the Smoky Mountains and an entrepreneurial spirit." In April 2008, Forbes magazine named Knoxville
Knoxville
among the Top 10 Metropolitan Hotspots in the United States, and within Forbes' Top 5 for Business & Careers, just behind cities like New York and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
.

In 2007, there were over 19,000 registered businesses in Knoxville. The city's businesses are served by the 2,100-member Knoxville
Knoxville
Area Chamber Partnership. The Knoxville
Knoxville
Chamber is one of six partners in the Knoxville-Oak Ridge Innovation Valley, which promotes economic development in Knox and surrounding counties.

MAJOR CORPORATIONS

The Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley Authority (TVA), the nation's largest public power provider, is a federally owned corporation headquartered in Knoxville. TVA reported $11.8 billion in revenue in 2011, and employs over 12,000 region-wide.

The largest publicly traded company based in Knoxville
Knoxville
(in terms of revenue) is movie theater chain Regal Entertainment Group
Regal Entertainment Group
, which reported $2.81 billion in revenue in 2010. Regal is the only Knoxville-based company listed in the Fortune 1000
Fortune 1000
(#724). The second largest publicly traded company in Knoxville
Knoxville
is Scripps Networks Interactive ($2.07 billion), followed by the health care-staffing firm TeamHealth ($1.52 billion).

The largest privately held company based in Knoxville
Knoxville
is Pilot Flying J , the nation's largest truck stop chain and sixth largest private company, which reported over $29.23 billion in revenue in 2012. Knoxville
Knoxville
is also home to the nation's fourth largest wholesale grocer, The H. T. Hackney Company , which reported $3.8 billion in revenue in 2012, and one of the nation's largest digital-centric advertising firms, Tombras Group , which reported $80 million in revenue in 2011. Other notable privately held companies based in the city include Bush Brothers , Sea Ray (and its parent company, Brunswick Boat Group
Brunswick Boat Group
), Thermocopy , Petro\'s Chili & Chips , EdFinancial , and AC Entertainment .

Major companies located within the Knoxville
Knoxville
MSA include Clayton Homes and Ruby Tuesday (both in Maryville), and DeRoyal and Weigel\'s (both in Powell).

REAL ESTATE

As of 2011, the median price for a home in the Knoxville
Knoxville
MSA was $140,900, compared with $173,300 nationally. The average apartment rental was $658 per month. In March 2009, CNN ranked Knoxville
Knoxville
as the 59th city in the top 100 US metro areas in terms of real estate price depreciation.

The Knoxville
Knoxville
area is home to 596 office buildings which contain over 21 million square feet of office space. As of 2010, the average rental rate per square foot was $14.79. The city's largest office building in terms of office space is the City-County Building , which has over 537,000 square feet of office space. The First Tennessee Plaza and the Riverview Tower
Riverview Tower
were the largest privately owned office buildings, with 469,672 square feet and 367,000 square feet, respectively.

Knoxville's largest industrial park is the 1,460-acre (590 ha) Forks of the River Industrial Park in southeastern Knoxville. Other major industrial parks include the 800-acre (320 ha) EastBridge Industrial Park in eastern Knox County and the 271-acre (110 ha) WestBridge Industrial Park in western Knox County.

FINANCE

The largest bank operating in Knoxville
Knoxville
in terms of local deposits is Memphis-based First Tennessee
Tennessee
, which reported over $2.6 billion in local deposits in 2011, representing about 16% of Knoxville's banking market. They are followed by Atlanta-based SunTrust ($2.5 billion), Birmingham-based Regions Bank ($1.9 billion), locally headquartered Home Federal Bank of Tennessee
Tennessee
($1.6 billion), and Winston-Salem-based BB&T
BB&T
($1.4 billion). Other banks with significant operations in the city include Bank of America
Bank of America
, First Bank (based in Lexington, Tennessee
Tennessee
), and locally owned Clayton Bank and Trust.

Major brokerage firms with offices in Knoxville
Knoxville
include Edward Jones , Morgan Stanley Smith Barney , Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo
, and Merrill Lynch
Merrill Lynch
. As of 2011, Knox County's largest mortgage lender (by dollar volume) was Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo
with over $300 million (13% of the local market), followed by Mortgage Investors Group, SunTrust, Regions, and Home Federal. Knoxville's largest accounting firm as of 2012 is Pershing Yoakley & Associates, with 49 local CPAs , followed by Coulter "> Tennessee Theatre See also: Music of East Tennessee
Tennessee

Knoxville
Knoxville
is home to a rich arts community and has many festivals throughout the year. Its contributions to old-time, bluegrass and country music are numerous, from Flatt & Scruggs and Homer "> The city is also known as a venue for Sergei Rachmaninoff
Sergei Rachmaninoff
's final concert in 1943.

In its May 2003 "20 Most Rock "> In the 1990s, noted alternative-music critic Ann Powers, author of Weird Like Us: My Bohemian America, referred to the city as "Austin without the hype".

The city also hosts numerous art festivals, including the 17-day Dogwood Arts Festival in April, which features art shows, crafts fairs, food and live music. Also in April is the Rossini Festival, which celebrates opera and Italian culture. June's Kuumba (meaning creativity in Swahili ) Festival commemorates the region's African American heritage and showcases visual arts, folk arts, dance, games, music, storytelling, theater, and food. Autumn on the Square showcases national and local artists in outdoor concert series at historic Market Square, which has been revitalized with specialty shops and residences.

EVENTS

The Knoxville
Knoxville
Christmas in the City
City
event runs for eight weeks of events at locations throughout the city including the Singing Christmas Tree and ice skating on the Holidays on Ice skating rink.

* Asian Festival * Bacon Fest * Big Ears Festival * Big KnoxVenture Race * Biscuit Festival * Boo At The Zoo * Boomsday
Boomsday
* Brewfest * Corvette Expo * Destination ImagiNation
Destination ImagiNation
Global Finals * Dogwood Arts Festival * East Tennessee
Tennessee
Chili Cookoff * Fantasy of Trees * Feast With the Beasts at Knoxville
Knoxville
Zoo * Festival on the Fourth * Great Knoxville
Knoxville
Rubber Duck Race * GreekFest * Hank Days * Hola Festival * Holi Festival * Honda Hoot * IndiaFest * International Festival * International Biscuit Festival * Knoxville
Knoxville
Brewers' Jam * Knoxville
Knoxville
Lindy Exchange * Knoxville
Knoxville
Marathon * Knoxville
Knoxville
Pride Festival * Kuumba Festival * Market Square Farmers' Market * Medal of Honor Convention * NSRA Street Rod Nationals South * Pride Fest * Rhythm "> Krutch Park in Downtown Knoxville
Knoxville

* Beck Cultural Exchange Center * Bijou Theatre * Bleak House * William Blount
William Blount
Mansion * Fountain City
City
Art Center * Candoro Marble Works
Candoro Marble Works
* Civic Coliseum * Fort Dickerson * Haley Heritage Square * Ijams Nature Center * James White\'s Fort * Knoxville
Knoxville
Botanical Gardens and Arboretum * Knoxville
Knoxville
Convention Center * Knoxville
Knoxville
Greenways * Knoxville
Knoxville
Museum of Art * Knoxville
Knoxville
Police Museum * Zoo Knoxville
Knoxville
* Mabry-Hazen House
Mabry-Hazen House
* Marble Springs * Market Square * Frank H. McClung Museum * Museum of East Tennessee
Tennessee
History * National Register of Historic Places, Knox County, Tennessee
Tennessee
* Old City
City
* Ramsey House * Sunsphere
Sunsphere
* Tennessee
Tennessee
Amphitheater * Tennessee
Tennessee
River Boat * Tennessee
Tennessee
Theatre * Three Rivers Rambler
Three Rivers Rambler
Train Ride * Volunteer Landing * Women\'s Basketball Hall of Fame * World\'s Fair Park

MEDIA

See also: List of newspapers in Tennessee
Tennessee
, List of radio stations in Tennessee
Tennessee
, and List of television stations in Tennessee
Tennessee

The Knoxville
Knoxville
News Sentinel is the local daily newspaper in Knoxville, with a daily circulation of 97,844 and a Sunday circulation of 124,225, as of 2011. The city is home to several weekly, bi-weekly, and monthly publications.

As of 2011, the Knoxville
Knoxville
television market was the 61st-largest in the U.S. with 527,790 homes, according to Nielsen Market Research. The largest local television station is NBC affiliate WBIR , with 28,305 viewing households, followed by ABC affiliate WATE (23,559), CBS affiliate WVLT (20,052), Fox affiliate WTNZ (10,319), and CW affiliate WBXX (5,415). Other local stations include WKNX-TV (RTV ) and WPXK (Ion ). East Tennessee
Tennessee
PBS operates Knoxville's Public Broadcasting Service station at WKOP 17.

Locally headquartered Scripps Networks Interactive
Scripps Networks Interactive
operates several cable television networks, including HGTV
HGTV
, DIY Network
DIY Network
, Food Network , Cooking Channel , Travel Channel
Travel Channel
and Great American Country
Great American Country
. Jewelry Television
Jewelry Television
, a home shopping channel, is also based in the city.

According to Arbitron
Arbitron
's 2011 Radio Market Rankings, Knoxville
Knoxville
had the nation's 72nd largest radio market, with 684,700 households. In 2010, Country music
Country music
station WIVK (107.7 FM) had the market's highest AQH Share at 16.3, followed by adult contemporary station WJXB (97.5 FM) at 10.1, and news/talk station WCYQ (100.3 FM) at 8.3. Other stations include Rock music
Rock music
stations WIMZ (103.5 FM) and WNFZ (94.3), Rhythmic Top 40 station WKHT (104.5 FM), contemporary hit station WWST (102.1 FM), and National Public Radio
National Public Radio
station WUOT (91.9 FM). The University of Tennessee
Tennessee
radio station operates under WUTK (90.3 FM). "East Tennessee's Own" listener supported radio station, WDVX
WDVX
, plays traditional country, bluegrass, Americana, and local favorites. Community low power radio station WOZO-LP at 103.9 FM began broadcasting an eclectic mix of music and news from a modest studio in the 4th and Gill neighborhood in June 2015.

REFERENCES IN POPULAR CULTURE

* The 1999 film October Sky
October Sky
was filmed in Knoxville
Knoxville
as well as several counties in east Tennessee, * The 2000 film Road Trip was partially filmed at the University of Tennessee
Tennessee
campus downtown. * The film Box of Moonlight , starring John Turturro and Sam Rockwell, was filmed and takes place in and around Knoxville. * The March 31, 1996 episode of The Simpsons
The Simpsons
, entitled Bart on the Road , features Bart and his friends renting a car and driving to Knoxville
Knoxville
after finding a promotional brochure for the city's 1982 World\'s Fair . * Several scenes from the 2004 film The Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things were shot in Knoxville.

Other references to Knoxville
Knoxville
in literature and music include:

* " Suttree
Suttree
", a 1979 semi-autobiographical novel by Knoxville
Knoxville
native Cormac McCarthy
Cormac McCarthy
is set in the city. * " Knoxville
Knoxville
Courthouse Blues", Hank Williams, Jr.
Hank Williams, Jr.
, 1984. * " The Ballad of Thunder Road ", Robert Mitchum
Robert Mitchum
, 1957. Lyrics reference Knoxville's Bearden community. * "The Knoxville
Knoxville
Girl ", first recorded in 1924. traditional Appalachian ballad . * "Knoxville: Summer of 1915 ", Samuel Barber
Samuel Barber
, 1947 voice "> Knoxville
Knoxville
Fire Department Engine 1

Knoxville
Knoxville
is governed by a mayor and nine-member City
City
Council. It uses the strong-mayor form of the mayor-council system . The council consists of six members elected from single-member districts and three members elected at-large for the entire city. The council chooses from among its members the vice mayor (currently Duane Grieve), the Beer Board chairperson (currently Brenda Palmer), and a representative to the Knoxville
Knoxville
Transportation Authority (currently Daniel Brown). The City
City
Council meets every other Tuesday at 7 p.m. in the Main Assembly Room of the City
City
County Building .

The current mayor is Madeline Rogero
Madeline Rogero
, who was sworn in as the city's first female mayor on December 17, 2011. She replaces interim mayor Daniel Brown . Brown, the first African-American to hold the office, had been appointed in January 2011 following the resignation of Bill Haslam , who was elected Governor of Tennessee. Other recent mayors include Haslam's predecessor, Victor Ashe (1987−2003), Kyle Testerman (1972−1975, 1984−1987), and Randy Tyree (1976−1983). List of mayors of Knoxville, Tennessee
Tennessee

* Thomas Emmerson , 1816-1817 * James Park, 1818-1821 * William C. Mynatt, 1822-1823, 1827, 1835-1836 * James Park, 1824-1826 * Joseph Churchill Strong, 1828-1831 * Donald McIntosh, 1832-1833 * Solomon D. Jacobs, 1834-1835 * Frederick Steidinger Heiskell, 1835 * James King, 1837 * William Baine Alexander Ramsey, 1838-1839 * Samuel Bell, 1840-1841, 1844-1845 * Gideon Morgan Hazen, 1842 * Matthew Moore Gaines, 1843 * Joseph Lewis King, 1846 * Samuel B. Boyd, 1847-1851 * George McNutt White, 1852-1853 * James C. Luttrell , 1854, 1859-1867 * William Graham Swan , 1855-1856 * James Harvey Cowan, 1856, 1858 * Thomas J. Powell, 1857 * Samuel Davies Carrick White, 1857 * Albert Morgan Piper, 1858 * Charles James McClung, 1858 * Joseph Jaques, 1858, 1878 * James M. White, 1858 * Marcus DeLafayette Bearden, 1868-1869 * John Somers Van Gilder, 1870-1872 * William Rule , 1873, 1898-1899 * Peter Staub , 1874-1875, 1881-1882 * Daniel A. Carpenter, 1876-1877 * Samuel Bell Luttrell, 1879 * Hardy Bryan Branner, 1880 * Reuben S. Payne, 1882 * William Clark Fulcher, 1883-1884 * James Churchwell Luttrell, III, 1885-1887 * Martin Condon , 1888-1889 * Peter Kern , 1890-1891 * M. E. Thompson, 1892-1895 * Samuel Gordon Heiskell, 1896-1897, 1900-1901, 1906-1907, 1910-1915 * Joseph Tedford McTeer, 1902-1903 * John Paul Murphy, 1904 * William H. Gass, 1904-1905 * John McMillan Brooks, 1908-1909 * Sam E. Hill, 1912 * John Edgar McMillan, 1916-1919 * Ernest Wesley Neal, 1920-1923 * Benjamin A. Morton, 1924-1927 * James Alexander Fowler
James Alexander Fowler
, 1928-1929 * James A. Trent, 1930-1931 * John T. O'Connor, 1932-1935 * James W. Elmore, 1936-1937 * Walter W. Mynatt, 1938-1939 * Frederick Leland "Fred" Allen, 1940-1941 * Fred R. Stair, 1942-1943 * Erastus Eugene Patton, 1944-1945 * Cas Walker
Cas Walker
, 1946, 1959 * Edward L. Chavannes, 1946-1947 * James W. Elmore, Jr., 1948-1951 * George Roby Dempster , 1952-1955 * Jack W. Dance, 1956-1959 * John Duncan Sr.
John Duncan Sr.
, 1959-1964 * Robert L. Crossley, 1964 * Leonard Reid Rogers, 1965-1971 * Kyle Testerman , 1972-1975, 1984-1987 * Randy Tyree , 1976-1983 * Victor Ashe , 1988-2003 * Bill Haslam
Bill Haslam
, 2003-2011 * Daniel Brown , 2011 * Madeline Rogero
Madeline Rogero
, 2011-present

The Knoxville
Knoxville
Fire Department (KFD) provides Class 2 ISO service inside the city limits. The fire department operates 19 stations with 308 uniformed personnel. KFD provides firefighting, first responder EMS response, vehicle extrication and HazMat response within the city limits.

The Knoxville
Knoxville
Police Department serves the citizens of Knoxville
Knoxville
with 378 officers and a total of 530 employees.

911 ambulance service inside Knoxville
Knoxville
is provided by Rural/Metro Ambulance under contract with Knox County.

Knoxville
Knoxville
is home to the Tennessee
Tennessee
Supreme Court 's courthouse for East Tennessee
Tennessee
.

EDUCATION

The University of Tennessee
Tennessee
at Knoxville
Knoxville
is the state's flagship public university.

Knoxville
Knoxville
is home to the main campus of the University of Tennessee (UTK), which has operated in the city since the 1790s. As of 2011, UTK had an enrollment of over 27,000 and endowments of over $300 million. The school employs over 1,300 instructional faculty, and offers more than 300 degree programs.

Pellissippi State Community College
Pellissippi State Community College
is a two-year school governed by the Tennessee
Tennessee
Board of Regents that offers transfer programs, two-year degrees, and certificate programs. Its main campus is located off Pellissippi Parkway
Pellissippi Parkway
in western Knox County. As of 2011, the school had a system-wide enrollment of over 11,000 students,

Johnson University
Johnson University
(formerly Johnson Bible College) is a Bible college affiliated with the Christian churches and churches of Christ . As of 2012, the school had an enrollment of 845. Johnson traditionally specializes in training preachers and ministers, but also offers degrees in counseling, teaching, and nonprofit management.

South College
South College
(formerly Knoxville
Knoxville
Business College) is a for-profit school located in West Knoxville
Knoxville
that offers undergraduate and graduate programs in business, health care, criminal justice, and legal fields. The school had an enrollment of 717 as of 2010.

Knoxville
Knoxville
College is a historically black college that has operated in Knoxville
Knoxville
since the 1870s. The school offers a Bachelor of Science in Liberal Studies and an Associate of Arts degree. Knoxville
Knoxville
College had an enrollment of about 100 students as of 2010.

Institutions with branch campuses in Knoxville
Knoxville
include ITT Technical Institute , King University
King University
, Lincoln Memorial University (namely, the Duncan School of Law), National College of Business "> The James White Parkway connects I-40 with Downtown Knoxville.

The two principal interstate highways serving Knoxville
Knoxville
are Interstate 40
Interstate 40
, which connects the city to Asheville (directly) and Bristol (via I-81) to the east and Nashville to the west, and Interstate 75 , which connects the city to Chattanooga to the south and Lexington to the north. The two interstates merge just west of Knoxville
Knoxville
near Dixie Lee Junction and diverge as they approach the Downtown area, with I-40 continuing on through the Downtown area and I-75 turning north. Interstate 640 provides a bypass for I-40 travellers, and Interstate 275 provides a faster connection to I-75 for Downtown travellers headed north. A spur route of I-40, Interstate 140 (Pellissippi Parkway), connects West Knoxville
Knoxville
with McGhee Tyson Airport .

Knoxville's busiest road is a stretch of U.S. Route 129 known as Alcoa Highway, which connects the Downtown area with McGhee Tyson Airport. A merged stretch of US-70 and US-11 enters the city from the east along Magnolia Avenue, winds its way through the Downtown area, crosses the U.T. campus along Cumberland Avenue ("The Strip"), and proceeds through West Knoxville
Knoxville
along Kingston Pike
Kingston Pike
. US-441 , which connects Knoxville
Knoxville
to the Great Smoky Mountains
Great Smoky Mountains
National Park, passes along Broadway in North Knoxville, Henley Street in the Downtown area, and Chapman Highway in South Knoxville. US-25W connects Knoxville
Knoxville
with Clinton . Bridges over the Tennessee
Tennessee
River

Tennessee
Tennessee
State Route 158 loops around the Downtown area from Kingston Pike
Kingston Pike
just west of U.T.'s campus, southward and eastward along Neyland Drive and the riverfront, and northward along the James White Parkway before terminating at I-40. TN-168 , known as Governor John Sevier Highway, runs along the eastern and southern periphery of the city. TN-162 (Pellissippi Parkway) connects West Knoxville
Knoxville
with Oak Ridge . TN-331 (Tazewell Pike) connects the Fountain City
City
area to rural northeast Knox County. TN-332 (Northshore Drive) connects West Knoxville
Knoxville
and Concord . TN-33 (Maryville Pike) traverses much of South Knoxville.

Four vehicle bridges connect Downtown Knoxville
Knoxville
with South Knoxville, namely the South Knoxville
Knoxville
Bridge (James White Parkway), the Gay Street Bridge (Gay Street ), the Henley Street Bridge
Henley Street Bridge
, or Henley Bridge (Henley Street), and the J. E. "Buck" Karnes Bridge (Alcoa Highway). Two railroad bridges, located between the Henley Street Bridge and Buck Karnes Bridge, serve the CSX and Northfolk Southern railroads. Smaller bridges radiating out from the downtown area include the Western Avenue Viaduct and Clinch Avenue Viaduct, the Robert Booker Bridge (Summit Hill Drive), the Hill Avenue Viaduct, and the Gay Street Viaduct.

MASS TRANSIT

Public transportation is provided by Knoxville
Knoxville
Area Transit (KAT) , which operates over 80 buses, road trolleys , and paratransit vehicles, and transports more than 3.6 million passengers per year. Regular routes connect the Downtown area, U.T., and most residential areas with major shopping centers throughout the city. KAT operates using city, state, and federal funds, and passenger fares, and is managed by Veolia Transport
Veolia Transport
.

AIRPORTS

Knoxville
Knoxville
and the surrounding area is served by McGhee Tyson Airport ( IATA
IATA
:TYS), a 2,000-acre (810 ha) airport equipped with twin 9,000-foot (2,700 m) runways. The airport is located south of Knoxville
Knoxville
in Alcoa , but is owned by the non-profit Metropolitan Knoxville
Knoxville
Airport Authority (MKAA). McGhee Tyson offers 8 major airlines serving 19 non-stop destinations, and averages 120 arrivals and departures per day. The airport includes the 21-acre (8.5 ha) Air Cargo Complex, which serves FedEx, UPS, and Airborne Express. The McGhee Tyson Air National Guard Base
McGhee Tyson Air National Guard Base
, located adjacent to the civilian airport, is home to the Tennessee
Tennessee
National Guard 's 134th Air Refueling Wing .

The MKAA also owns the Downtown Island Airport , a 200-acre (81 ha) general aviation facility located on Dickinson's Island in southeast Knoxville. This airport is equipped with a 3,500-foot (1,100 m) runway, and averages about 225 operations per day. Over 100 aircraft, mostly single-engine planes, are based at the airport.

RAILROADS

Knoxville
Knoxville
and Holston River
Holston River
Railroad MP15AC #2002 leads a train through Tyson Park near downtown Knoxville.

Rail freight in Knoxville
Knoxville
is handled by two Class I railroads , CSX and Norfolk Southern
Norfolk Southern
, and one shortline , the Knoxville
Knoxville
and Holston River Railroad . Railroads account for about 12% of the Knoxville area's outbound freight and 16% of the area's inbound freight. The city has two major rail terminals: the Burkhart Enterprises terminal at the Forks of the River Industrial Park just east of the city, and the TransFlo facility adjacent to the U.T. campus. Knoxville's two old passenger stations, the Southern Terminal and the L">

* ^ In 1915, 1921, 1990, and 2013, no day the entire year remained at or below freezing. * ^ This contributed to the winter of 1959−60 being the snowiest on record, with a total of 56.7 in (144 cm). On the other extreme, five winters, most recently 2007−08, have recorded only a trace of snowfall. * ^ Official records for Knoxville
Knoxville
kept January 1871 to February 1942 at downtown and at McGhee Tyson Airport since March 1942. For more information, see Threadex

REFERENCES

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