Kip Stephen Thorne (born June 1, 1940) is an American theoretical
physicist and Nobel laureate, known for his contributions in
gravitational physics and astrophysics. A longtime friend and
Stephen Hawking and Carl Sagan, he was the Feynman
Professor of Theoretical Physics at the California Institute of
Technology (Caltech) until 2009 and is one of the world's leading
experts on the astrophysical implications of Einstein's general theory
of relativity. He continues to do scientific research and scientific
consulting, most notably for the
Christopher Nolan film
In 2017, Thorne was awarded the
Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics along with
Rainer Weiss and
Barry C. Barish
Barry C. Barish "for decisive contributions to the
LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves".
1 Life and career
Gravitational waves and LIGO
Black hole cosmology
2.3 Wormholes and time travel
2.4 Relativistic stars, multipole moments and other endeavors
4 Honors and awards
5 Adaptation in media
6 Partial bibliography
7 See also
10 External links
Life and career
Discussion in the main lecture hall at the École de Physique des
Houches (Les Houches Physics School), 1972. From left, Yuval Ne'eman,
Bryce DeWitt, Thorne, Demetrios Christodoulou.
Thorne was born in
Logan, Utah on June 1, 1940. His father was a
chemist, his mother Alison (née Comish) Thorne, was an economist and
the first woman to receive a
Ph.D. in the discipline from Iowa State
College. Raised in an academic environment, two of his four
siblings also became professors. Thorne's parents were members
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and
raised Thorne in the LDS faith, though he now describes himself as
atheist. Regarding his views on science and religion, Thorne has
stated: "There are large numbers of my finest colleagues who are quite
devout and believe in God [...] There is no fundamental
incompatibility between science and religion. I happen to not believe
Thorne rapidly excelled at academics early in life, winning
recognition in the Westinghouse Science Talent Search as a senior at
Logan High School and becoming one of the youngest full professors in
the history of the
California Institute of Technology
California Institute of Technology at age 30.
He received his B.S. degree from
Caltech in 1962, and
Princeton University in 1965. He wrote his doctoral thesis,
Geometrodynamics of Cylindrical Systems, under the supervision of
relativist John Wheeler. Thorne returned to
Caltech as an associate
professor in 1967 and became a professor of theoretical physics in
1970, the William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor in 1981, and the
Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics in 1991. He was an adjunct
professor at the
University of Utah
University of Utah from 1971 to 1998 and Andrew D.
White Professor at Large at
Cornell University from 1986 to 1992.
In June 2009 he resigned his Feynman Professorship (he is now the
Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics, Emeritus) to pursue a career
of writing and movie making. His first film project
was Interstellar, on which he worked with
Christopher Nolan and
Throughout the years, Thorne has served as a mentor and thesis advisor
for many leading theorists who now work on observational,
experimental, or astrophysical aspects of general relativity.
Approximately 50 physicists have received Ph.D.s at
Thorne's personal mentorship.
Thorne is known for his ability to convey the excitement and
significance of discoveries in gravitation and astrophysics to both
professional and lay audiences. In 1999, Thorne made some speculations
on what the 21st century will find as the answers to the following
Is there a "dark side of the universe" populated by objects such as
Can we observe the birth of the universe and its dark side using
radiation made from space-time warpage, or so-called "gravitational
Will 21st century technology reveal quantum behavior in the realm of
His presentations on subjects such as black holes, gravitational
radiation, relativity, time travel, and wormholes have been included
PBS shows in the U.S. and in the United Kingdom on the BBC.
Thorne and Linda Jean Peterson married in 1960. Their children are
Kares Anne and Bret Carter, an architect. Thorne and Peterson divorced
in 1977. Thorne and his second wife, Carolee Joyce Winstein, a
professor of biokinesiology and physical therapy at USC, married in
Thorne in 1972
Thorne's research has principally focused on relativistic astrophysics
and gravitation physics, with emphasis on relativistic stars, black
holes and especially gravitational waves. He is perhaps best known
to the public for his controversial theory that wormholes can
conceivably be used for time travel. However, Thorne's scientific
contributions, which center on the general nature of space, time, and
gravity, span the full range of topics in general relativity.
Gravitational waves and LIGO
Thorne's work has dealt with the prediction of gravitational wave
strengths and their temporal signatures as observed on Earth. These
"signatures" are of great relevance to
LIGO (Laser Interferometer
Gravitational Wave Observatory), a multi-institution gravitational
wave experiment for which Thorne has been a leading proponent – in
1984, he cofounded the
LIGO Project (the largest project ever funded
by the NSF) to discern and measure any fluctuations between two or
more 'static' points; such fluctuations would be evidence of
gravitational waves, as calculations describe. A significant aspect of
his research is developing the mathematics necessary to analyze these
objects. Thorne also carries out engineering design analyses for
features of the
LIGO that cannot be developed on the basis of
experiment and he gives advice on data analysis algorithms by which
the waves will be sought. He has provided theoretical support for
LIGO, including identifying gravitational wave sources that LIGO
should target, designing the baffles to control scattered light in the
LIGO beam tubes, and – in collaboration with Vladimir Braginsky's
(Moscow, Russia) research group – inventing quantum nondemolition
designs for advanced gravity-wave detectors and ways to reduce the
most serious kind of noise in advanced detectors: thermoelastic noise.
With Carlton M. Caves, Thorne invented the back-action-evasion
approach to quantum nondemolition measurements of the harmonic
oscillators – a technique applicable both in gravitational wave
detection and quantum optics.
On February 11, 2016, a team of four physicists[a] representing the
LIGO Scientific Collaboration, announced that in September 2015, LIGO
recorded the signature of two black holes colliding 1.3 billion
light-years away. This recorded detection was the first direct
observation of the fleeting chirp of a gravitational wave and
confirmed an important prediction of Einstein’s general theory of
Black hole cosmology
Main article: Hoop conjecture
A cylindrical bundle of magnetic field lines
While he was studying for
Ph.D. in Princeton University, his mentor
John Wheeler gave him an assignment problem for him to think over:
find out whether or not a cylindrical bundle of repulsive magnetic
field lines will implode under its own attractive gravitational force.
After several months wrestling with the problem, he proved that it was
impossible for cylindrical magnetic field lines to
Why is it that a cylindrical bundle of magnetic field lines will not
implode, while spherical stars will implode under their own
gravitational force? Thorne tried to explore the theoretical ridge
between the two phenomena. He found out eventually that the
gravitational force can overcome all interior pressure only when an
object has been compressed in all directions. To express this
realization, Thorne proposed his hoop conjecture, which describes an
imploding star turning into a black hole when the critical
circumference of the designed hoop can be placed around it and set
into rotation. That is, any object of mass M around which a hoop of
displaystyle begin matrix frac 4pi GM c^ 2 end matrix
can be spun must be a black hole.:266–267:189–190
As a tool to be used in both enterprises, astrophysics and theoretical
physics, Thorne and his students have developed an unusual approach,
called the "membrane paradigm", to the theory of black holes and used
it to clarify the "Blandford-Znajek" mechanism by which black holes
may power some quasars and active galactic nuclei.:405–411
Thorne has investigated the quantum statistical mechanical origin of
the entropy of a black hole. With his postdoc Wojciech Zurek, he
showed that the entropy of a black hole is the logarithm of the number
of ways that the hole could have been made.:445–446
With Igor Novikov and Don Page he developed the general relativistic
theory of thin accretion disks around black holes, and using this
theory he deduced that with a doubling of its mass by such accretion a
black hole will be spun up to 0.998 of the maximum spin allowed by
general relativity, but not any farther. This is probably the maximum
black-hole spin allowed in nature.
Wormholes and time travel
A wormhole is a short cut connecting two separate regions in space. In
the figure the green line shows the short way through wormhole, and
the red line shows the long way through normal space.
Thorne and his co-workers at
Caltech conducted scientific research on
whether the laws of physics permit space and time to be multiply
connected (can there exist classical, traversable wormholes and "time
machines"?). With Sung-Won Kim, Thorne identified a universal
physical mechanism (the explosive growth of vacuum polarization of
quantum fields), that may always prevent spacetime from developing
closed timelike curves (i.e., prevent backward time travel).
With Mike Morris and Ulvi Yurtsever he showed that traversable
Lorentzian wormholes can exist in the structure of spacetime only if
they are threaded by quantum fields in quantum states that violate the
averaged null energy condition (i.e. have negative renormalized energy
spread over a sufficiently large region). This has triggered
research to explore the ability of quantum fields to possess such
extended negative energy. Recent calculations by Thorne indicate that
simple masses passing through traversable wormholes could never
engender paradoxes – there are no initial conditions that lead to
paradox once time travel is introduced. If his results can be
generalized, they would suggest that none of the supposed paradoxes
formulated in time travel stories can actually be formulated at a
precise physical level: that is, that any situation in a time travel
story turns out to permit many consistent solutions.
Relativistic stars, multipole moments and other endeavors
With Anna Żytkow, Thorne predicted the existence of red supergiant
stars with neutron-star cores (Thorne–Żytkow objects). He laid
the foundations for the theory of pulsations of relativistic stars and
the gravitational radiation they emit. With James Hartle, Thorne
derived from general relativity the laws of motion and precession of
black holes and other relativistic bodies, including the influence of
the coupling of their multipole moments to the spacetime curvature of
nearby objects. Thorne has also theoretically predicted the
existence of universally antigravitating "exotic matter" – the
element needed to accelerate the expansion rate of the universe, keep
traversable wormhole "Star Gates" open and keep timelike geodesic free
float "warp drives" working. With Clifford Will and others of his
students, he laid the foundations for the theoretical interpretation
of experimental tests of relativistic theories of gravity –
foundations on which Will and others then built. As of 2005[update],
Thorne was interested in the origin of classical space and time from
the quantum foam of quantum gravity theory.
Thorne has written and edited books on topics in gravitational theory
and high-energy astrophysics. In 1973, he co-authored the textbook
Charles Misner and John Wheeler; that according
John C. Baez and Chris Hillman, is one of the great scientific
books of all time and has inspired two generations of students. In
1994, he published Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous
Legacy, a book for non-scientists for which he received numerous
awards. This book has been published in six languages, and editions in
Chinese, Italian, Czech, and Polish are in press.[when?] In 2014,
The Science of Interstellar
The Science of Interstellar in which he explains the
science behind Christopher Nolan's film Interstellar; Nolan wrote the
foreword to the book. In September, 2017, Thorne and Roger D.
Blandford published Modern Classical Physics: Optics, Fluids, Plasmas,
Elasticity, Relativity, and Statistical Physics, a graduate-level
textbook covering the six major areas of physics listed in the
Thorne's articles has appeared in publications such as:
McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, and
Collier's Encyclopediaamong others.
Thorne has published more than 150 articles in scholarly
Honors and awards
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Thorne has been elected to:
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1972)
the National Academy of Sciences,
the Russian Academy of Sciences, and
the American Philosophical Society.
He has been recognized by numerous awards including:
American Institute of Physics
American Institute of Physics Science Writing Award in Physics and
the Phi Beta Kappa Science Writing Award,
the American Physical Society's Lilienfeld Prize,
the German Astronomical Society's
Karl Schwarzschild Medal (1996),
the Robinson Prize in Cosmology from the University of Newcastle,
the Sigma Xi: The Scientific Research Society's Common Wealth Awards
for Science and Invention, and
the California Science Center's California Scientist of the Year Award
Albert Einstein Medal in 2009 from the
Albert Einstein Society,
UNESCO Niels Bohr Medal from
UNESCO (2010) 
Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics
Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics (2016)
Gruber Prize in Cosmology (2016)
Shaw Prize (2016) (together with
Ronald Drever and Rainer
Kavli Prize in
Astrophysics (2016) (together with Ronald Drever
and Rainer Weiss).
the Tomalla Prize (2016) for extraordinary contributions to general
relativity and gravity.
Georges Lemaître Prize (2016)
Harvey Prize (2016) (together with
Ronald Drever and Rainer
Princess of Asturias Award
Princess of Asturias Award (2017) (jointly with
Rainer Weiss and
Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics (2017) (jointly with
Rainer Weiss and Barry
He has been a Woodrow Wilson Fellow, Danforth Fellow, Guggenheim
Fellow, and Fulbright Fellow. He has also received the honorary degree
of doctor of humane letters from Claremont Graduate University.
He was elected to hold Lorentz chair for the year 2009 Leiden
University, the Netherlands.
Thorne has served on:
the International Committee on General Relativity and Gravitation,
the Committee on US-USSR Cooperation in Physics, and
the National Academy of Sciences'
Space Science Board, which has
NASA and Congress on space science policy.
Kip Thorne was selected by Time magazine in an annual list of the 100
most influential people in the American world in 2016.
Adaptation in media
Thorne contributed ideas on wormhole travel to
Carl Sagan for use in
his novel Contact.
Thorne and his friend, producer Lynda Obst, also developed the concept
Christopher Nolan film Interstellar. He also wrote a
tie-in book, The Science of Interstellar.
In Larry Niven's novel Rainbow Mars, the time travel technology used
in the novel is based on the wormhole theories of Thorne, which in the
context of the novel was when time travel first became possible,
rather than just fantasy. As a result, any attempts to travel in time
prior to Thorne's development of wormhole theory results in the time
traveller entering a fantastic version of reality, rather than the
In the film The Theory of Everything, Thorne was portrayed by actor
Thorne, K. S., in 300 Years of Gravitation, (Eds.) S. W. Hawking and
W. Israel, 1987, (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press), Gravitational
Thorne, K. S., Price, R. H. and Macdonald, D. M., Black Holes, The
Membrane Paradigm, 1986, (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press).
Friedman, J., Morris, M. S., Novikov, I. D., Echeverria, F.,
Klinkhammer, G., Thorne, K. S. and Yurtsever, U., Physical Review D.,
1990, (in press), Cauchy Problem in Spacetimes with Closed Timelike
^ The announcement team were Thorne, David Reitze, Gabriela González,
Rainer Weiss, and France A. Córdova.
^ "einstein medal". Einstein-bern.ch. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
^ "Kip Stephen Thorne".
Mathematics Geneaogy Project. North Dakota
State University. Retrieved 6 Sep 2016.
^ a b c d e f "Kip S. Thorne: Biographical Sketch". Information
Technology Services. California Institute of Technology. Retrieved
January 6, 2013.
^ Kevin P. Sullivan (December 16, 2013). "Christopher Nolan's
'Interstellar' Trailer: Watch Now". MTV. Retrieved October 30,
^ "Watch Exclusive:
The Science of Interstellar
The Science of Interstellar - WIRED - WIRED Video
- CNE". WIRED Videos. Archived from the original on 5 December 2014.
Retrieved 7 December 2014.
Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics 2017". The Nobel Foundation. 3 October
2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
^ Rincon, Paul; Amos, Jonathan (3 October 2017). "Einstein's waves win
BBC News. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
^ Overbye, Dennis (3 October 2017). "2017
Nobel Prize in Physics
LIGO Black Hole Researchers". The New York Times. Retrieved
3 October 2017.
^ Kaiser, David (3 October 2017). "Learning from Gravitational Waves".
The New York Times. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
^ Grant Kimm, Webmaster - The College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at
Iowa State University. "Plaza of Heroines at Iowa State University".
Las.iastate.edu. Archived from the original on 14 August 2015.
Retrieved 7 December 2014.
^ Jones, Zachary (2011). "D. Wynne Thorne Papers, 1936-1983". Archives
West. Orbis Cascade Alliance.
^ "Dr. Alison Comish Thorne". Legacy.com. The Salt Lake Tribune
Obituaries. 26 Oct 2004. Retrieved 7 Sep 2016.
^ Rory Carroll (21 June 2013). "Kip Thorne: physicist studying time
travel tapped for Hollywood film". Guardian News and Media Limited.
Retrieved 30 October 2014. Thorne grew up in an academic, Mormon
family in Utah but is now an atheist. "There are large numbers of my
finest colleagues who are quite devout and believe in God, ranging
from an abstract humanist God to a very concrete Catholic or Mormon
God. There is no fundamental incompatibility between science and
religion. I happen to not believe in God."
^ Piper, Matthew (3 October 2017). "Utah-born
Kip Thorne wins the
Nobel Prize in physics for his role in detecting gravitational waves".
The Salt Lake Tribune.
^ Thorne, Kip Stephen (1965).
Geometrodynamics of cylindrical systems
(Ph.D.). Princeton University. OCLC 760240072 – via ProQuest.
(Subscription required (help)).
^ "Kip S. Thorne". history.aip.org.
Spacetime Warps and the Quantum: A Glimpse of the Future". THE KITP
PUBLIC LECTURE SERIES. KAVLI INSTITUTE FOR THEORETICAL PHYSICS.
^ Kip, Thorne (24 Feb 1999). "Space-Time Warps and the Quantum: A
Glimpse of the Future". KITP Public Lectures. KAVLI INSTITUTE FOR
^ Kondrashov, Veronica. "Kip S. Thorne: Curriculum Vitae". Kip S.
Thorn. California Institute of Technology.
^ Cofield, Cala (19 Dec 2014). "Time Travel and Wormholes:Physicist
Kip Thorne's Wildest Theories". Space.com.
^ "LIGO: The Search for Gravitational Waves". National Science
Foundation. Retrieved 9 Sep 2016.
LIGO is the largest single
enterprise undertaken by NSF, with capital investments of nearly $300
million and operating costs of more than $30 million/year.
^ "Catching waves with Kip Thorne". Plus Magazine. December 1, 2001
^ "Gravitational Waves Detected 100 Years After Einstein's
Prediction". ligo.caltech.edu. 11 February 2016.
^ Twilley, Nicola. "Gravitational Waves Exist: The Inside Story of How
Scientists Finally Found Them". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X.
^ Abbott, B.P.; et al. (2016). "Observation of Gravitational Waves
from a Binary Black Hole Merger".
Phys. Rev. Lett. 116: 061102.
arXiv:1602.03837 . Bibcode:2016PhRvL.116f1102A.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102. PMID 26918975.
^ Naeye, Robert (11 February 2016). "Gravitational Wave Detection
Heralds New Era of Science". Sky and Telescope. Retrieved 11 February
^ Castelvecchi, Davide; Witze, Alexandra (11 February 2016).
"Einstein's gravitational waves found at last". Nature News.
doi:10.1038/nature.2016.19361. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
^ a b c d Kip S. Thorne (1994). Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein's
Outrageous Legacy. W.W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-31276-8.
^ V. Frolov; I. Novikov (6 December 2012). Black Hole Physics: Basic
Concepts and New Developments. Springer Science & Business Media.
^ "How to build a time machine". Paul Davies. Scientific American. 1
February 2006. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
^ Kim, Sung-Won; Thorne, Kip S. (1991). "Do vacuum fluctuations
prevent the creation of closed timelike curves?". Physical Review D.
43 (12): 3929–3947. Bibcode:1991PhRvD..43.3929K.
^ Morris, Michael S.; Thorne, Kip S.; Yurtsever, Ulvi (1988).
"Wormholes, Time Machines, and the Weak Energy Condition". Physical
Review Letters. 61 (13): 1446–1449. Bibcode:1988PhRvL..61.1446M.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1446. PMID 10038800.
^ Thorne, Kip S.; Żytkow, Anna N. (15 March 1977). "Stars with
degenerate neutron cores. I - Structure of equilibrium models". The
Astrophysical Journal. 212 (1): 832–858.
^ Hartle, James; Thorne, Kip S. (1985). "Laws of motion and precession
for black holes and other bodies". Physical Review D. 31 (8):
^ Thorne, Kip S.; Will, Clifford (1971). "Theoretical Frameworks for
Testing Relativistic Gravity. I. Foundations". The Astrophysical
Journal. 163: 595–610. Bibcode:1971ApJ...163..595T.
^ Misner, Charles W.; Kip S. Thorne;
John Archibald Wheeler
John Archibald Wheeler (September
1973). Gravitation. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
^ "A Guide to Relativity books". John Baez, Chris Hillman. Department
of Mathematics, University of California at Riverside. 1998. Retrieved
19 June 2016.
^ Kip S. Thorne and Roger D. Blandford (2017). Modern Classical
Physics: Optics, Fluids, Plasmas, Elasticity, Relativity, and
Princeton University Press.
^ "Stories by Kip S Thorne". Scientific American. Retrieved 9 November
^ K.S. Thorne, "Gravitational Collapse," in 1976 McGraw-Hill Yearbook
of Science and Technology (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1967),
^ K.S. Thorne, "Gravitational Collapse," Collier's Encyclopedia
(Crowell-Collier Educational Corporation, New York, 1969), pp. 335-336
^ "Kip S. Thorne: Curriculum Vitae". Caltech. Retrieved 18 Sep
^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter T" (PDF). American Academy of
Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
Niels Bohr Gold Medal awarded to prominent physicists".
Niels Bohr Institute. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
Shaw Prize 2016
^ "9 Scientific Pioneers Receive The 2016 Kavli Prizes".
prnewswire.com. 2 June 2016.
^ "The Tomalla prize holders". The Tomalla Foundation. Retrieved 18
Harvey Prize 2016
^ Princess of Asturias Award
^ "Kip Thorne". Christopher Nolan. Time magazine. 21 April 2016.
Retrieved 8 May 2016.
^ "Contact – High Technology Lends a Hand/Science of the
Warner Bros. Archived from the original on 2001-03-04.
^ Fernandez, Jay A. (March 28, 2007). "Writer with real stars in his
eyes". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
^ Larry Niven. Rainbow Mars. New York: Tor Books, 1999, pp. 45, 366.
^ Tunzelmann, Alex von (7 January 2015). "The Theory of Everything
skips over the black holes of marriage and science". The Guardian.
Retrieved 29 September 2016.
Kip Thorne on IMDb
Kip Thorne at the
Mathematics Genealogy Project
Founding Fathers of Relativity
Principle of relativity
Doubly special relativity
Frame of reference
Speed of light
Relativity of simultaneity
Relativistic Doppler effect
Einstein field equations
van Stockum dust
Laureates of the
Nobel Prize in Physics
1902 Lorentz / Zeeman
1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie
1906 J. J. Thomson
1909 Marconi / Braun
1910 Van der Waals
1913 Kamerlingh Onnes
1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg
1922 N. Bohr
1924 M. Siegbahn
1925 Franck / Hertz
1927 Compton / C. Wilson
1928 O. Richardson
1929 De Broglie
1933 Schrödinger / Dirac
1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson
1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson
1951 Cockcroft / Walton
1952 Bloch / Purcell
1954 Born / Bothe
1955 Lamb / Kusch
1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain
1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee
1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm
1959 Segrè / Chamberlain
1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer
1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen
1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov
1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman
1970 Alfvén / Néel
1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer
1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson
1974 Ryle / Hewish
1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater
1976 Richter / Ting
1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck
1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson
1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg
1980 Cronin / Fitch
1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn
1982 K. Wilson
1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler
1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer
1985 von Klitzing
1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer
1987 Bednorz / Müller
1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger
1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul
1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor
1991 de Gennes
1993 Hulse / J. Taylor
1994 Brockhouse / Shull
1995 Perl / Reines
1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson
1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips
1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui
1999 't Hooft / Veltman
2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby
2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman
2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi
2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett
2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek
2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch
2006 Mather / Smoot
2007 Fert / Grünberg
2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa
2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith
2010 Geim / Novoselov
2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt
2012 Wineland / Haroche
2013 Englert / Higgs
2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura
2015 Kajita / McDonald
2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz
2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne
Nobel Prize laureates
Jacques Dubochet (Switzerland)
Joachim Frank (Germany)
Richard Henderson (United Kingdom)
Kazuo Ishiguro (United Kingdom)
International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons
International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (Switzerland)
Rainer Weiss (United States)
Barry Barish (United States)
Kip Thorne (United States)
Physiology or Medicine
Jeffrey C. Hall
Jeffrey C. Hall (United States)
Michael Rosbash (United States)
Michael W. Young
Michael W. Young (United States)
Richard Thaler (United States)
Nobel Prize recipients
Breakthrough Prize laureates
Nima Arkani-Hamed, Alan Guth, Alexei Kitaev, Maxim Kontsevich, Andrei
Linde, Juan Maldacena, Nathan Seiberg, Ashoke Sen, Edward Witten
Special: Stephen Hawking, Peter Jenni,
Fabiola Gianotti (ATLAS),
Michel Della Negra, Tejinder Virdee, Guido Tonelli, Joseph Incandela
Lyn Evans (LHC) (2013)
Alexander Polyakov (2013)
Michael Green and
John Henry Schwarz (2014)
Saul Perlmutter and members of the Supernova Cosmology Project; Brian
Adam Riess and members of the High-Z Supernova Team (2015)
Special: Ronald Drever, Kip Thorne,
Rainer Weiss and contributors to
LIGO project (2016)
Yifang Wang and
Kam-Biu Luk and the Daya Bay team, Atsuto Suzuki and
the KamLAND team, Koichiro Nishikawa and the K2K / T2K team, Arthur B.
McDonald and the
Sudbury Neutrino Observatory
Sudbury Neutrino Observatory team,
Takaaki Kajita and
Yoichiro Suzuki and the
Super-Kamiokande team (2016)
Joseph Polchinski, Andrew Strominger,
Cumrun Vafa (2017)
Charles L. Bennett, Gary Hinshaw, Norman Jarosik,
Lyman Page Jr.,
David Spergel (2018)
Cornelia Bargmann, David Botstein, Lewis C. Cantley, Hans Clevers,
Titia de Lange, Napoleone Ferrara, Eric Lander, Charles Sawyers,
Shinya Yamanaka and
Bert Vogelstein (2013)
James P. Allison, Mahlon DeLong, Michael N. Hall, Robert S. Langer,
Richard P. Lifton and
Alexander Varshavsky (2014)
Alim-Louis Benabid, Charles David Allis, Victor Ambros, Gary Ruvkun,
Jennifer Doudna and
Emmanuelle Charpentier (2015)
Edward Boyden, Karl Deisseroth, John Hardy,
Helen Hobbs and Svante
Stephen J. Elledge, Harry F. Noller, Roeland Nusse, Yoshinori Ohsumi,
Huda Zoghbi (2017)
Joanne Chory, Peter Walter, Kazutoshi Mori, Kim Nasmyth, Don W.
Simon Donaldson, Maxim Kontsevich, Jacob Lurie,
Terence Tao and
Richard Taylor (2015)
Ian Agol (2016)
Jean Bourgain (2017)
James McKernan (2018)
Kavli Prize laureates
Donald Lynden-Bell (2008)
Jerry E. Nelson, Raymond N. Wilson,
Roger Angel (2010)
David C. Jewitt, Jane Luu,
Michael E. Brown
Michael E. Brown (2012)
Alan Guth, Andrei Linde,
Alexei Starobinsky (2014)
Ronald Drever, Kip Thorne,
Rainer Weiss (2016)
Louis E. Brus,
Sumio Iijima (2008)
Nadrian Seeman (2010)
Mildred Dresselhaus (2012)
Thomas Ebbesen, Stefan Hell,
John Pendry (2014)
Gerd Binnig, Christoph Gerber,
Calvin Quate (2016)
Sten Grillner, Thomas Jessell,
Pasko Rakic (2008)
Richard Scheller, Thomas C. Südhof,
James Rothman (2010)
Cornelia Bargmann, Winfried Denk,
Ann Graybiel (2012)
Brenda Milner, John O'Keefe,
Marcus Raichle (2014)
Eve Marder, Michael Merzenich,
Carla J. Shatz
Carla J. Shatz (2016)
Shaw Prize laureates
Jim Peebles (2004)
Geoffrey Marcy and
Michel Mayor (2005)
Adam Riess and
Brian Schmidt (2006)
Peter Goldreich (2007)
Reinhard Genzel (2008)
Frank Shu (2009)
Lyman Page and
David Spergel (2010)
Enrico Costa and Gerald Fishman (2011)
David Jewitt and
Jane Luu (2012)
Steven Balbus and John Hawley (2013)
Shaun Cole and John Peacock (2014)
William Borucki (2015)
Kip Thorne and
Rainer Weiss (2016)
Simon White (2017)
Stanley Norman Cohen, Herbert Boyer, Kan Yuet-wai and Richard Doll
Michael Berridge (2005)
Xiaodong Wang (2006)
Robert Lefkowitz (2007)
Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell and
Shinya Yamanaka (2008)
Douglas Coleman and Jeffrey Friedman (2009)
David Julius (2010)
Ruslan Medzhitov and
Bruce Beutler (2011)
Franz-Ulrich Hartl and Arthur Horwich (2012)
Michael Rosbash and Michael Young (2013)
Kazutoshi Mori and
Peter Walter (2014)
Bonnie Bassler and
Everett Peter Greenberg (2015)
Adrian Bird and
Huda Zoghbi (2016)
Ian R. Gibbons
Ian R. Gibbons and
Ronald Vale (2017)
Shiing-Shen Chern (2004)
Andrew Wiles (2005)
David Mumford and
Wu Wenjun (2006)
Robert Langlands and Richard Taylor (2007)
Vladimir Arnold and
Ludvig Faddeev (2008)
Simon Donaldson and
Clifford Taubes (2009)
Jean Bourgain (2010)
Demetrios Christodoulou and
Richard S. Hamilton
Richard S. Hamilton (2011)
Maxim Kontsevich (2012)
David Donoho (2013)
George Lusztig (2014)
Gerd Faltings and
Henryk Iwaniec (2015)
Nigel Hitchin (2016)
János Kollár and
Claire Voisin (2017)
ISNI: 0000 0001 1697 5126
BNF: cb12284753x (data)