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Kip Stephen Thorne (born June 1, 1940) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate, known for his contributions in gravitational physics and astrophysics. A longtime friend and colleague of Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking
and Carl Sagan, he was the Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) until 2009[3] and is one of the world's leading experts on the astrophysical implications of Einstein's general theory of relativity. He continues to do scientific research and scientific consulting, most notably for the Christopher Nolan
Christopher Nolan
film Interstellar.[4][5] In 2017, Thorne was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
along with Rainer Weiss
Rainer Weiss
and Barry C. Barish
Barry C. Barish
"for decisive contributions to the LIGO
LIGO
detector and the observation of gravitational waves".[6][7][8][9]

Contents

1 Life and career 2 Research

2.1 Gravitational waves
Gravitational waves
and LIGO 2.2 Black hole
Black hole
cosmology 2.3 Wormholes and time travel 2.4 Relativistic stars, multipole moments and other endeavors

3 Publications 4 Honors and awards 5 Adaptation in media 6 Partial bibliography 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Life and career[edit]

Discussion in the main lecture hall at the École de Physique des Houches (Les Houches Physics School), 1972. From left, Yuval Ne'eman, Bryce DeWitt, Thorne, Demetrios Christodoulou.

Thorne was born in Logan, Utah
Logan, Utah
on June 1, 1940. His father was a chemist, his mother Alison (née Comish) Thorne, was an economist and the first woman to receive a Ph.D.
Ph.D.
in the discipline from Iowa State College.[10] Raised in an academic environment, two of his four siblings also became professors.[11][12] Thorne's parents were members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
(Mormons) and raised Thorne in the LDS faith, though he now describes himself as atheist. Regarding his views on science and religion, Thorne has stated: "There are large numbers of my finest colleagues who are quite devout and believe in God [...] There is no fundamental incompatibility between science and religion. I happen to not believe in God."[13] Thorne rapidly excelled at academics early in life, winning recognition in the Westinghouse Science Talent Search as a senior at Logan High School and becoming one of the youngest full professors in the history of the California Institute of Technology
California Institute of Technology
at age 30.[14] He received his B.S. degree from Caltech
Caltech
in 1962, and Ph.D.
Ph.D.
degree from Princeton University
Princeton University
in 1965.[15] He wrote his doctoral thesis, Geometrodynamics of Cylindrical Systems, under the supervision of relativist John Wheeler. Thorne returned to Caltech
Caltech
as an associate professor in 1967 and became a professor of theoretical physics in 1970, the William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor in 1981, and the Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics in 1991. He was an adjunct professor at the University of Utah
University of Utah
from 1971 to 1998 and Andrew D. White Professor at Large at Cornell University
Cornell University
from 1986 to 1992.[16] In June 2009 he resigned his Feynman Professorship (he is now the Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics, Emeritus) to pursue a career of writing and movie making.[citation needed] His first film project was Interstellar, on which he worked with Christopher Nolan
Christopher Nolan
and Jonathan Nolan.[3] Throughout the years, Thorne has served as a mentor and thesis advisor for many leading theorists who now work on observational, experimental, or astrophysical aspects of general relativity. Approximately 50 physicists have received Ph.D.s at Caltech
Caltech
under Thorne's personal mentorship.[3] Thorne is known for his ability to convey the excitement and significance of discoveries in gravitation and astrophysics to both professional and lay audiences. In 1999, Thorne made some speculations on what the 21st century will find as the answers to the following questions:[17][18]

Is there a "dark side of the universe" populated by objects such as black holes? Can we observe the birth of the universe and its dark side using radiation made from space-time warpage, or so-called "gravitational waves"? Will 21st century technology reveal quantum behavior in the realm of human-size objects?

His presentations on subjects such as black holes, gravitational radiation, relativity, time travel, and wormholes have been included in PBS
PBS
shows in the U.S. and in the United Kingdom on the BBC. Thorne and Linda Jean Peterson married in 1960. Their children are Kares Anne and Bret Carter, an architect. Thorne and Peterson divorced in 1977. Thorne and his second wife, Carolee Joyce Winstein, a professor of biokinesiology and physical therapy at USC, married in 1984.[19] Research[edit]

Thorne in 1972

Thorne's research has principally focused on relativistic astrophysics and gravitation physics, with emphasis on relativistic stars, black holes and especially gravitational waves.[3] He is perhaps best known to the public for his controversial theory that wormholes can conceivably be used for time travel.[20] However, Thorne's scientific contributions, which center on the general nature of space, time, and gravity, span the full range of topics in general relativity. Gravitational waves
Gravitational waves
and LIGO[edit] Thorne's work has dealt with the prediction of gravitational wave strengths and their temporal signatures as observed on Earth. These "signatures" are of great relevance to LIGO
LIGO
(Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory), a multi-institution gravitational wave experiment for which Thorne has been a leading proponent – in 1984, he cofounded the LIGO
LIGO
Project (the largest project ever funded by the NSF[21]) to discern and measure any fluctuations between two or more 'static' points; such fluctuations would be evidence of gravitational waves, as calculations describe. A significant aspect of his research is developing the mathematics necessary to analyze these objects.[22] Thorne also carries out engineering design analyses for features of the LIGO
LIGO
that cannot be developed on the basis of experiment and he gives advice on data analysis algorithms by which the waves will be sought. He has provided theoretical support for LIGO, including identifying gravitational wave sources that LIGO should target, designing the baffles to control scattered light in the LIGO
LIGO
beam tubes, and – in collaboration with Vladimir Braginsky's (Moscow, Russia) research group – inventing quantum nondemolition designs for advanced gravity-wave detectors and ways to reduce the most serious kind of noise in advanced detectors: thermoelastic noise. With Carlton M. Caves, Thorne invented the back-action-evasion approach to quantum nondemolition measurements of the harmonic oscillators – a technique applicable both in gravitational wave detection and quantum optics.[3] On February 11, 2016, a team of four physicists[a] representing the LIGO
LIGO
Scientific Collaboration, announced that in September 2015, LIGO recorded the signature of two black holes colliding 1.3 billion light-years away. This recorded detection was the first direct observation of the fleeting chirp of a gravitational wave and confirmed an important prediction of Einstein’s general theory of relativity.[23][24][25][26][27] Black hole
Black hole
cosmology[edit] Main article: Hoop conjecture

A cylindrical bundle of magnetic field lines

While he was studying for Ph.D.
Ph.D.
in Princeton University, his mentor John Wheeler gave him an assignment problem for him to think over: find out whether or not a cylindrical bundle of repulsive magnetic field lines will implode under its own attractive gravitational force. After several months wrestling with the problem, he proved that it was impossible for cylindrical magnetic field lines to implode.[28]:262–265 Why is it that a cylindrical bundle of magnetic field lines will not implode, while spherical stars will implode under their own gravitational force? Thorne tried to explore the theoretical ridge between the two phenomena. He found out eventually that the gravitational force can overcome all interior pressure only when an object has been compressed in all directions. To express this realization, Thorne proposed his hoop conjecture, which describes an imploding star turning into a black hole when the critical circumference of the designed hoop can be placed around it and set into rotation. That is, any object of mass M around which a hoop of circumference

4 π G M

c

2

displaystyle begin matrix frac 4pi GM c^ 2 end matrix

can be spun must be a black hole.[28]:266–267[29]:189–190 As a tool to be used in both enterprises, astrophysics and theoretical physics, Thorne and his students have developed an unusual approach, called the "membrane paradigm", to the theory of black holes and used it to clarify the "Blandford-Znajek" mechanism by which black holes may power some quasars and active galactic nuclei.[28]:405–411 Thorne has investigated the quantum statistical mechanical origin of the entropy of a black hole. With his postdoc Wojciech Zurek, he showed that the entropy of a black hole is the logarithm of the number of ways that the hole could have been made.[28]:445–446 With Igor Novikov and Don Page he developed the general relativistic theory of thin accretion disks around black holes, and using this theory he deduced that with a doubling of its mass by such accretion a black hole will be spun up to 0.998 of the maximum spin allowed by general relativity, but not any farther. This is probably the maximum black-hole spin allowed in nature.[3] Wormholes and time travel[edit]

A wormhole is a short cut connecting two separate regions in space. In the figure the green line shows the short way through wormhole, and the red line shows the long way through normal space.

Thorne and his co-workers at Caltech
Caltech
conducted scientific research on whether the laws of physics permit space and time to be multiply connected (can there exist classical, traversable wormholes and "time machines"?).[30] With Sung-Won Kim, Thorne identified a universal physical mechanism (the explosive growth of vacuum polarization of quantum fields), that may always prevent spacetime from developing closed timelike curves (i.e., prevent backward time travel).[31] With Mike Morris and Ulvi Yurtsever he showed that traversable Lorentzian wormholes can exist in the structure of spacetime only if they are threaded by quantum fields in quantum states that violate the averaged null energy condition (i.e. have negative renormalized energy spread over a sufficiently large region).[32] This has triggered research to explore the ability of quantum fields to possess such extended negative energy. Recent calculations by Thorne indicate that simple masses passing through traversable wormholes could never engender paradoxes – there are no initial conditions that lead to paradox once time travel is introduced. If his results can be generalized, they would suggest that none of the supposed paradoxes formulated in time travel stories can actually be formulated at a precise physical level: that is, that any situation in a time travel story turns out to permit many consistent solutions.[citation needed] Relativistic stars, multipole moments and other endeavors[edit] With Anna Żytkow, Thorne predicted the existence of red supergiant stars with neutron-star cores (Thorne–Żytkow objects).[33] He laid the foundations for the theory of pulsations of relativistic stars and the gravitational radiation they emit. With James Hartle, Thorne derived from general relativity the laws of motion and precession of black holes and other relativistic bodies, including the influence of the coupling of their multipole moments to the spacetime curvature of nearby objects.[34] Thorne has also theoretically predicted the existence of universally antigravitating "exotic matter" – the element needed to accelerate the expansion rate of the universe, keep traversable wormhole "Star Gates" open and keep timelike geodesic free float "warp drives" working. With Clifford Will[35] and others of his students, he laid the foundations for the theoretical interpretation of experimental tests of relativistic theories of gravity – foundations on which Will and others then built. As of 2005[update], Thorne was interested in the origin of classical space and time from the quantum foam of quantum gravity theory.[citation needed] Publications[edit] Thorne has written and edited books on topics in gravitational theory and high-energy astrophysics. In 1973, he co-authored the textbook Gravitation
Gravitation
with Charles Misner
Charles Misner
and John Wheeler;[36] that according to John C. Baez and Chris Hillman, is one of the great scientific books of all time and has inspired two generations of students.[37] In 1994, he published Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy, a book for non-scientists for which he received numerous awards. This book has been published in six languages, and editions in Chinese, Italian, Czech, and Polish are in press.[when?] In 2014, Thorne published The Science of Interstellar
The Science of Interstellar
in which he explains the science behind Christopher Nolan's film Interstellar; Nolan wrote the foreword to the book. In September, 2017, Thorne and Roger D. Blandford published Modern Classical Physics: Optics, Fluids, Plasmas, Elasticity, Relativity, and Statistical Physics, a graduate-level textbook covering the six major areas of physics listed in the title.[38] Thorne's articles has appeared in publications such as:

Scientific American,[39] McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology,[40] and Collier's Encyclopedia[41]among others.

Thorne has published more than 150 articles in scholarly journals.[citation needed] Honors and awards[edit]

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Thorne has been elected to:[42]

the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
(1972)[43] the National Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society.

He has been recognized by numerous awards including:

the American Institute of Physics
American Institute of Physics
Science Writing Award in Physics and Astronomy, the Phi Beta Kappa Science Writing Award, the American Physical Society's Lilienfeld Prize, the German Astronomical Society's Karl Schwarzschild Medal (1996), the Robinson Prize in Cosmology from the University of Newcastle, England, the Sigma Xi: The Scientific Research Society's Common Wealth Awards for Science and Invention, and the California Science Center's California Scientist of the Year Award (2003). the Albert Einstein Medal in 2009 from the Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
Society, Bern, Switzerland the UNESCO Niels Bohr Medal from UNESCO
UNESCO
(2010) [44] the Special
Special
Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics
Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics
(2016) the Gruber Prize in Cosmology (2016) the Shaw Prize
Shaw Prize
(2016) (together with Ronald Drever
Ronald Drever
and Rainer Weiss).[45] the Kavli Prize
Kavli Prize
in Astrophysics
Astrophysics
(2016) (together with Ronald Drever and Rainer Weiss).[46] the Tomalla Prize (2016) for extraordinary contributions to general relativity and gravity.[47] the Georges Lemaître
Georges Lemaître
Prize (2016) the Harvey Prize (2016) (together with Ronald Drever
Ronald Drever
and Rainer Weiss).[48] the Princess of Asturias Award
Princess of Asturias Award
(2017) (jointly with Rainer Weiss
Rainer Weiss
and Barry Barish).[49] the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
(2017) (jointly with Rainer Weiss
Rainer Weiss
and Barry Barish)

He has been a Woodrow Wilson Fellow, Danforth Fellow, Guggenheim Fellow, and Fulbright Fellow. He has also received the honorary degree of doctor of humane letters from Claremont Graduate University. He was elected to hold Lorentz chair for the year 2009 Leiden University, the Netherlands. Thorne has served on:

the International Committee on General Relativity and Gravitation, the Committee on US-USSR Cooperation in Physics, and the National Academy of Sciences' Space
Space
Science Board, which has advised NASA
NASA
and Congress on space science policy.

Kip Thorne
Kip Thorne
was selected by Time magazine in an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the American world in 2016.[50] Adaptation in media[edit]

Thorne contributed ideas on wormhole travel to Carl Sagan
Carl Sagan
for use in his novel Contact.[51] Thorne and his friend, producer Lynda Obst, also developed the concept for the Christopher Nolan
Christopher Nolan
film Interstellar.[52] He also wrote a tie-in book, The Science of Interstellar. In Larry Niven's novel Rainbow Mars, the time travel technology used in the novel is based on the wormhole theories of Thorne, which in the context of the novel was when time travel first became possible, rather than just fantasy. As a result, any attempts to travel in time prior to Thorne's development of wormhole theory results in the time traveller entering a fantastic version of reality, rather than the actual past.[53] In the film The Theory of Everything, Thorne was portrayed by actor Enzo Cilenti.[54]

Partial bibliography[edit]

Thorne, K. S., in 300 Years of Gravitation, (Eds.) S. W. Hawking and W. Israel, 1987, (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press), Gravitational Radiation. Thorne, K. S., Price, R. H. and Macdonald, D. M., Black Holes, The Membrane Paradigm, 1986, (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press). Friedman, J., Morris, M. S., Novikov, I. D., Echeverria, F., Klinkhammer, G., Thorne, K. S. and Yurtsever, U., Physical Review D., 1990, (in press), Cauchy Problem in Spacetimes with Closed Timelike Curves.

See also[edit]

Polchinski's paradox

Notes[edit]

^ The announcement team were Thorne, David Reitze, Gabriela González, Rainer Weiss, and France A. Córdova.

References[edit]

^ "einstein medal". Einstein-bern.ch. Retrieved 7 December 2014.  ^ "Kip Stephen Thorne". Mathematics
Mathematics
Geneaogy Project. North Dakota State University. Retrieved 6 Sep 2016.  ^ a b c d e f "Kip S. Thorne: Biographical Sketch". Information Technology Services. California Institute of Technology. Retrieved January 6, 2013. ^ Kevin P. Sullivan (December 16, 2013). "Christopher Nolan's 'Interstellar' Trailer: Watch Now". MTV. Retrieved October 30, 2014.  ^ "Watch Exclusive: The Science of Interstellar
The Science of Interstellar
- WIRED - WIRED Video - CNE". WIRED Videos. Archived from the original on 5 December 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2014.  ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
2017". The Nobel Foundation. 3 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.  ^ Rincon, Paul; Amos, Jonathan (3 October 2017). "Einstein's waves win Nobel Prize". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 3 October 2017.  ^ Overbye, Dennis (3 October 2017). "2017 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics Awarded to LIGO
LIGO
Black Hole Researchers". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 October 2017.  ^ Kaiser, David (3 October 2017). "Learning from Gravitational Waves". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 October 2017.  ^ Grant Kimm, Webmaster - The College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Iowa State University. "Plaza of Heroines at Iowa State University". Las.iastate.edu. Archived from the original on 14 August 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2014.  ^ Jones, Zachary (2011). "D. Wynne Thorne Papers, 1936-1983". Archives West. Orbis Cascade Alliance.  ^ "Dr. Alison Comish Thorne". Legacy.com. The Salt Lake Tribune Obituaries. 26 Oct 2004. Retrieved 7 Sep 2016.  ^ Rory Carroll (21 June 2013). "Kip Thorne: physicist studying time travel tapped for Hollywood film". Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 30 October 2014. Thorne grew up in an academic, Mormon family in Utah but is now an atheist. "There are large numbers of my finest colleagues who are quite devout and believe in God, ranging from an abstract humanist God to a very concrete Catholic or Mormon God. There is no fundamental incompatibility between science and religion. I happen to not believe in God."  ^ Piper, Matthew (3 October 2017). "Utah-born Kip Thorne
Kip Thorne
wins the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in physics for his role in detecting gravitational waves". The Salt Lake Tribune.  ^ Thorne, Kip Stephen (1965). Geometrodynamics of cylindrical systems (Ph.D.). Princeton University. OCLC 760240072 – via ProQuest. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "Kip S. Thorne". history.aip.org.  ^ " Spacetime
Spacetime
Warps and the Quantum: A Glimpse of the Future". THE KITP PUBLIC LECTURE SERIES. KAVLI INSTITUTE FOR THEORETICAL PHYSICS. 1999.  ^ Kip, Thorne (24 Feb 1999). "Space-Time Warps and the Quantum: A Glimpse of the Future". KITP Public Lectures. KAVLI INSTITUTE FOR THEORETICAL PHYSICS.  ^ Kondrashov, Veronica. "Kip S. Thorne: Curriculum Vitae". Kip S. Thorn. California Institute of Technology.  ^ Cofield, Cala (19 Dec 2014). "Time Travel and Wormholes:Physicist Kip Thorne's Wildest Theories". Space.com.  ^ "LIGO: The Search for Gravitational Waves". National Science Foundation. Retrieved 9 Sep 2016. LIGO
LIGO
is the largest single enterprise undertaken by NSF, with capital investments of nearly $300 million and operating costs of more than $30 million/year.  ^ "Catching waves with Kip Thorne". Plus Magazine. December 1, 2001 ^ "Gravitational Waves Detected 100 Years After Einstein's Prediction". ligo.caltech.edu. 11 February 2016.  ^ Twilley, Nicola. "Gravitational Waves Exist: The Inside Story of How Scientists Finally Found Them". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 2016-02-11.  ^ Abbott, B.P.; et al. (2016). "Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger". Phys. Rev. Lett. 116: 061102. arXiv:1602.03837 . Bibcode:2016PhRvL.116f1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102. PMID 26918975.  ^ Naeye, Robert (11 February 2016). "Gravitational Wave Detection Heralds New Era of Science". Sky and Telescope. Retrieved 11 February 2016.  ^ Castelvecchi, Davide; Witze, Alexandra (11 February 2016). "Einstein's gravitational waves found at last". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2016.19361. Retrieved 11 February 2016.  ^ a b c d Kip S. Thorne (1994). Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy. W.W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-31276-8.  ^ V. Frolov; I. Novikov (6 December 2012). Black Hole Physics: Basic Concepts and New Developments. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-94-011-5139-9.  ^ "How to build a time machine". Paul Davies. Scientific American. 1 February 2006. Retrieved 19 June 2016.  ^ Kim, Sung-Won; Thorne, Kip S. (1991). "Do vacuum fluctuations prevent the creation of closed timelike curves?". Physical Review D. 43 (12): 3929–3947. Bibcode:1991PhRvD..43.3929K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.43.3929.  ^ Morris, Michael S.; Thorne, Kip S.; Yurtsever, Ulvi (1988). "Wormholes, Time Machines, and the Weak Energy Condition". Physical Review Letters. 61 (13): 1446–1449. Bibcode:1988PhRvL..61.1446M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1446. PMID 10038800.  ^ Thorne, Kip S.; Żytkow, Anna N. (15 March 1977). "Stars with degenerate neutron cores. I - Structure of equilibrium models". The Astrophysical Journal. 212 (1): 832–858. Bibcode:1977ApJ...212..832T. doi:10.1086/155109.  ^ Hartle, James; Thorne, Kip S. (1985). "Laws of motion and precession for black holes and other bodies". Physical Review D. 31 (8): 1815–1837. Bibcode:1985PhRvD..31.1815T. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.31.1815.  ^ Thorne, Kip S.; Will, Clifford (1971). "Theoretical Frameworks for Testing Relativistic Gravity. I. Foundations". The Astrophysical Journal. 163: 595–610. Bibcode:1971ApJ...163..595T. doi:10.1086/150803.  ^ Misner, Charles W.; Kip S. Thorne; John Archibald Wheeler
John Archibald Wheeler
(September 1973). Gravitation. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0.  ^ "A Guide to Relativity books". John Baez, Chris Hillman. Department of Mathematics, University of California at Riverside. 1998. Retrieved 19 June 2016.  ^ Kip S. Thorne and Roger D. Blandford (2017). Modern Classical Physics: Optics, Fluids, Plasmas, Elasticity, Relativity, and Statistical Physics. Princeton University
Princeton University
Press. ISBN 978-0-69115902-7.  ^ "Stories by Kip S Thorne". Scientific American. Retrieved 9 November 2017.  ^ K.S. Thorne, "Gravitational Collapse," in 1976 McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1967), pp. 193-195 ^ K.S. Thorne, "Gravitational Collapse," Collier's Encyclopedia (Crowell-Collier Educational Corporation, New York, 1969), pp. 335-336 ^ "Kip S. Thorne: Curriculum Vitae". Caltech. Retrieved 18 Sep 2016.  ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter T" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ "UNESCO's Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
Gold Medal awarded to prominent physicists". Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
Institute. Retrieved 8 December 2016.  ^ Shaw Prize
Shaw Prize
2016 ^ "9 Scientific Pioneers Receive The 2016 Kavli Prizes". prnewswire.com. 2 June 2016.  ^ "The Tomalla prize holders". The Tomalla Foundation. Retrieved 18 September 2016.  ^ Harvey Prize 2016 ^ Princess of Asturias Award ^ "Kip Thorne". Christopher Nolan. Time magazine. 21 April 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2016.  ^ "Contact – High Technology Lends a Hand/Science of the Soundstage". Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Archived from the original on 2001-03-04. Retrieved 2014-09-01.  ^ Fernandez, Jay A. (March 28, 2007). "Writer with real stars in his eyes". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 1, 2014.  ^ Larry Niven. Rainbow Mars. New York: Tor Books, 1999, pp. 45, 366. ^ Tunzelmann, Alex von (7 January 2015). "The Theory of Everything skips over the black holes of marriage and science". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 September 2016. 

External links[edit]

Kip Thorne
Kip Thorne
on IMDb Home Page Kip Thorne
Kip Thorne
at the Mathematics
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Genealogy Project Crunch Time Founding Fathers of Relativity

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Relativity

Special relativity

Background

Principle of relativity Special
Special
relativity Doubly special relativity

Foundations

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Formulation

Galilean relativity Galilean transformation Lorentz transformation

Consequences

Time dilation Relativistic mass Mass–energy equivalence Length contraction Relativity of simultaneity Relativistic Doppler effect Thomas precession Relativistic disks

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General relativity

Background

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Special
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Phenomena

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Equations

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Geodesic
equation Friedmann equations Linearized gravity Post-Newtonian formalism Raychaudhuri equation Hamilton–Jacobi–Einstein equation Ernst equation Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff equation

Advanced theories

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Solutions

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Scientists

Einstein Lorentz Hilbert Poincaré Schwarzschild de Sitter Reissner Nordström Weyl Eddington Friedmann Milne Zwicky Lemaître Gödel Wheeler Robertson Bardeen Walker Kerr Chandrasekhar Ehlers Penrose Hawking Taylor Hulse Stockum Taub Newman Yau Thorne Weiss Bondi Misner others

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics

1901–1925

1901 Röntgen 1902 Lorentz / Zeeman 1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie 1904 Rayleigh 1905 Lenard 1906 J. J. Thomson 1907 Michelson 1908 Lippmann 1909 Marconi / Braun 1910 Van der Waals 1911 Wien 1912 Dalén 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes 1914 Laue 1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg 1916 1917 Barkla 1918 Planck 1919 Stark 1920 Guillaume 1921 Einstein 1922 N. Bohr 1923 Millikan 1924 M. Siegbahn 1925 Franck / Hertz

1926–1950

1926 Perrin 1927 Compton / C. Wilson 1928 O. Richardson 1929 De Broglie 1930 Raman 1931 1932 Heisenberg 1933 Schrödinger / Dirac 1934 1935 Chadwick 1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson 1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson 1938 Fermi 1939 Lawrence 1940 1941 1942 1943 Stern 1944 Rabi 1945 Pauli 1946 Bridgman 1947 Appleton 1948 Blackett 1949 Yukawa 1950 Powell

1951–1975

1951 Cockcroft / Walton 1952 Bloch / Purcell 1953 Zernike 1954 Born / Bothe 1955 Lamb / Kusch 1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain 1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee 1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm 1959 Segrè / Chamberlain 1960 Glaser 1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer 1962 Landau 1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen 1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov 1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman 1966 Kastler 1967 Bethe 1968 Alvarez 1969 Gell-Mann 1970 Alfvén / Néel 1971 Gabor 1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer 1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson 1974 Ryle / Hewish 1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater

1976–2000

1976 Richter / Ting 1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck 1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson 1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg 1980 Cronin / Fitch 1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn 1982 K. Wilson 1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler 1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer 1985 von Klitzing 1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer 1987 Bednorz / Müller 1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger 1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul 1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor 1991 de Gennes 1992 Charpak 1993 Hulse / J. Taylor 1994 Brockhouse / Shull 1995 Perl / Reines 1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson 1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips 1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui 1999 't Hooft / Veltman 2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby

2001– present

2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman 2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi 2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett 2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek 2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch 2006 Mather / Smoot 2007 Fert / Grünberg 2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa 2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith 2010 Geim / Novoselov 2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt 2012 Wineland / Haroche 2013 Englert / Higgs 2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura 2015 Kajita / McDonald 2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz 2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne

v t e

2017 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates

Chemistry

Jacques Dubochet
Jacques Dubochet
(Switzerland) Joachim Frank
Joachim Frank
(Germany) Richard Henderson (United Kingdom)

Literature

Kazuo Ishiguro
Kazuo Ishiguro
(United Kingdom)

Peace (2017)

International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons
International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons
(Switzerland)

Physics

Rainer Weiss
Rainer Weiss
(United States) Barry Barish
Barry Barish
(United States) Kip Thorne
Kip Thorne
(United States)

Physiology or Medicine

Jeffrey C. Hall
Jeffrey C. Hall
(United States) Michael Rosbash
Michael Rosbash
(United States) Michael W. Young
Michael W. Young
(United States)

Economic Sciences

Richard Thaler
Richard Thaler
(United States)

Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
recipients 1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

v t e

Breakthrough Prize laureates

Fundamental physics

Nima Arkani-Hamed, Alan Guth, Alexei Kitaev, Maxim Kontsevich, Andrei Linde, Juan Maldacena, Nathan Seiberg, Ashoke Sen, Edward Witten (2012) Special: Stephen Hawking, Peter Jenni, Fabiola Gianotti
Fabiola Gianotti
(ATLAS), Michel Della Negra, Tejinder Virdee, Guido Tonelli, Joseph Incandela (CMS) and Lyn Evans
Lyn Evans
(LHC) (2013) Alexander Polyakov (2013) Michael Green and John Henry Schwarz (2014) Saul Perlmutter
Saul Perlmutter
and members of the Supernova Cosmology Project; Brian Schmidt, Adam Riess
Adam Riess
and members of the High-Z Supernova Team (2015) Special: Ronald Drever, Kip Thorne, Rainer Weiss
Rainer Weiss
and contributors to LIGO
LIGO
project (2016) Yifang Wang and Kam-Biu Luk
Kam-Biu Luk
and the Daya Bay team, Atsuto Suzuki and the KamLAND team, Koichiro Nishikawa and the K2K / T2K team, Arthur B. McDonald and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory
Sudbury Neutrino Observatory
team, Takaaki Kajita
Takaaki Kajita
and Yoichiro Suzuki and the Super-Kamiokande
Super-Kamiokande
team (2016) Joseph Polchinski, Andrew Strominger, Cumrun Vafa
Cumrun Vafa
(2017) Charles L. Bennett, Gary Hinshaw, Norman Jarosik, Lyman Page
Lyman Page
Jr., David Spergel (2018)

Life sciences

Cornelia Bargmann, David Botstein, Lewis C. Cantley, Hans Clevers, Titia de Lange, Napoleone Ferrara, Eric Lander, Charles Sawyers, Robert Weinberg, Shinya Yamanaka
Shinya Yamanaka
and Bert Vogelstein
Bert Vogelstein
(2013) James P. Allison, Mahlon DeLong, Michael N. Hall, Robert S. Langer, Richard P. Lifton and Alexander Varshavsky (2014) Alim-Louis Benabid, Charles David Allis, Victor Ambros, Gary Ruvkun, Jennifer Doudna
Jennifer Doudna
and Emmanuelle Charpentier
Emmanuelle Charpentier
(2015) Edward Boyden, Karl Deisseroth, John Hardy, Helen Hobbs and Svante Pääbo (2016) Stephen J. Elledge, Harry F. Noller, Roeland Nusse, Yoshinori Ohsumi, Huda Zoghbi
Huda Zoghbi
(2017) Joanne Chory, Peter Walter, Kazutoshi Mori, Kim Nasmyth, Don W. Cleveland (2018)

Mathematics

Simon Donaldson, Maxim Kontsevich, Jacob Lurie, Terence Tao
Terence Tao
and Richard Taylor (2015) Ian Agol
Ian Agol
(2016) Jean Bourgain
Jean Bourgain
(2017) Christopher Hacon, James McKernan
James McKernan
(2018)

v t e

Kavli Prize
Kavli Prize
laureates

Astrophysics

Maarten Schmidt, Donald Lynden-Bell
Donald Lynden-Bell
(2008) Jerry E. Nelson, Raymond N. Wilson, Roger Angel (2010) David C. Jewitt, Jane Luu, Michael E. Brown
Michael E. Brown
(2012) Alan Guth, Andrei Linde, Alexei Starobinsky
Alexei Starobinsky
(2014) Ronald Drever, Kip Thorne, Rainer Weiss
Rainer Weiss
(2016)

Nanoscience

Louis E. Brus, Sumio Iijima
Sumio Iijima
(2008) Donald Eigler, Nadrian Seeman
Nadrian Seeman
(2010) Mildred Dresselhaus
Mildred Dresselhaus
(2012) Thomas Ebbesen, Stefan Hell, John Pendry
John Pendry
(2014) Gerd Binnig, Christoph Gerber, Calvin Quate (2016)

Neuroscience

Sten Grillner, Thomas Jessell, Pasko Rakic
Pasko Rakic
(2008) Richard Scheller, Thomas C. Südhof, James Rothman
James Rothman
(2010) Cornelia Bargmann, Winfried Denk, Ann Graybiel
Ann Graybiel
(2012) Brenda Milner, John O'Keefe, Marcus Raichle
Marcus Raichle
(2014) Eve Marder, Michael Merzenich, Carla J. Shatz
Carla J. Shatz
(2016)

v t e

Shaw Prize
Shaw Prize
laureates

Astronomy

Jim Peebles
Jim Peebles
(2004) Geoffrey Marcy
Geoffrey Marcy
and Michel Mayor
Michel Mayor
(2005) Saul Perlmutter, Adam Riess
Adam Riess
and Brian Schmidt
Brian Schmidt
(2006) Peter Goldreich
Peter Goldreich
(2007) Reinhard Genzel
Reinhard Genzel
(2008) Frank Shu
Frank Shu
(2009) Charles Bennett, Lyman Page
Lyman Page
and David Spergel (2010) Enrico Costa and Gerald Fishman (2011) David Jewitt and Jane Luu
Jane Luu
(2012) Steven Balbus
Steven Balbus
and John Hawley (2013) Daniel Eisenstein, Shaun Cole and John Peacock (2014) William Borucki (2015) Ronald Drever, Kip Thorne
Kip Thorne
and Rainer Weiss
Rainer Weiss
(2016) Simon White
Simon White
(2017)

Life science and medicine

Stanley Norman Cohen, Herbert Boyer, Kan Yuet-wai and Richard Doll (2004) Michael Berridge (2005) Xiaodong Wang (2006) Robert Lefkowitz
Robert Lefkowitz
(2007) Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell and Shinya Yamanaka
Shinya Yamanaka
(2008) Douglas Coleman and Jeffrey Friedman (2009) David Julius (2010) Jules Hoffmann, Ruslan Medzhitov and Bruce Beutler
Bruce Beutler
(2011) Franz-Ulrich Hartl and Arthur Horwich (2012) Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash
Michael Rosbash
and Michael Young (2013) Kazutoshi Mori and Peter Walter
Peter Walter
(2014) Bonnie Bassler and Everett Peter Greenberg (2015) Adrian Bird
Adrian Bird
and Huda Zoghbi
Huda Zoghbi
(2016) Ian R. Gibbons
Ian R. Gibbons
and Ronald Vale (2017)

Mathematical science

Shiing-Shen Chern
Shiing-Shen Chern
(2004) Andrew Wiles
Andrew Wiles
(2005) David Mumford
David Mumford
and Wu Wenjun (2006) Robert Langlands
Robert Langlands
and Richard Taylor (2007) Vladimir Arnold
Vladimir Arnold
and Ludvig Faddeev
Ludvig Faddeev
(2008) Simon Donaldson
Simon Donaldson
and Clifford Taubes
Clifford Taubes
(2009) Jean Bourgain
Jean Bourgain
(2010) Demetrios Christodoulou
Demetrios Christodoulou
and Richard S. Hamilton
Richard S. Hamilton
(2011) Maxim Kontsevich
Maxim Kontsevich
(2012) David Donoho (2013) George Lusztig (2014) Gerd Faltings
Gerd Faltings
and Henryk Iwaniec
Henryk Iwaniec
(2015) Nigel Hitchin
Nigel Hitchin
(2016) János Kollár and Claire Voisin
Claire Voisin
(2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 108141048 LCCN: n83826321 ISNI: 0000 0001 1697 5126 GND: 121312453 SUDOC: 031677835 BNF: cb12284753x (data) BIBSYS: 90190748 MGP: 63787 NLA: 35548968 NDL: 00655185 NKC: jn19990008521 BNE: XX1091

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