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The Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
(Hebrew: מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה‬, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age
Iron Age
kingdom of the Southern Levant. The Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
depicts it as the successor to a United Monarchy, but historians are divided about the veracity of this account. In the 10th and early 9th centuries, BCE the territory of Judah appears to have been sparsely populated, limited to small rural settlements, most of them unfortified.[9] Jerusalem, the kingdom's capital, likely did not emerge as a significant administrative center until the end of the 8th century; before this the archaeological evidence suggests its population was too small to sustain a viable kingdom.[10] In the 7th century its population increased greatly, prospering under Assyrian vassalage (despite Hezekiah's revolt against the Assyrian king Sennacherib[11]), but in 605 the Assyrian Empire
Assyrian Empire
was defeated, and the ensuing competition between the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt
and the Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
for control of the Eastern Mediterranean led to the destruction of the kingdom in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582, the deportation of the elite of the community, and the incorporation of Judah into a province of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.

Contents

1 Archaeological record 2 Biblical narrative

2.1 Relations with the Northern Kingdom 2.2 Clash of empires 2.3 Destruction and dispersion

3 Re-establishment under Persian rule 4 See also 5 References

5.1 Further reading

Archaeological record[edit] See also: Biblical archaeology, Biblical archaeology
Biblical archaeology
school, and The Bible
Bible
and history

Mesha Stele
Mesha Stele
c. 850 BCE – An inscribed stone set up c. 840 BCE by Mesha
Mesha
of Moab
Moab
tells how Chemosh, the God of Moab, had been angry with his people and allowed them to be subjugated to Israel, but at length assisted Mesha
Mesha
to throw off the yoke of Israel
Israel
and restore the lands of Moab.[12]

Significant academic debate exists around the character of the Kingdom of Judah. Little archaeological evidence of an extensive, powerful Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
before the late 8th century BCE has been found; Nimrud Tablet K.3751, dated c. 733 BCE, is the earliest known record of the name Judah (written in Assyrian cuneiform
Assyrian cuneiform
as Yaudaya or KUR.ia-ú-da-a-a).[13] Archaeologists of the minimalist school doubt the extent of the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
as depicted in the Bible. Around 1990–2010, an important group of archaeologists and biblical scholars formed the view that the actual Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
bore little resemblance to the biblical portrait of a powerful monarchy. These scholars say the kingdom was no more than a small tribal entity.[14][15] However, Yosef Garfinkel
Yosef Garfinkel
has written in a preliminary report published by the Israeli Antiquities Authority
Israeli Antiquities Authority
that finds at the Khirbet Qeiyafa site support the notion that an urban society already existed in Judah in the late 11th century BCE.[16] Other archaeologists say that the identification of Khirbet Qeiyafa
Khirbet Qeiyafa
as an Israelite settlement is uncertain.[17][18] The status of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the 10th century BCE is a major subject of debate.[9] The oldest part of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and its original urban core is the City of David, which does not show evidence of significant Israelite residential activity until the 9th century.[19] However, unique administrative structures such as the Stepped Stone Structure and the Large Stone Structure, which originally formed one structure, contain material culture dated to Iron I.[9] On account of the apparent lack of settlement activity in the 10th century BCE, Israel Finkelstein argues that Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the century was a small country village in the Judean hills, not a national capital, and Ussishkin argues that the city was entirely uninhabited. Amihai Mazar contends that if the Iron I/Iron IIa dating of administrative structures in the City of David
David
are correct, (as he believes) " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was a rather small town with a mighty citadel, which could have been a center of a substantial regional polity."[9] Biblical narrative[edit] See also: History of ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah

Part of a series on the

History of Israel

Ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah

Natufian culture Prehistory Canaan Israelites United monarchy Northern Kingdom Kingdom of Judah Babylonian rule

Second Temple period
Second Temple period
(530 BC–AD 70)

Persian rule Hellenistic period Hasmonean dynasty Herodian dynasty

Kingdom Tetrarchy

Roman Judea

Middle Ages (70–1517)

Roman Palaestina Byzantine Palaestina

Prima Secunda

Revolt against Constantius Gallus Samaritan revolts Revolt against Heraclius Caliphates

Filastin Urdunn

Crusades Ayyubid dynasty Mamluk Sultanate

Modern history
Modern history
(1517–1948)

Ottoman rule

Eyalet Mutasarrifate

Old Yishuv Zionism OETA British mandate

State of Israel
Israel
(1948–present)

Independence Timeline Years Arab–Israeli conflict Start-up Nation

History of the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
by topic

Judaism Jerusalem Zionism Jewish leaders Jewish warfare Nationality

Related

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Hebrew
calendar Archaeology Museums

Israel
Israel
portal

v t e

According to the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, the kingdom of Judah resulted from the break-up of the United kingdom of Israel
Israel
(1020 to about 930 BCE) after the northern tribes refused to accept Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, as their king. At first, only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David, but soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah. The two kingdoms, Judah in the south and Israel
Israel
in the north, coexisted uneasily after the split until the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel
Israel
by Assyria
Assyria
in c. 722/721. The major theme of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible's narrative is the loyalty of Judah, and especially its kings, to Yahweh, which it states is the God of Israel. Accordingly, all the kings of Israel
Israel
and almost all the kings of Judah were "bad", which in terms of Biblical narrative means that they failed to enforce monotheism. Of the "good" kings, Hezekiah (727–698 BCE) is noted for his efforts at stamping out idolatry (in this case, the worship of Baal
Baal
and Asherah, among other traditional Near Eastern divinities),[20] but his successors, Manasseh of Judah (698–642 BCE) and Amon (642–640 BCE), revived idolatry, drawing down on the kingdom the anger of Yahweh. King Josiah
Josiah
(640–609 BCE) returned to the worship of Yahweh
Yahweh
alone, but his efforts were too late and Israel's unfaithfulness caused God to permit the kingdom's destruction by the Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
in the Siege of Jerusalem (587 BCE). However it is now fairly well established among academic scholars that the Biblical narrative is not an accurate reflection of religious views in either Judah or particularly Israel
Israel
during this period.[21] Relations with the Northern Kingdom[edit]

Rulers of Judah

Saul David Solomon Rehoboam Abijah Asa Jehoshaphat Jehoram Ahaziah Athaliah J(eh)oash Amaziah Uzziah/Azariah Jotham Ahaz Hezekiah Manasseh Amon Josiah Jehoahaz Jehoiakim Jeconiah/Jehoiachin Zedekiah

v t e

For the first sixty years, the kings of Judah tried to re-establish their authority over the northern kingdom, and there was perpetual war between them. Israel
Israel
and Judah were in a state of war throughout Rehoboam's seventeen-year reign. Rehoboam
Rehoboam
built elaborate defenses and strongholds, along with fortified cities. In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign, Shishak, pharaoh of Egypt, brought a huge army and took many cities. In the sack of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(10th century BCE), Rehoboam
Rehoboam
gave them all of the treasures out of the temple as a tribute and Judah became a vassal state of Egypt. Rehoboam's son and successor, Abijah of Judah
Abijah of Judah
continued his father's efforts to bring Israel
Israel
under his control. He fought the Battle of Mount Zemaraim against Jeroboam
Jeroboam
of Israel
Israel
and was victorious with a heavy loss of life on the Israel
Israel
side. According to the books of Chronicles, Abijah and his people defeated them with a great slaughter, so that 500,000 chosen men of Israel
Israel
fell slain[22] after which Jeroboam
Jeroboam
posed little threat to Judah for the rest of his reign and the border of the tribe of Benjamin was restored to the original tribal border.[23] Abijah's son and successor, Asa of Judah, maintained peace for the first 35 years of his reign,[24] during which time he revamped and reinforced the fortresses originally built by his grandfather, Rehoboam. 2 Chronicles states that at the Battle of Zephath, the Egyptian-backed chieftain Zerah the Ethiopian and his million men and 300 chariots was defeated by Asa's 580,000 men in the Valley of Zephath near Maresha.[25] The Bible
Bible
does not state whether Zerah was a pharaoh or a general of the army. The Ethiopians were pursued all the way to Gerar, in the coastal plain, where they stopped out of sheer exhaustion. The resulting peace kept Judah free from Egyptian incursions until the time of Josiah
Josiah
some centuries later. In his 36th year, Asa was confronted by Baasha of Israel,[24] who built a fortress at Ramah on the border, less than ten miles from Jerusalem. The result was that the capital was under pressure and the military situation was precarious. Asa took gold and silver from the Temple and sent them to Ben-Hadad I, king of Aram-Damascus, in exchange for the Damascene king canceling his peace treaty with Baasha. Ben-Hadad attacked Ijon, Dan, and many important cities of the tribe of Naphtali, and Baasha was forced to withdraw from Ramah.[26] Asa tore down the unfinished fortress and used its raw materials to fortify Geba and Mizpah in Benjamin on his side of the border.[27] Asa's successor, Jehoshaphat, changed the policy towards Israel
Israel
and instead pursued alliances and co-operation with the northern kingdom. The alliance with Ahab
Ahab
was based on marriage. This alliance led to disaster for the kingdom with the battle of Ramoth-Gilead.[28] He then entered into an alliance with Ahaziah of Israel
Israel
for the purpose of carrying on maritime commerce with Ophir. But the fleet that was then equipped at Ezion-Geber was immediately wrecked. A new fleet was fitted out without the cooperation of the king of Israel, and although it was successful, the trade was not prosecuted.[29] He subsequently joined Jehoram of Israel
Israel
in a war against the Moabites, who were under tribute to Israel. This war was successful, with the Moabites being subdued. However, on seeing Mesha's act of offering his own son in a human sacrifice on the walls of Kir-haresheth filled Jehoshaphat
Jehoshaphat
with horror and he withdrew and returned to his own land.[30] Jehoshaphat's successor, Jehoram of Judah
Jehoram of Judah
formed an alliance with Israel
Israel
by marrying Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab. Despite this alliance with the stronger northern kingdom, Jehoram's rule of Judah was shaky. Edom
Edom
revolted, and he was forced to acknowledge their independence. A raid by Philistines, Arabs
Arabs
and Ethiopians looted the king's house and carried off all of his family except for his youngest son, Ahaziah of Judah. Clash of empires[edit]

Stamped bulla of a servant of King Hezekiah
Hezekiah
used to seal a papyrus document

After Hezekiah
Hezekiah
became sole ruler in c. 715 BCE, he formed alliances with Ashkelon
Ashkelon
and Egypt, and made a stand against Assyria
Assyria
by refusing to pay tribute.[31] (Isaiah 30–31; 36:6–9) In response, Sennacherib
Sennacherib
of Assyria
Assyria
attacked the fortified cities of Judah. (2 Kings 18:13) Hezekiah
Hezekiah
paid three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold to Assyria
Assyria
– requiring him to empty the temple and royal treasury of silver and strip the gold from the doorposts of Solomon's Temple. (2 Kings 18:14–16)[31] However, Sennacherib besieged Jerusalem[32] (2 Kings 18:17) in 701 BCE, though the city was never taken. During the long reign of Manasseh (c. 687/686 – 643/642 BCE),[33] Judah was a vassal of Assyrian rulers – Sennacherib
Sennacherib
and his successors, Esarhaddon[34] and Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
after 669 BCE. Manasseh is listed as being required to provide materials for Esarhaddon's building projects, and as one of a number of vassals who assisted Ashurbanipal's campaign against Egypt.[34] When Josiah
Josiah
became king of Judah in c. 641/640 BCE,[33] the international situation was in flux. To the east, the Neo-Assyrian Empire was beginning to disintegrate, the Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
had not yet risen to replace it, and Egypt
Egypt
to the west was still recovering from Assyrian rule. In this power vacuum, Judah was able to govern itself for the time being without foreign intervention. However, in the spring of 609 BCE, Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Necho II
Necho II
personally led a sizable army up to the Euphrates
Euphrates
to aid the Assyrians.[35] Taking the coast route Via Maris
Via Maris
into Syria
Syria
at the head of a large army, Necho passed the low tracts of Philistia
Philistia
and Sharon. However, the passage over the ridge of hills which shuts in on the south of the great Jezreel Valley
Jezreel Valley
was blocked by the Judean army led by Josiah, who may have considered that the Assyrians and Egyptians were weakened by the death of the pharaoh Psamtik I
Psamtik I
only a year earlier (610 BCE).[35] Presumably in an attempt to help the Babylonians, Josiah
Josiah
attempted to block the advance at Megiddo, where a fierce battle was fought and where Josiah
Josiah
was killed.[36] Necho then joined forces with the Assyrian Ashur-uballit II and together they crossed the Euphrates
Euphrates
and lay siege to Harran. The combined forces failed to capture the city, and Necho retreated back to northern Syria. The event also marked the disintegration of the Assyrian Empire. On his return march to Egypt
Egypt
in 608 BCE, Necho found that Jehoahaz had been selected to succeed his father, Josiah.[37] Necho deposed Jehoahaz, who had been king for only three months, and replaced him with his older brother, Jehoiakim. Necho imposed on Judah a levy of a hundred talents of silver (about 3​3⁄4 tons or about 3.4 metric tons) and a talent of gold (about 34 kilograms (75 lb)). Necho then took Jehoahaz back to Egypt
Egypt
as his prisoner,[38] never to return. Jehoiakim
Jehoiakim
ruled originally as a vassal of the Egyptians, paying a heavy tribute. However, when the Egyptians were defeated by the Babylonians at Carchemish in 605 BCE, Jehoiakim
Jehoiakim
changed allegiances, paying tribute to Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon. In 601 BCE, in the fourth year of his reign, Nebuchadnezzar unsuccessfully attempted to invade Egypt
Egypt
and was repulsed with heavy losses. This failure led to numerous rebellions among the states of the Levant
Levant
which owed allegiance to Babylon. Jehoiakim
Jehoiakim
also stopped paying tribute to Nebuchadnezzar[39] and took a pro-Egyptian position. Nebuchadnezzar soon dealt with these rebellions. According to the Babylonian Chronicles, after invading "the land of Hatti (Syria/Palestine)"[40][41] in 599 BCE, he lay siege to Jerusalem. Jehoiakim
Jehoiakim
died in 598 BCE[42] during the siege, and was succeeded by his son Jeconiah
Jeconiah
at an age of either eight or eighteen.[43] The city fell about three months later,[44][45] on 2 Adar
Adar
(March 16) 597 BCE. Nebuchadnezzar pillaged both Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Temple, carting all his spoils to Babylon. Jeconiah
Jeconiah
and his court and other prominent citizens and craftsmen, along with a sizable portion of the Jewish population of Judah, numbering about 10,000[46] were deported from the land and dispersed throughout the Babylonian Empire. (2 Kings 24:14) Among them was Ezekiel. Nebuchadnezzar appointed Zedekiah, Jehoiakim's brother, king of the reduced kingdom, who was made a tributary of Babylon. Destruction and dispersion[edit] Further information: Babylonian captivity

Depiction of Jewish king and soldiers in ancient Judah

Despite the strong remonstrances of Jeremiah
Jeremiah
and others, Zedekiah revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, ceasing to pay tribute to him and entered into an alliance with Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Hophra. In 589 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar II returned to Judah and again besieged Jerusalem. During this period, many Jews fled to surrounding Moab, Ammon, Edom and other countries to seek refuge.[47] The city fell after a siege which lasted either eighteen or thirty months[48] and Nebuchadnezzar again pillaged both Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Temple,[49] after which he destroyed them both.[50] After killing all of Zedekiah's sons, with the possible exception of one,[51] Nebuchadnezzar took Zedekiah
Zedekiah
to Babylon,[52] putting an end to the independent Kingdom of Judah. According to the Book of Jeremiah, in addition to those killed during the siege, some 4,600 people were deported after the fall of Judah.[53] By 586 BCE much of Judah was devastated, and the former kingdom suffered a steep decline of both economy and population.[54] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
apparently remained uninhabited for much of the 6th century,[54] and the centre of gravity shifted to Benjamin, the relatively unscathed northern section of the kingdom, where the town of Mizpah became the capital of the new Babylonian province of Yehud for the remnant of the Jewish population in a part of the former kingdom.[55] This was standard Babylonian practice: when the Philistine city of Ashkelon
Ashkelon
was conquered in 604 BCE, the political, religious and economic elite (but not the bulk of the population) was banished and the administrative centre shifted to a new location.[56] Gedaliah was appointed governor of the Yehud Medinata, supported by a Babylonian guard. The administrative centre of the province was Mizpah in Benjamin,[57] not Jerusalem. On hearing of the appointment, many of the Judeans that had taken refuge in surrounding countries were persuaded to return to Judah.[58] However, before long Gedaliah was assassinated by a member of the royal house, and the Chaldean soldiers killed. The population that was left in the land and those that had returned fled to Egypt
Egypt
fearing a Babylonian reprisal, under the leadership of Yohanan ben Kareah, ignoring the urging of the prophet Jeremiah
Jeremiah
against the move. (2 Kings 25:26, Jeremiah
Jeremiah
43:5–7) In Egypt, the refugees settled in Migdol, Tahpanhes, Noph, and Pathros, ( Jeremiah
Jeremiah
44:1) and Jeremiah
Jeremiah
went with them as a moral guardian. The numbers that were deported to Babylon and those who made their way to Egypt
Egypt
and the remnant that remained in the land and in surrounding countries is subject to academic debate. The Book of Jeremiah
Jeremiah
reports that 4600 were exiled to Babylonia.[53] The Books of Kings
Books of Kings
suggest that it was ten thousand, and later eight thousand. Re-establishment under Persian rule[edit] Main article: Yehud Medinata In 539 BCE the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
conquered Babylonia
Babylonia
and allowed the exiles to return to Yehud Medinata
Yehud Medinata
and rebuild the Temple, which was completed in the sixth year of Darius (515 BCE) (Ezra 6:15) under Zerubbabel, the grandson of the second to last king of Judah, Jeconiah. Yehud Medinata
Yehud Medinata
was a peaceful part of the Achaemenid Empire until the fall of the Empire in c. 333 BCE to Alexander the Great. See also[edit]

Kings of Judah List of artifacts in biblical archaeology

References[edit]

^ Grabbe, Lester L., ed. (2008). Israel
Israel
in Transition: From Late Bronze II to Iron IIa (c. 1250–850 B.C.E.). T&T Clark International. pp. 225–6. ISBN 978-0567027269. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Lehman in Vaughn, Andrew G.; Killebrew, Ann E., eds. (1992). Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Bible
Bible
and Archaeology: The First Temple Period. Sheffield. p. 149. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Finkelstein, Israel
Israel
(2006). "The Last Labayu: King Saul
Saul
and the Expansion of the First North Israelite Territorial Entity". In Amit, Yairah; Ben Zvi, Ehud; Finkelstein, Israel; et al. Essays on Ancient Israel
Israel
in Its Near Eastern Context: A Tribute to Nadav Naʼaman. Eisenbrauns. pp. 171 ff. ISBN 9781575061283.  ^ " Ezekiel
Ezekiel
8 - Idolatry
Idolatry
in the Temple - In the sixth". Bible
Bible
Gateway. Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "1 Kings 11:5 He followed Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and Molek the detestable god of the Ammonites". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "2 Kings 23:13 The king also desecrated the high places that were east of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on the south of the Hill of Corruption-the ones Solomon
Solomon
king of Israel
Israel
had built for Ashtoreth the vile goddess of the Sidonians, for Chemosh
Chemosh
the vile god of Moab, and for Molek the detestable god of the people of Ammon". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ " Jeremiah
Jeremiah
11:13 You, Judah, have as many gods as you have towns; and the altars you have set up to burn incense to that shameful god Baal are as many as the streets of Jerusalem.'". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ Israel
Israel
Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible
Bible
Unearthed, Free Press, New York, 2001, pp. 240–43., ISBN 0-684-86912-8 ^ a b c d " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the 10th century BCE" (PDF). Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ Moore & Kelle 2011, p. 302. ^ A History of the Jewish People, H.H. Ben-Sasson
H.H. Ben-Sasson
ed., Harvard University Press, 1976, p. 142: "Sargon's heir, Sennacherib (705–681), could not deal with Hezekiah's revolt until he gained control of Babylon in 702. ..." ^ Rollston, Chris A. (2010). Writing and Literacy in the World of Ancient Israel: Epigraphic Evidence from the Iron Age. Society of Biblical Literature. pp. 53–54.  ^ The Pitcher Is Broken: Memorial Essays for Gosta W. Ahlstrom, Steven W. Holloway, Lowell K. Handy, Continuum, 1 May 1995 Quote: "For Israel, the description of the battle of Qarqar in the Kurkh Monolith of Shalmaneser III (mid-ninth century) and for Judah, a Tiglath-pileser III text mentioning (Jeho-) Ahaz
Ahaz
of Judah (IIR67 = K. 3751), dated 734-733, are the earliest published to date." ^ Asaf Shtull-Trauring (6 May 2011). "The keys to the kingdom". Haaretz. an important group of archaeologists and biblical scholars formed the view that in reality the kingdom of David
David
and Solomon
Solomon
bore little resemblance to the biblical portrait of an extensive, powerful, united monarchy. This view derives primarily from the fact that no 10th century BCE archaeological finds exist that could corroborate claims of the existence of a magnificent biblical kingdom extending from Be'er Sheva in the south to Dan in the north. Accordingly, these scholars and archaeologists conclude that the so-called kingdom was no more than a small tribal entity, meager in substance and sparse in population, which did not extend beyond the boundaries of Jerusalem and its immediate surroundings  ^ Israel
Israel
Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, Free Press, New York, 2001, 385 pp., ISBN 0-684-86912-8 ^ Khirbat Qeiyafa Preliminary Report ( Israel
Israel
Antiquities Authority, 19/4/2012) ^ Friedman, Matti (October 30, 2008). "Israeli Archaeologists Find Ancient Text". AOL news. Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 3, 2008.  The finds have not yet established who the residents were, says Aren Maier, a Bar Ilan University archaeologist ^ Archaeological find stirs debate on David's kingdom (Haaretz, May 9th, 2012) Prof. Nadav Na'aman, a historian and archaeologist at Tel Aviv University, discounts Garfinkel and Ganor's conclusions. "These are beautiful finds but they are not special in that similar ones have been found in various places, and they should therefore not be connected in any way to the ark," nor to the Temple in Jerusalem, says Na'aman. (...) He said he found the combination on one of the items of lions and doves very interesting. "The dove is connected to a fertility goddess, and this combination hints that the model belonged to a cultic site of a fertility goddess. I think Qeiyafa was a Canaanite site that had no connection to Jerusalem," he added. ^ Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E. (17 May 2011). "Biblical History and Israel
Israel
S Past: The Changing Study of the Bible
Bible
and History". Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing – via Google Books.  ^ Oded Borowski, "Hezekiah's Reforms and the Revolt against Assyria". Archived from the original on July 23, 1997. Retrieved 2013-04-21. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) , Emory University, 1997 ^ Lowell K. Handy (1994). "The Appearance of Pantheon in Judah". In Diana Vikander Edelman. The Triumph of Elohim. Grand Rapids, Michigan: W. B. Eerdmans. p. 27.  ^ 2 Chronicles 13:17 ^ 2 Chronicles 13:20 ^ a b 2 Chronicles 16:1 ^ 2 Chronicles 14:9–15 ^ 2 Chronicles 16:2–6 ^ 2 Chronicles 16:1–7 ^ 1 Kings 22:1–33 ^ 2 Kings 20:35–37; 1 Kings 22:48–49 ^ 2 Kings 3:4–27 ^ a b Peter J. Leithart, 1 & 2 Kings, Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible, pp 255–256, Baker Publishing Group, Grand Rapids, MI (2006) ISBN 9781441235602 ^ James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Related to the Old Testament
Old Testament
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1965) 287–88. ^ a b Edwin Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Kings, (1st ed.; New York: Macmillan, 1951; 2d ed.; Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1965; 3rd ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983). ISBN 0-8254-3825-X, 9780825438257 ^ a b Bright, John, A History of Israel, p. 311, (1980) ^ a b 2Kings 23:29

Coogan, Michael David
David
(2001). The Oxford History of the Biblical World. Oxford University Press. p. 261. ISBN 9780195139372. 

^ 2 Kings 23:29, 2 Chronicles 35:20–24 ^ 2 Kings 23:31 ^ 2 Chronicles 36:1–4 ^ The Divided Monarchy
Monarchy
c. 931–586 BCE ^ No 24 WA21946, The Babylonian Chronicles, The British Museum ^ Geoffrey Wigoder, The Illustrated Dictionary & Concordance of the Bible
Bible
Pub. by Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. (2006) ^ Dan Cohn-Sherbok, The Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, Continuum International, 1996, p. x. ISBN 0-304-33703-X ^ Vincent, Robert Benn, Daniel and the Captivity of Israel
Israel
part of a Bible
Bible
Studies series ^ Philip J. King, Jeremiah: An Archaeological Companion (Westminster John Knox Press, 1993), p. 23. ^ 2 Chronicles 36:9 ^ The Oxford History of the Biblical World, ed. by Michael D Coogan. Pub. by Oxford University Press, 1999. p. 350 ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
40:11–12 ^ Malamat, Abraham (1968). "The Last Kings of Judah
Kings of Judah
and the Fall of Jerusalem: An Historical – Chronological Study". Israel
Israel
Exploration Journal. 18 (3): 137–56. JSTOR 27925138. The discrepancy between the length of the siege according to the regnal years of Zedekiah
Zedekiah
(years 9–11), on the one hand, and its length according to Jehoiachin's exile (years 9–12), on the other, can be cancelled out only by supposing the former to have been reckoned on a Tishri basis, and the latter on a Nisan basis. The difference of one year between the two is accounted for by the fact that the termination of the siege fell in the summer, between Nisan and Tishri, already in the 12th year according to the reckoning in Ezekiel, but still in Zedekiah's 11th year which was to end only in Tishri.  ^ Ezra 5:14 ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
52:10–13 ^ "The Book of Helaman, Chapter 8".  ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
52:10–11 ^ a b Jeremiah
Jeremiah
52:29–30 ^ a b Grabbe, Lester L. (2004). A History of the Jews and Judaism
Judaism
in the Second Temple Period. T&T Clark International. p. 28. ISBN 0-567-08998-3.  ^ Davies, Philip R., "The Origin of Biblical Israel
Israel
Archived 2008-05-28 at the Wayback Machine.", Journal of Hebrew
Hebrew
Scriptures (art. 47, vol9, 2009) ^ Lipschitz, Oded, "The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem" (Eisenbrauns, 2005) p. 48 ^ 2 Kings 25:22–24, Jeremiah
Jeremiah
40:6–8 ^ Marvin A. Sweeney (1 October 2010). The Prophetic Literature: Interpreting Biblical Texts Series. Abingdon Press,. 

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Albertz, Rainer (1994) [Vanderhoek & Ruprecht 1992]. A History of Israelite Religion, Volume I: From the Beginnings to the End of the Monarchy. Westminster John Knox Press.  Albertz, Rainer (1994) [Vanderhoek & Ruprecht 1992]. A History of Israelite Religion, Volume II: From the Exile to the Maccabees. Westminster John Knox Press.  Albertz, Rainer (2003a). Israel
Israel
in Exile: The History and Literature of the Sixth Century B.C.E. Society of Biblical Literature.  Becking, Bob (2003b). "Law as Expression of Religion (Ezra 7–10)". Yahwism After the Exile: Perspectives on Israelite Religion in the Persian Era. Koninklijke Van Gorcum. ISBN 978-9023238805.  Amit, Yaira, et al., eds. (2006). Essays on Ancient Israel
Israel
in its Near Eastern Context: A Tribute to Nadav Na'aman. Eisenbrauns. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Davies, Philip R. "The Origin of Biblical Israel". Retrieved 14 February 2015.  Barstad, Hans M. (2008). History and the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible. Mohr Siebeck.  Bedford, Peter Ross (2001). Temple Restoration in Early Achaemenid Judah. Brill.  Ben-Sasson, H.H. (1976). A History of the Jewish People. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-39731-2.  Blenkinsopp, Joseph (1988). Ezra-Nehemiah: A Commentary. Eerdmans.  Blenkinsopp, Joseph; Lipschits, Oded, eds. (2003). Judah and the Judeans in the Neo-Babylonian Period. Eisenbrauns. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Blenkinsopp, Joseph (2003). "Bethel in the Neo-Babylonian Period". In Oded Lipschitz; Joseph Blenkinsopp. Judah and the Judeans in the Neo-Babylonian Period. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1575060736.  Blenkinsopp, Joseph (2009). Judaism, the First Phase: The Place of Ezra and Nehemiah in the Origins of Judaism. Eerdmans.  Brett, Mark G. (2002). Ethnicity and the Bible. Brill.  Bright, John (2000). A History of Israel. Westminster John Knox Press.  Coogan, Michael D., ed. (1998). The Oxford History of the Biblical World. Oxford University Press. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Coote, Robert B.; Whitelam, Keith W. (1986). "The Emergence of Israel: Social Transformation and State Formation Following the Decline in Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Trade". Semeia
Semeia
(37): 107–47.  Davies, Philip R. (1992). In Search of Ancient Israel. Sheffield.  Davies, Philip R. (2009). "The Origin of Biblical Israel". Journal of Hebrew
Hebrew
Scriptures. 9 (47). Archived from the original on 2008-05-28.  Dever, William (2001). What Did the Biblical Writers Know, and When Did They Know It?. Eerdmans.  Dever, William (2003). Who Were the Early Israelites
Israelites
and Where Did They Come From?. Eerdmans.  Dunn, James D.G; Rogerson, John William, eds. (2003). Eerdmans commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Edelman, Diana, ed. (1995). The Triumph of Elohim: From Yahwisms to Judaisms. Kok Pharos. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). The Bible Unearthed.  Finkelstein, Israel; Mazar, Amihay; Schmidt, Brian B. (2007). The Quest for the Historical Israel. Society of Biblical Literature.  Golden, Jonathan Michael (2004a). Ancient Canaan
Canaan
and Israel: An Introduction. Oxford University Press.  Golden, Jonathan Michael (2004b). Ancient Canaan
Canaan
and Israel: New Perspectives. ABC-CLIO.  Killebrew, Ann E. (2005). Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity: An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, and Early Israel, 1300–1100 B.C.E. Society of Biblical Literature.  King, Philip J.; Stager, Lawrence E. (2001). Life in Biblical Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-22148-3.  Kuhrt, Amélie (1995). The Ancient Near East c. 3000–330 BC. Routledge.  Lemche, Niels Peter (1998). The Israelites
Israelites
in History and Tradition. Westminster John Knox Press.  Levy, Thomas E. (1998). The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land. Continuum International Publishing.  Lipschits, Oded (2005). The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem. Eisenbrauns.  Lipschits, Oded, et al., eds. (2006). Judah and the Judeans in the Fourth Century B.C.E. Eisenbrauns. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) McNutt, Paula (1999). Reconstructing the Society of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox Press.  Merrill, Eugene H. (1995). "The Late Bronze/Early Iron Age
Iron Age
Transition and the Emergence of Israel". Bibliotheca Sacra. 152 (606): 145–62.  Middlemas, Jill Anne (2005). The Troubles of Templeless Judah. Oxford University Press.  Miller, James Maxwell; Hayes, John Haralson (1986). A History of Ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-21262-X.  Miller, Robert D. (2005). Chieftains of the Highland Clans: A History of Israel
Israel
in the 12th and 11th Centuries B.C. Eerdmans.  Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E. (2011). Biblical History and Israel's Past. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-6260-0.  Pitkänen, Pekka (2004). "Ethnicity, Assimilation and the Israelite Settlement" (PDF). Tyndale Bulletin. 55 (2): 161–82. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-17.  Silberman, Neil Asher; Small, David
David
B., eds. (1997). The Archaeology of Israel: Constructing the Past, Interpreting the Present. Sheffield Academic Press. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Soggin, Michael J. (1998). An Introduction to the History of Israel and Judah. Paideia.  Van der Toorn, Karel (1996). Family Religion in Babylonia, Syria, and Israel. Brill.  Zevit, Ziony (2001). The Religions of Ancient Israel: A Synthesis of Parallactic Approaches. Continuum. 

v t e

The Biblical and Historical Israelites

Children of Israel
Israel
/ Twelve Tribes of Israel Ten Lost Tribes

History of ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah Land of Israel United Monarchy
Monarchy
(Kingdom of Israel) Northern Kingdom Southern Kingdom (Kingdom of Judah)

Tanakh Bible Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible Old Testament Historicity of the Bible

v t e

Rulers of Israel
Israel
and Judah

Davidic line Kings of Israel
Israel
and Judah

Kings of Judah

Hasmonean and Herodian rulers

Tribes of Israel

The Twelve Spies Abimelech

United monarchy

Saul Ish-bosheth David Solomon

Israel (northern kingdom)

Jeroboam
Jeroboam
I Nadab Baasha Elah Zimri Tibni Omri Ahab Ahaziah Jehoram Jehu Jehoahaz Jehoash Jeroboam
Jeroboam
II Zechariah Shallum Menahem Pekahiah Pekah Hoshea

Judah (southern kingdom)

Rehoboam Abijam Asa Jehoshaphat Jehoram Ahaziah Athaliah Jehoash Amaziah Uzziah Jotham Ahaz Hezekiah Manasseh Amon Josiah Jehoahaz Jehoiakim Jeconiah Zedekiah

Hasmonean dynasty

Simon Thassi John Hyrcanus Aristobulus I Alexander Jannaeus Salome Alexandra Hyrcanus II Aristobulus II Antigonus II Mattathias

Herodian dynasty

Herod the Great Archelaus Antipas Philip the Tetrarch Salome I Agrippa Herod of Chalcis Agrippa II

Bar Kokhba revolt

Simon bar Kokhba

See also

List of Jewish leaders in the Land of Israel

Italics indicate a disputed reign or non-royal title

v t e

Ancient states and regions in the history of the Levant

Bronze Age

Akkadian Empire Amurru Bashan Canaan Ebla Edom Hittite Empire Mari Mitanni Moab Nagar Qatna Tyre Ugarit Urkesh Yamhad

Iron Age

Ammon Aramea Aram-Damascus Assyrian Empire Canaan Egyptian Empire Israel
Israel
(Samaria) Israel
Israel
and Judah Judah Neo-Babylonian Empire Philistia Phoenicia Syro-Hittite

Classical Age

Byzantine Empire Hasmonea Herodian Judaea Herodian Tetrarchy Macedonian Empire Nabataea Neo-Babylonian Empire Parthian Empire Palmyrene Empire Persian Empire Roman Empire Roman Republic Sasanian Empi

.