The Info List - Kingdom Of Judah

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The KINGDOM OF JUDAH ( Hebrew : מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה‎‎, _Mamlekhet Yehudāh_) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant . The Hebrew Bible depicts it as the successor to a United Monarchy , but historians are divided about the veracity of this account. In the 10th and early 9th centuries BCE the territory of Judah appears to have been sparsely populated, limited to small rural settlements, most of them unfortified. Jerusalem , the kingdom's capital, likely did not emerge as a significant administrative centre until the end of the 8th century; prior to this archaeological evidence suggests its population was too small to sustain a viable kingdom. In the 7th century its population increased greatly, prospering under Assyrian vassalage (despite Hezekiah\'s revolt against the Assyrian king Sennacherib ), but in 605 the Assyrian Empire was defeated , and the ensuing competition between the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt and the Neo-Babylonian Empire for control of the Eastern Mediterranean led to the destruction of the kingdom in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582, the deportation of the elite of the community , and the incorporation of Judah into a province of the Neo-Babylonian Empire .


* 1 Archaeological record

* 2 Biblical narrative

* 2.1 Relations with the Northern Kingdom * 2.2 Clash of empires * 2.3 Destruction and dispersion

* 3 Re-establishment under Persian rule * 4 See also

* 5 References

* 5.1 Further reading


See also: Biblical archaeology , Biblical archaeology school , and The Bible and history

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Mesha Stele c. 850 BCE – An inscribed stone set up c. 840 BCE by Mesha of Moab tells how Chemosh , the God of Moab, had been angry with his people and allowed them to be subjugated to Israel, but at length assisted Mesha to throw off the yoke of Israel and restore the lands of Moab.

Significant academic debate exists around the character of the Kingdom of Judah. Little archaeological evidence of an extensive, powerful Kingdom of Judah before the late 8th century BCE has been found; Nimrud Tablet K.3751 , dated c.733 BCE, is the earliest known record of the name Judah (written in Assyrian cuneiform as Yaudaya or KUR.ia-ú-da-a-a).

Archaeologists of the minimalist school doubt the extent of the Kingdom of Judah as depicted in the Bible. Around 1990–2010, an important group of archaeologists and biblical scholars formed the view that the actual Kingdom of Judah bore little resemblance to the biblical portrait of a powerful monarchy. These scholars say the kingdom was no more than a small tribal entity.

However, Yosef Garfinkel has written in a preliminary report published by the Israeli Antiquities Authority that finds at the Khirbet Qeiyafa site support the notion that an urban society already existed in Judah in the late 11th century BCE. Other archaeologists say that the identification of Khirbet Qeiyafa as an Israelite settlement is uncertain.

The status of Jerusalem in the 10th century BCE is a major subject of debate. The oldest part of Jerusalem and its original urban core is the City of David, which does not show evidence of significant Israelite residential activity until the 9th century. However, unique administrative structures such as the Stepped Stone Structure and the Large Stone Structure , which originally formed one structure, contain material culture dated to Iron I. On account of the apparent lack of settlement activity in the 10th century BCE, Israel Finkelstein argues that Jerusalem in the century was a small country village in the Judean hills, not a national capital, and Ussishkin argues that the city was entirely uninhabited. Amihai Mazar contends that if the Iron I/Iron IIa dating of administrative structures in the City of David are correct, (as he believes) " Jerusalem was a rather small town with a mighty citadel, which could have been a center of a substantial regional polity."


See also: History of ancient Israel and Judah




* Prehistory * Canaan * Israelites * United monarchy * Northern Kingdom * Kingdom of Judah * Babylonian rule


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* v * t * e

According to the Hebrew Bible , the kingdom of Judah resulted from the break-up of the United kingdom of Israel (1020 to about 930 BCE) after the northern tribes refused to accept Rehoboam , the son of Solomon , as their king. At first, only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David , but soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah. The two kingdoms, Judah in the south and Israel in the north, coexisted uneasily after the split until the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel by Assyria in c.722/721.

The major theme of the Hebrew Bible's narrative is the loyalty of Judah, and especially its kings, to Yahweh , which it states is the God of Israel . Accordingly, all the kings of Israel and almost all the kings of Judah were "bad", which in terms of Biblical narrative means that they failed to enforce monotheism . Of the "good" kings, Hezekiah (727–698 BCE) is noted for his efforts at stamping out idolatry (in this case, the worship of Baal and Asherah , among other traditional Near Eastern divinities), but his successors, Manasseh of Judah (698–642 BCE) and Amon (642–640 BCE), revived idolatry, drawing down on the kingdom the anger of Yahweh. King Josiah (640–609 BCE) returned to the worship of Yahweh alone, but his efforts were too late and Israel's unfaithfulness caused God to permit the kingdom's destruction by the Neo-Babylonian Empire in the Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC) .

However it is now fairly well established among academic scholars that the Biblical narrative is not an accurate reflection of religious views in either Judah or particularly Israel during this period.



* SAUL * DAVID * SOLOMON * Rehoboam * Abijah * Asa * Jehoshaphat * Jehoram * Ahaziah * Athaliah * J(eh)oash * Amaziah * Uzziah/Azariah * Jotham * Ahaz * Hezekiah * Manasseh * Amon * Josiah * Jehoahaz * Jehoiakim * Jeconiah/Jehoiachin * Zedekiah

* v * t * e

For the first sixty years, the kings of Judah tried to re-establish their authority over the northern kingdom, and there was perpetual war between them. Israel and Judah were in a state of war throughout Rehoboam 's seventeen-year reign. Rehoboam built elaborate defenses and strongholds, along with fortified cities. In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign, Shishak , pharaoh of Egypt , brought a huge army and took many cities. In the sack of Jerusalem (10th century BC) , Rehoboam gave them all of the treasures out of the temple as a tribute and Judah became a vassal state of Egypt.

Rehoboam's son and successor, Abijah of Judah continued his father's efforts to bring Israel under his control. He fought the Battle of Mount Zemaraim against Jeroboam of Israel and was victorious with a heavy loss of life on the Israel side. According to the books of Chronicles , Abijah and his people defeated them with a great slaughter, so that 500,000 chosen men of Israel fell slain after which Jeroboam posed little threat to Judah for the rest of his reign and the border of the tribe of Benjamin was restored to the original tribal border.

Abijah 's son and successor, Asa of Judah , maintained peace for the first 35 years of his reign, during which time he revamped and reinforced the fortresses originally built by his grandfather, Rehoboam. 2 Chronicles states that at the Battle of Zephath , the Egyptian-backed chieftain Zerah the Ethiopian and his million men and 300 chariots was defeated by Asa's 580,000 men in the Valley of Zephath near Maresha . The Bible does not state whether Zerah was a pharaoh or a general of the army. The Ethiopians were pursued all the way to Gerar , in the coastal plain, where they stopped out of sheer exhaustion. The resulting peace kept Judah free from Egyptian incursions until the time of Josiah some centuries later.

In his 36th year, Asa was confronted by Baasha of Israel , who built a fortress at Ramah on the border, less than ten miles from Jerusalem. The result was that the capital was under pressure and the military situation was precarious. Asa took gold and silver from the Temple and sent them to Ben-Hadad I , king of Aram-Damascus , in exchange for the Damascene king canceling his peace treaty with Baasha. Ben-Hadad attacked Ijon, Dan, and many important cities of the tribe of Naphtali , and Baasha was forced to withdraw from Ramah. Asa tore down the unfinished fortress and used its raw materials to fortify Geba and Mizpah in Benjamin on his side of the border.

Asa's successor, Jehoshaphat , changed the policy towards Israel and instead pursued alliances and co-operation with the northern kingdom. The alliance with Ahab was based on marriage. This alliance led to disaster for the kingdom with the battle of Ramoth-Gilead . He then entered into an alliance with Ahaziah of Israel for the purpose of carrying on maritime commerce with Ophir . But the fleet that was then equipped at Ezion-Geber was immediately wrecked. A new fleet was fitted out without the cooperation of the king of Israel, and although it was successful, the trade was not prosecuted. He subsequently joined Jehoram of Israel in a war against the Moabites , who were under tribute to Israel. This war was successful, with the Moabites being subdued. However, on seeing Mesha 's act of offering his own son in a human sacrifice on the walls of Kir-haresheth filled Jehoshaphat with horror and he withdrew and returned to his own land.

Jehoshaphat 's successor, Jehoram of Judah formed an alliance with Israel by marrying Athaliah , the daughter of Ahab . Despite this alliance with the stronger northern kingdom, Jehoram 's rule of Judah was shaky. Edom revolted, and he was forced to acknowledge their independence. A raid by Philistines , Arabs and Ethiopians looted the king's house and carried off all of his family except for his youngest son, Ahaziah of Judah .


Stamped bulla of a servant of King Hezekiah used to seal a papyrus document

After Hezekiah became sole ruler in c. 715 BCE, he formed alliances with Ashkelon and Egypt , and made a stand against Assyria by refusing to pay tribute. (Isaiah 30–31; 36:6–9) In response, Sennacherib of Assyria attacked the fortified cities of Judah. (2 Kings 18:13) Hezekiah paid three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold to Assyria – requiring him to empty the temple and royal treasury of silver and strip the gold from the doorposts of Solomon\'s Temple . (2 Kings 18:14–16) However, Sennacherib besieged Jerusalem (2 Kings 18:17) in 701 BCE, though the city was never taken.

During the long reign of Manasseh (c. 687/686 – 643/642 BCE), Judah was a vassal of Assyrian rulers – Sennacherib and his successors, Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal after 669 BCE. Manasseh is listed as being required to provide materials for Esarhaddon 's building projects, and as one of a number of vassals who assisted Ashurbanipal 's campaign against Egypt.

When Josiah became king of Judah in c. 641/640 BCE, the international situation was in flux. To the east, the Neo-Assyrian Empire was beginning to disintegrate, the Neo-Babylonian Empire had not yet risen to replace it, and Egypt to the west was still recovering from Assyrian rule. In this power vacuum, Judah was able to govern itself for the time being without foreign intervention. However, in the spring of 609 BCE, Pharaoh Necho II personally led a sizable army up to the Euphrates to aid the Assyrians . Taking the coast route Via Maris into Syria at the head of a large army, Necho passed the low tracts of Philistia and Sharon . However, the passage over the ridge of hills which shuts in on the south of the great Jezreel Valley was blocked by the Judean army led by Josiah, who may have considered that the Assyrians and Egyptians were weakened by the death of the pharaoh Psamtik I only a year earlier (610 BCE). Presumably in an attempt to help the Babylonians, Josiah attempted to block the advance at Megiddo , where a fierce battle was fought and where Josiah was killed. Necho then joined forces with the Assyrian Ashur-uballit II and together they crossed the Euphrates and lay siege to Harran . The combined forces failed to capture the city, and Necho retreated back to northern Syria . The event also marked the disintegration of the Assyrian Empire.

On his return march to Egypt in 608 BCE, Necho found that Jehoahaz had been selected to succeed his father, Josiah. Necho deposed Jehoahaz, who had been king for only three months, and replaced him with his older brother, Jehoiakim . Necho imposed on Judah a levy of a hundred talents of silver (about 3 3⁄4 tons or about 3.4 metric tons) and a talent of gold (about 34 kilograms (75 lb)). Necho then took Jehoahaz back to Egypt as his prisoner, never to return.

Jehoiakim ruled originally as a vassal of the Egyptians, paying a heavy tribute. However, when the Egyptians were defeated by the Babylonians at Carchemish in 605 BCE, Jehoiakim changed allegiances, paying tribute to Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon . In 601 BCE, in the fourth year of his reign, Nebuchadnezzar unsuccessfully attempted to invade Egypt and was repulsed with heavy losses. This failure led to numerous rebellions among the states of the Levant which owed allegiance to Babylon. Jehoiakim also stopped paying tribute to Nebuchadnezzar and took a pro-Egyptian position. Nebuchadnezzar soon dealt with these rebellions. According to the Babylonian Chronicles , after invading "the land of Hatti (Syria/Palestine)" in 599 BC, he lay siege to Jerusalem . Jehoiakim died in 598 BC during the siege, and was succeeded by his son Jeconiah at an age of either eight or eighteen. The city fell about three months later, on 2 Adar (March 16) 597 BCE. Nebuchadnezzar pillaged both Jerusalem and the Temple , carting all his spoils to Babylon. Jeconiah and his court and other prominent citizens and craftsmen, along with a sizable portion of the Jewish population of Judah, numbering about 10,000 were deported from the land and dispersed throughout the Babylonian Empire . (2 Kings 24:14) Among them was Ezekiel . Nebuchadnezzar appointed Zedekiah , Jehoiakim's brother, king of the reduced kingdom, who was made a tributary of Babylon.


Further information: Babylonian captivity Depiction of Jewish king and soldiers in ancient Judah

Despite the strong remonstrances of Jeremiah and others, Zedekiah revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, ceasing to pay tribute to him and entered into an alliance with Pharaoh Hophra . In 589 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar II returned to Judah and again besieged Jerusalem . During this period, many Jews fled to surrounding Moab , Ammon , Edom and other countries to seek refuge. The city fell after a siege which lasted either eighteen or thirty months and Nebuchadnezzar again pillaged both Jerusalem and the Temple, after which he destroyed them both. After killing all of Zedekiah's sons, with the possible exception of one, Nebuchadnezzar took Zedekiah to Babylon, putting an end to the independent Kingdom of Judah. According to the Book of Jeremiah , in addition to those killed during the siege, some 4,600 people were deported after the fall of Judah. By 586 BCE much of Judah was devastated, and the former kingdom suffered a steep decline of both economy and population.

Jerusalem apparently remained uninhabited for much of the 6th century, and the centre of gravity shifted to Benjamin, the relatively unscathed northern section of the kingdom, where the town of Mizpah became the capital of the new Babylonian province of Yehud for the remnant of the Jewish population in a part of the former kingdom. This was standard Babylonian practice: when the Philistine city of Ashkelon was conquered in 604 BCE, the political, religious and economic elite (but not the bulk of the population) was banished and the administrative centre shifted to a new location.

Gedaliah was appointed governor of the Yehud Medinata, supported by a Babylonian guard. The administrative centre of the province was Mizpah in Benjamin , not Jerusalem. On hearing of the appointment, many of the Judeans that had taken refuge in surrounding countries were persuaded to return to Judah. However, before long Gedaliah was assassinated by a member of the royal house, and the Chaldean soldiers killed. The population that was left in the land and those that had returned fled to Egypt fearing a Babylonian reprisal, under the leadership of Yohanan ben Kareah , ignoring the urging of the prophet Jeremiah against the move. (2 Kings 25:26, Jeremiah 43:5–7) In Egypt, the refugees settled in Migdol , Tahpanhes , Noph , and Pathros , ( Jeremiah 44:1) and Jeremiah went with them as a moral guardian.

The numbers that were deported to Babylon and those who made their way to Egypt and the remnant that remained in the land and in surrounding countries is subject to academic debate. The Book of Jeremiah reports that 4600 were exiled to Babylonia . The Books of Kings suggest that it was ten thousand, and later eight thousand.


Main article: Yehud Medinata

In 539 BCE the Achaemenid Empire conquered Babylonia and allowed the exiles to return to Yehud Medinata and rebuild the Temple, which was completed in the sixth year of Darius (515 BCE) (Ezra 6:15) under Zerubbabel , the grandson of the second to last king of Judah, Jeconiah . Yehud Medinata was a peaceful part of the Achaemenid Empire until the fall of the Empire in c. 333 BCE to Alexander the Great .


* Kings of Judah * List of artifacts in biblical archaeology


* ^ Grabbe, Lester L., ed. (2008). _ Israel in Transition: From Late Bronze II to Iron IIa (c. 1250–850 B.C.E.)_. T&T Clark International. pp. 225–6. ISBN 978-0567027269 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Lehman in Vaughn, Andrew G.; Killebrew, Ann E., eds. (1992). _ Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period_. Sheffield. p. 149. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Finkelstein, Israel (2006). "The Last Labayu: King Saul and the Expansion of the First North Israelite Territorial Entity". In Amit, Yairah; Ben Zvi, Ehud; Finkelstein, Israel; et al. _Essays on Ancient Israel in Its Near Eastern Context: A Tribute to Nadav Naʼaman_. Eisenbrauns. pp. 171 ff. ISBN 9781575061283 . * ^ https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Ezekiel+8 * ^ http://biblehub.com/1_kings/11-5.htm * ^ http://biblehub.com/2_kings/23-13.htm * ^ http://biblehub.com/jeremiah/11-13.htm * ^ Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed, Free Press, New York, 2001, pages 240-243., ISBN 0-684-86912-8 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Jerusalem in the 10th century BCE * ^ Moore & Kelle 2011 , p. 302. * ^ _A History of the Jewish People_, H.H. Ben-Sasson ed., Harvard University Press, 1976, page 142: "Sargon's heir, Sennacherib (705–681), could not deal with Hezekiah's revolt until he gained control of Babylon in 702. ..." * ^ Rollston, Chris A. (2010). _Writing and Literacy in the World of Ancient Israel: Epigraphic Evidence from the Iron Age_. Society of Biblical Literature. pp. 53–54. * ^ The Pitcher Is Broken: Memorial Essays for Gosta W. Ahlstrom, Steven W. Holloway, Lowell K. Handy, Continuum, 1 May 1995 Quote: "For Israel, the description of the battle of Qarqar in the Kurkh Monolith of Shalmaneser III (mid-ninth century) and for Judah, a Tiglath-pileser III text mentioning (Jeho-) Ahaz of Judah (IIR67 = K. 3751), dated 734-733, are the earliest published to date." * ^ Asaf Shtull-Trauring (6 May 2011). "The keys to the kingdom". Haaretz. an important group of archaeologists and biblical scholars formed the view that in reality the kingdom of David and Solomon bore little resemblance to the biblical portrait of an extensive, powerful, united monarchy. This view derives primarily from the fact that no 10th century BCE archaeological finds exist that could corroborate claims of the existence of a magnificent biblical kingdom extending from Be'er Sheva in the south to Dan in the north. Accordingly, these scholars and archaeologists conclude that the so-called kingdom was no more than a small tribal entity, meager in substance and sparse in population, which did not extend beyond the boundaries of Jerusalem and its immediate surroundings * ^ Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, Free Press, New York, 2001, 385 pp., ISBN 0-684-86912-8 * ^ Khirbat Qeiyafa Preliminary Report ( Israel Antiquities Authority, 19/4/2012) * ^ Friedman, Matti (October 30, 2008). "Israeli Archaeologists Find Ancient Text". _AOL news_. Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 3, 2008. _The finds have not yet established who the residents were, says Aren Maier, a Bar Ilan University archaeologist_ * ^ Archaeological find stirs debate on David\'s kingdom (Haaretz, May 9th, 2012) _Prof. Nadav Na'aman, a historian and archaeologist at Tel Aviv University, discounts Garfinkel and Ganor's conclusions. "These are beautiful finds but they are not special in that similar ones have been found in various places, and they should therefore not be connected in any way to the ark," nor to the Temple in Jerusalem, says Na'aman. (...) He said he found the combination on one of the items of lions and doves very interesting. "The dove is connected to a fertility goddess, and this combination hints that the model belonged to a cultic site of a fertility goddess. I think Qeiyafa was a Canaanite site that had no connection to Jerusalem," he added._ * ^ Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E. (17 May 2011). "Biblical History and Israel S Past: The Changing Study of the Bible and History". Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing – via Google Books. * ^ Oded Borowski, "_Hezekiah\'s Reforms and the Revolt against Assyria_". Archived from the original on July 23, 1997. Retrieved 2013-04-21. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ), Emory University, 1997 * ^ Lowell K. Handy (1994). "The Appearance of Pantheon in Judah". In Diana Vikander Edelman. _The Triumph of Elohim_. Grand Rapids, Michigan: W. B. Eerdmans. p. 27. * ^ 2 Chronicles 13:17 * ^ 2 Chronicles 13:20 * ^ _A_ _B_ 2 Chronicles 16:1 * ^ 2 Chronicles 14:9-15 * ^ 2 Chronicles 16:2–6 * ^ 2 Chronicles 16:1–7 * ^ 1 Kings 22:1–33 * ^ 2 Kings 20:35–37; 1 Kings 22:48–49 * ^ 2 Kings 3:4–27 * ^ _A_ _B_ Peter J. Leithart , 1 New York: Macmillan, 1951; 2d ed.; Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. , 1965; 3rd ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983). ISBN 0-8254-3825-X , 9780825438257 * ^ _A_ _B_ Bright, John , _A History of Israel_, p. 311, (1980)

* ^ _A_ _B_ 2Kings 23:29

* Coogan, Michael David (2001). _The Oxford History of the Biblical World_. Oxford University Press. p. 261. ISBN 9780195139372 .

* ^ 2 Kings 23:29, 2 Chronicles 35:20–24 * ^ 2 Kings 23:31 * ^ 2 Chronicles 36:1–4 * ^ The Divided Monarchy c. 931–586 BCE * ^ No 24 WA21946, The Babylonian Chronicles, The British Museum * ^ Geoffrey Wigoder, _The Illustrated Dictionary & Concordance of the Bible_ Pub. by Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. (2006) * ^ Dan Cohn-Sherbok, _The Hebrew Bible_, Continuum International, 1996, page x. ISBN 0-304-33703-X * ^ Vincent, Robert Benn, Daniel and the Captivity of Israel part of a Bible Studies series * ^ Philip J. King, _Jeremiah: An Archaeological Companion_ (Westminster John Knox Press, 1993), page 23. * ^ 2 Chronicles 36:9 * ^ _The Oxford History of the Biblical World_, ed. by Michael D Coogan. Pub. by Oxford University Press, 1999. pg 350 * ^ Jeremiah 40:11–12 * ^ Malamat, Abraham (1968). "The Last Kings of Judah and the Fall of Jerusalem: An Historical—Chronological Study". _Israel Exploration Journal_. 18 (3): 137–156. JSTOR 27925138 . The discrepancy between the length of the siege according to the regnal years of Zedekiah (years 9-11), on the one hand, and its length according to Jehoiachin's exile (years 9-12), on the other, can be cancelled out only by supposing the former to have been reckoned on a Tishri basis, and the latter on a Nisan basis. The difference of one year between the two is accounted for by the fact that the termination of the siege fell in the summer, between Nisan and Tishri, already in the 12th year according to the reckoning in Ezekiel, but still in Zedekiah's 11th year which was to end only in Tishri. * ^ Ezra 5:14 * ^ Jeremiah 52:10–13 * ^ "The Book of Helaman, Chapter 8". * ^ Jeremiah 52:10–11 * ^ _A_ _B_ Jeremiah 52:29–30 * ^ _A_ _B_ Grabbe, Lester L. (2004). _A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period_. T&T Clark International. p. 28. ISBN 0-567-08998-3 . * ^ Davies, Philip R. , "The Origin of Biblical Israel Archived 2008-05-28 at the Wayback Machine .", _Journal of Hebrew Scriptures_ (art. 47, vol9, 2009) * ^ Lipschitz, Oded, "The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem" (Eisenbrauns, 2005) p.48 * ^ 2 Kings 25:22–24, Jeremiah 40:6–8 * ^ Marvin A. Sweeney (1 October 2010). _The Prophetic Literature: Interpreting Biblical Texts Series_. Abingdon Press,.

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CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). _The Bible Unearthed_. * Finkelstein, Israel; Mazar, Amihay; Schmidt, Brian B. (2007). _The Quest for the Historical Israel_. Society of Biblical Literature. * Golden, Jonathan Michael (2004a). _Ancient Canaan and Israel: An Introduction_. Oxford University Press. * Golden, Jonathan Michael (2004b). _Ancient Canaan and Israel: New Perspectives_. ABC-CLIO. * Killebrew, Ann E. (2005). _Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity: An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, and Early Israel, 1300–1100 B.C.E._ Society of Biblical Literature. * King, Philip J.; Stager, Lawrence E. (2001). _Life in Biblical Israel_. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-22148-3 . * Kuhrt, Amélie (1995). _The Ancient Near East c. 3000–330 BC_. Routledge. * Lemche, Niels Peter (1998). _The Israelites in History and Tradition_. Westminster John Knox Press. * Levy, Thomas E. (1998). _The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land_. Continuum International Publishing. * Lipschits, Oded (2005). _The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem_. Eisenbrauns. * Lipschits, Oded, et al., eds. (2006). _Judah and the Judeans in the Fourth Century B.C.E._ Eisenbrauns. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * McNutt, Paula (1999). _Reconstructing the Society of Ancient Israel_. Westminster John Knox Press. * Merrill, Eugene H. (1995). "The Late Bronze/Early Iron Age Transition and the Emergence of Israel". _Bibliotheca Sacra_. 152 (606): 145–62. * Middlemas, Jill Anne (2005). _The Troubles of Templeless Judah_. Oxford University Press. * Miller, James Maxwell; Hayes, John Haralson (1986). _A History of Ancient Israel and Judah_. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-21262-X . * Miller, Robert D. (2005). _Chieftains of the Highland Clans: A History of Israel in the 12th and 11th Centuries B.C._ Eerdmans. * Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E. (2011). _Biblical History and Israel\'s Past_. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-6260-0 . * Pitkänen, Pekka (2004). "Ethnicity, Assimilation and the Israelite Settlement" (PDF). _ Tyndale Bulletin _. 55 (2): 161–82. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-17. * Silberman, Neil Asher; Small, David B., eds. (1997). _The Archaeology of Israel: Constructing the Past, Interpreting the Present_. Sheffield Academic Press. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Soggin, Michael J. (1998). _An Introduction to the History of Israel and Judah_. Paideia. * Van der Toorn, Karel (1996). _Family Religion in Babylonia, Syria, and Israel_. Brill. * Zevit, Ziony (2001). _The Religions of Ancient Israel: A Synthesis of Parallactic Approaches_. Continuum.

* v * t * e

The Biblical and Historical Israelites

* Children of Israel / Twelve Tribes of Israel * Ten Lost Tribes

* History of ancient Israel and Judah * Land of Israel * United Monarchy (Kingdom of Israel) * Northern Kingdom * Southern Kingdom (Kingdom of Judah)

* Tanakh * Bible * Hebrew Bible * Old Testament * Historicity of the Bible

* v * t * e

Rulers of Israel and Judah

* Davidic line

* Kings of Israel and Judah

* Kings of Judah

* Hasmonean and Herodian rulers


* _Abimelech _


* Saul * Ish-bosheth * David * Solomon

Israel (northern kingdom)

* Jeroboam I * Nadab * Baasha * Elah * Zimri * _ Tibni _ * Omri * Ahab * Ahaziah * Jehoram * Jehu * Jehoahaz * Jehoash * Jeroboam II * Zechariah * Shallum * Menahem * Pekahiah * Pekah * Hoshea

Judah (southern kingdom)

* Rehoboam * Abijam * Asa * Jehoshaphat * Jehoram * Ahaziah * _ Athaliah _ * Jehoash * Amaziah * Uzziah * Jotham * Ahaz * Hezekiah * Manasseh * Amon * Josiah * Jehoahaz * Jehoiakim * Jeconiah * Zedekiah


* _ Simon Thassi _ * _ John Hyrcanus _ * Aristobulus I * Alexander Jannaeus * Salome Alexandra * Hyrcanus II * Aristobulus II * Antigonus II Mattathias


* Herod the Great * _Archelaus _ * _Antipas _ * _ Philip the Tetrarch _ * _ Salome I _ * Agrippa * Herod of Chalcis * Agrippa II


* _ Simon bar Kokhba _


* List of Jewish leaders in the Land of Israel

_Italics_ indicate a disputed reign or non-royal title

* v * t * e

Ancient states and regions of the Levant


* Akkadian Empire * Amurru * Bashan * Canaan * Ebla * Edom * Hittite Empire * Mari * Mitanni * Moab * Nagar * Qatna * Tyre * Ugarit * Urkesh * Yamhad


* Ammon * Aramea * Aram-Damascus * Assyrian Empire * Canaan * Egyptian Empire * Israel (Samaria) * Israel and Judah * Judah * Neo-Babylonian Empire * Philistia * Phoenicia * Syro-Hittite


* Byzantine Empire * Hasmonea * Herodian Judaea * Herodian Tetrarchy * Macedonian Empire * Nabataea * Neo-Babylonian Empire * Parthian Empire * Palmyrene Empire * Persian Empire *