The KINGDOM OF JUDAH (
Hebrew : מַמְלֶכֶת
יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an
Iron Age kingdom of
Southern Levant . The
Bible depicts it as the successor to
Monarchy , but historians are divided about the veracity of
this account. In the 10th and early 9th centuries BCE the territory of
Judah appears to have been sparsely populated, limited to small rural
settlements, most of them unfortified.
Jerusalem , the kingdom's
capital, likely did not emerge as a significant administrative centre
until the end of the 8th century; prior to this archaeological
evidence suggests its population was too small to sustain a viable
kingdom. In the 7th century its population increased greatly,
prospering under Assyrian vassalage (despite Hezekiah\'s revolt
against the Assyrian king
Sennacherib ), but in 605 the Assyrian
Empire was defeated , and the ensuing competition between the
Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt and the
Neo-Babylonian Empire for
control of the
Eastern Mediterranean led to the destruction of the
kingdom in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582, the deportation
of the elite of the community , and the incorporation of Judah into a
province of the
Neo-Babylonian Empire .
* 1 Archaeological record
* 2 Biblical narrative
* 2.1 Relations with the Northern Kingdom
* 2.2 Clash of empires
* 2.3 Destruction and dispersion
* 3 Re-establishment under Persian rule
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 5.1 Further reading
Biblical archaeology ,
Biblical archaeology school , and
The Bible and history
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Mesha Stele c. 850 BCE – An inscribed stone set up c. 840 BCE
Moab tells how
Chemosh , the God of Moab, had been angry
with his people and allowed them to be subjugated to Israel, but at
Mesha to throw off the yoke of
Israel and restore the
lands of Moab.
Significant academic debate exists around the character of the
Kingdom of Judah. Little archaeological evidence of an extensive,
Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah before the late 8th century BCE has been
Nimrud Tablet K.3751 , dated c.733 BCE, is the earliest known
record of the name Judah (written in
Assyrian cuneiform as Yaudaya or
Archaeologists of the minimalist school doubt the extent of the
Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah as depicted in the Bible. Around 1990–2010, an
important group of archaeologists and biblical scholars formed the
view that the actual
Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah bore little resemblance to the
biblical portrait of a powerful monarchy. These scholars say the
kingdom was no more than a small tribal entity.
Yosef Garfinkel has written in a preliminary report
published by the
Israeli Antiquities Authority that finds at the
Khirbet Qeiyafa site support the notion that an urban society already
existed in Judah in the late 11th century BCE. Other archaeologists
say that the identification of
Khirbet Qeiyafa as an Israelite
settlement is uncertain.
The status of
Jerusalem in the 10th century BCE is a major subject of
debate. The oldest part of
Jerusalem and its original urban core is
the City of David, which does not show evidence of significant
Israelite residential activity until the 9th century. However, unique
administrative structures such as the
Stepped Stone Structure and the
Large Stone Structure , which originally formed one structure, contain
material culture dated to Iron I. On account of the apparent lack of
settlement activity in the 10th century BCE,
Israel Finkelstein argues
Jerusalem in the century was a small country village in the
Judean hills, not a national capital, and Ussishkin argues that the
city was entirely uninhabited. Amihai Mazar contends that if the Iron
I/Iron IIa dating of administrative structures in the City of David
are correct, (as he believes) "
Jerusalem was a rather small town with
a mighty citadel, which could have been a center of a substantial
See also: History of ancient
Israel and Judah
PART OF A SERIES ON THE
HISTORY OF ISRAEL
ANCIENT ISRAEL AND JUDAH
* United monarchy
* Northern Kingdom
* Kingdom of Judah
* Babylonian rule
SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD (530 BC–AD 70)
* Persian rule
* Hellenistic period
MIDDLE AGES (70–1517)
* Roman Palaestina
* Byzantine Palaestina
* Sasanian conquest
* Mamluk Sultanate
MODERN HISTORY (1517–1948)
* Ottoman rule
* British mandate
STATE OF ISRAEL (1948–PRESENT)
HISTORY OF THE LAND OF ISRAEL BY TOPIC
* Jewish leaders
* Jewish warfare
According to the
Bible , the kingdom of Judah resulted from
the break-up of the United kingdom of
Israel (1020 to about 930 BCE)
after the northern tribes refused to accept
Rehoboam , the son of
Solomon , as their king. At first, only the tribe of Judah remained
loyal to the house of
David , but soon after the tribe of Benjamin
joined Judah. The two kingdoms, Judah in the south and
Israel in the
north, coexisted uneasily after the split until the destruction of the
Assyria in c.722/721.
The major theme of the
Hebrew Bible's narrative is the loyalty of
Judah, and especially its kings, to
Yahweh , which it states is the
Israel . Accordingly, all the kings of
Israel and almost all
the kings of Judah were "bad", which in terms of Biblical narrative
means that they failed to enforce monotheism . Of the "good" kings,
Hezekiah (727–698 BCE) is noted for his efforts at stamping out
idolatry (in this case, the worship of
Asherah , among other
traditional Near Eastern divinities), but his successors, Manasseh of
Judah (698–642 BCE) and Amon (642–640 BCE), revived idolatry,
drawing down on the kingdom the anger of Yahweh. King Josiah
(640–609 BCE) returned to the worship of
Yahweh alone, but his
efforts were too late and Israel's unfaithfulness caused God to permit
the kingdom's destruction by the
Neo-Babylonian Empire in the Siege of
Jerusalem (587 BC) .
However it is now fairly well established among academic scholars
that the Biblical narrative is not an accurate reflection of religious
views in either Judah or particularly
Israel during this period.
RELATIONS WITH THE NORTHERN KINGDOM
RULERS OF JUDAH
For the first sixty years, the kings of Judah tried to re-establish
their authority over the northern kingdom, and there was perpetual war
Israel and Judah were in a state of war throughout
Rehoboam 's seventeen-year reign.
Rehoboam built elaborate defenses
and strongholds, along with fortified cities. In the fifth year of
Shishak , pharaoh of
Egypt , brought a huge army and
took many cities. In the sack of
Jerusalem (10th century BC) ,
Rehoboam gave them all of the treasures out of the temple as a tribute
and Judah became a vassal state of Egypt.
Rehoboam's son and successor,
Abijah of Judah continued his father's
efforts to bring
Israel under his control. He fought the Battle of
Mount Zemaraim against
Israel and was victorious with a
heavy loss of life on the
Israel side. According to the books of
Abijah and his people defeated them with a great
slaughter, so that 500,000 chosen men of
Israel fell slain after
Jeroboam posed little threat to Judah for the rest of his reign
and the border of the tribe of Benjamin was restored to the original
Abijah 's son and successor,
Asa of Judah , maintained peace for the
first 35 years of his reign, during which time he revamped and
reinforced the fortresses originally built by his grandfather,
Rehoboam. 2 Chronicles states that at the
Battle of Zephath , the
Zerah the Ethiopian and his million men and
300 chariots was defeated by Asa's 580,000 men in the Valley of
Maresha . The
Bible does not state whether
Zerah was a
pharaoh or a general of the army. The Ethiopians were pursued all the
Gerar , in the coastal plain, where they stopped out of sheer
exhaustion. The resulting peace kept Judah free from Egyptian
incursions until the time of
Josiah some centuries later.
In his 36th year, Asa was confronted by Baasha of
Israel , who built
a fortress at Ramah on the border, less than ten miles from Jerusalem.
The result was that the capital was under pressure and the military
situation was precarious. Asa took gold and silver from the Temple and
sent them to
Ben-Hadad I , king of
Aram-Damascus , in exchange for the
Damascene king canceling his peace treaty with Baasha. Ben-Hadad
attacked Ijon, Dan, and many important cities of the tribe of Naphtali
, and Baasha was forced to withdraw from Ramah. Asa tore down the
unfinished fortress and used its raw materials to fortify Geba and
Mizpah in Benjamin on his side of the border.
Jehoshaphat , changed the policy towards
instead pursued alliances and co-operation with the northern kingdom.
The alliance with
Ahab was based on marriage. This alliance led to
disaster for the kingdom with the battle of
Ramoth-Gilead . He then
entered into an alliance with Ahaziah of
Israel for the purpose of
carrying on maritime commerce with
Ophir . But the fleet that was then
Ezion-Geber was immediately wrecked. A new fleet was
fitted out without the cooperation of the king of Israel, and although
it was successful, the trade was not prosecuted. He subsequently
joined Jehoram of
Israel in a war against the Moabites , who were
under tribute to Israel. This war was successful, with the Moabites
being subdued. However, on seeing
Mesha 's act of offering his own son
in a human sacrifice on the walls of Kir-haresheth filled Jehoshaphat
with horror and he withdrew and returned to his own land.
Jehoshaphat 's successor,
Jehoram of Judah formed an alliance with
Israel by marrying
Athaliah , the daughter of
Ahab . Despite this
alliance with the stronger northern kingdom, Jehoram 's rule of Judah
Edom revolted, and he was forced to acknowledge their
independence. A raid by
Arabs and Ethiopians looted the
king's house and carried off all of his family except for his youngest
Ahaziah of Judah .
CLASH OF EMPIRES
Stamped bulla of a servant of King
Hezekiah used to seal a
Hezekiah became sole ruler in c. 715 BCE, he formed alliances
Egypt , and made a stand against
Assyria by refusing
to pay tribute. (Isaiah 30–31; 36:6–9) In response, Sennacherib
Assyria attacked the fortified cities of Judah. (2 Kings 18:13)
Hezekiah paid three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of
Assyria – requiring him to empty the temple and royal
treasury of silver and strip the gold from the doorposts of Solomon\'s
Temple . (2 Kings 18:14–16) However,
Sennacherib besieged Jerusalem
(2 Kings 18:17) in 701 BCE, though the city was never taken.
During the long reign of Manasseh (c. 687/686 – 643/642 BCE),
Judah was a vassal of Assyrian rulers –
Sennacherib and his
Ashurbanipal after 669 BCE. Manasseh is
listed as being required to provide materials for
building projects, and as one of a number of vassals who assisted
Ashurbanipal 's campaign against Egypt.
Josiah became king of Judah in c. 641/640 BCE, the
international situation was in flux. To the east, the Neo-Assyrian
Empire was beginning to disintegrate, the
Neo-Babylonian Empire had
not yet risen to replace it, and
Egypt to the west was still
recovering from Assyrian rule. In this power vacuum, Judah was able to
govern itself for the time being without foreign intervention.
However, in the spring of 609 BCE,
Necho II personally led a
sizable army up to the
Euphrates to aid the Assyrians . Taking the
Via Maris into
Syria at the head of a large army, Necho
passed the low tracts of
Philistia and Sharon . However, the passage
over the ridge of hills which shuts in on the south of the great
Jezreel Valley was blocked by the Judean army led by Josiah, who may
have considered that the Assyrians and Egyptians were weakened by the
death of the pharaoh
Psamtik I only a year earlier (610 BCE).
Presumably in an attempt to help the Babylonians,
Josiah attempted to
block the advance at Megiddo , where a fierce battle was fought and
Josiah was killed. Necho then joined forces with the Assyrian
Ashur-uballit II and together they crossed the
Euphrates and lay siege
Harran . The combined forces failed to capture the city, and Necho
retreated back to northern
Syria . The event also marked the
disintegration of the Assyrian Empire.
On his return march to
Egypt in 608 BCE, Necho found that Jehoahaz
had been selected to succeed his father, Josiah. Necho deposed
Jehoahaz, who had been king for only three months, and replaced him
with his older brother,
Jehoiakim . Necho imposed on Judah a levy of a
hundred talents of silver (about 3 3⁄4 tons or about 3.4 metric
tons) and a talent of gold (about 34 kilograms (75 lb)). Necho then
took Jehoahaz back to
Egypt as his prisoner, never to return.
Jehoiakim ruled originally as a vassal of the Egyptians, paying a
heavy tribute. However, when the Egyptians were defeated by the
Babylonians at Carchemish in 605 BCE,
Jehoiakim changed allegiances,
paying tribute to
Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon . In 601 BCE, in the
fourth year of his reign, Nebuchadnezzar unsuccessfully attempted to
Egypt and was repulsed with heavy losses. This failure led to
numerous rebellions among the states of the
Levant which owed
allegiance to Babylon.
Jehoiakim also stopped paying tribute to
Nebuchadnezzar and took a pro-Egyptian position. Nebuchadnezzar soon
dealt with these rebellions. According to the
Babylonian Chronicles ,
after invading "the land of Hatti (Syria/Palestine)" in 599 BC, he
lay siege to
Jehoiakim died in 598 BC during the siege,
and was succeeded by his son
Jeconiah at an age of either eight or
eighteen. The city fell about three months later, on 2
16) 597 BCE. Nebuchadnezzar pillaged both
Jerusalem and the Temple ,
carting all his spoils to Babylon.
Jeconiah and his court and other
prominent citizens and craftsmen, along with a sizable portion of the
Jewish population of Judah, numbering about 10,000 were deported from
the land and dispersed throughout the
Babylonian Empire . (2 Kings
24:14) Among them was
Ezekiel . Nebuchadnezzar appointed
Jehoiakim's brother, king of the reduced kingdom, who was made a
tributary of Babylon.
DESTRUCTION AND DISPERSION
Babylonian captivity Depiction of Jewish
king and soldiers in ancient Judah
Despite the strong remonstrances of
Jeremiah and others, Zedekiah
revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, ceasing to pay tribute to him and
entered into an alliance with
Pharaoh Hophra . In 589 BCE,
Nebuchadnezzar II returned to Judah and again besieged
During this period, many Jews fled to surrounding
Ammon , Edom
and other countries to seek refuge. The city fell after a siege which
lasted either eighteen or thirty months and Nebuchadnezzar again
Jerusalem and the Temple, after which he destroyed them
both. After killing all of Zedekiah's sons, with the possible
exception of one, Nebuchadnezzar took
Zedekiah to Babylon, putting
an end to the independent Kingdom of Judah. According to the Book of
Jeremiah , in addition to those killed during the siege, some 4,600
people were deported after the fall of Judah. By 586 BCE much of
Judah was devastated, and the former kingdom suffered a steep decline
of both economy and population.
Jerusalem apparently remained uninhabited for much of the 6th
century, and the centre of gravity shifted to Benjamin, the
relatively unscathed northern section of the kingdom, where the town
of Mizpah became the capital of the new Babylonian province of Yehud
for the remnant of the Jewish population in a part of the former
kingdom. This was standard Babylonian practice: when the Philistine
Ashkelon was conquered in 604 BCE, the political, religious
and economic elite (but not the bulk of the population) was banished
and the administrative centre shifted to a new location.
Gedaliah was appointed governor of the Yehud Medinata, supported by a
Babylonian guard. The administrative centre of the province was Mizpah
in Benjamin , not Jerusalem. On hearing of the appointment, many of
the Judeans that had taken refuge in surrounding countries were
persuaded to return to Judah. However, before long
assassinated by a member of the royal house, and the Chaldean soldiers
killed. The population that was left in the land and those that had
returned fled to
Egypt fearing a Babylonian reprisal, under the
leadership of Yohanan ben
Kareah , ignoring the urging of the prophet
Jeremiah against the move. (2 Kings 25:26,
Jeremiah 43:5–7) In
Egypt, the refugees settled in
Noph , and Pathros
Jeremiah 44:1) and
Jeremiah went with them as a moral guardian.
The numbers that were deported to Babylon and those who made their
Egypt and the remnant that remained in the land and in
surrounding countries is subject to academic debate. The Book of
Jeremiah reports that 4600 were exiled to
Babylonia . The Books of
Kings suggest that it was ten thousand, and later eight thousand.
RE-ESTABLISHMENT UNDER PERSIAN RULE
In 539 BCE the
Achaemenid Empire conquered
Babylonia and allowed the
exiles to return to
Yehud Medinata and rebuild the Temple, which was
completed in the sixth year of Darius (515 BCE) (Ezra 6:15) under
Zerubbabel , the grandson of the second to last king of Judah,
Yehud Medinata was a peaceful part of the Achaemenid Empire
until the fall of the Empire in c. 333 BCE to
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great .
Kings of Judah
List of artifacts in biblical archaeology
* ^ Grabbe, Lester L., ed. (2008).
Israel in Transition: From Late
Bronze II to Iron IIa (c. 1250–850 B.C.E.). T&T Clark International.
pp. 225–6. ISBN 978-0567027269 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
* ^ Lehman in Vaughn, Andrew G.; Killebrew, Ann E., eds. (1992).
Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period.
Sheffield. p. 149. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* ^ Finkelstein,
Israel (2006). "The Last Labayu: King
Saul and the
Expansion of the First North Israelite Territorial Entity". In Amit,
Yairah; Ben Zvi, Ehud; Finkelstein, Israel; et al. Essays on Ancient
Israel in Its Near Eastern Context: A Tribute to Nadav Naʼaman.
Eisenbrauns. pp. 171 ff. ISBN 9781575061283 .
* ^ https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Ezekiel+8
* ^ http://biblehub.com/1_kings/11-5.htm
* ^ http://biblehub.com/2_kings/23-13.htm
* ^ http://biblehub.com/jeremiah/11-13.htm
Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible
Unearthed, Free Press, New York, 2001, pages 240-243., ISBN
* ^ A B C D
Jerusalem in the 10th century BCE
* ^ Moore & Kelle 2011 , p. 302.
* ^ A History of the Jewish People,
H.H. Ben-Sasson ed., Harvard
University Press, 1976, page 142: "Sargon's heir, Sennacherib
(705–681), could not deal with Hezekiah's revolt until he gained
control of Babylon in 702. ..."
* ^ Rollston, Chris A. (2010). Writing and Literacy in the World of
Ancient Israel: Epigraphic Evidence from the Iron Age. Society of
Biblical Literature. pp. 53–54.
* ^ The Pitcher Is Broken: Memorial Essays for Gosta W. Ahlstrom,
Steven W. Holloway, Lowell K. Handy, Continuum, 1 May 1995 Quote: "For
Israel, the description of the battle of Qarqar in the Kurkh Monolith
of Shalmaneser III (mid-ninth century) and for Judah, a
Tiglath-pileser III text mentioning (Jeho-)
Ahaz of Judah (IIR67 = K.
3751), dated 734-733, are the earliest published to date."
* ^ Asaf Shtull-Trauring (6 May 2011). "The keys to the kingdom".
Haaretz. an important group of archaeologists and biblical scholars
formed the view that in reality the kingdom of
little resemblance to the biblical portrait of an extensive, powerful,
united monarchy. This view derives primarily from the fact that no
10th century BCE archaeological finds exist that could corroborate
claims of the existence of a magnificent biblical kingdom extending
from Be'er Sheva in the south to Dan in the north. Accordingly, these
scholars and archaeologists conclude that the so-called kingdom was no
more than a small tribal entity, meager in substance and sparse in
population, which did not extend beyond the boundaries of Jerusalem
and its immediate surroundings
Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, Free Press, New
York, 2001, 385 pp., ISBN 0-684-86912-8
* ^ Khirbat Qeiyafa Preliminary Report (
* ^ Friedman, Matti (October 30, 2008). "Israeli Archaeologists
Find Ancient Text". AOL news. Associated Press. Archived from the
original on November 3, 2008. The finds have not yet established who
the residents were, says Aren Maier, a Bar Ilan University
* ^ Archaeological find stirs debate on David\'s kingdom (Haaretz,
May 9th, 2012) Prof. Nadav Na'aman, a historian and archaeologist at
Tel Aviv University, discounts Garfinkel and Ganor's conclusions.
"These are beautiful finds but they are not special in that similar
ones have been found in various places, and they should therefore not
be connected in any way to the ark," nor to the Temple in Jerusalem,
says Na'aman. (...) He said he found the combination on one of the
items of lions and doves very interesting. "The dove is connected to a
fertility goddess, and this combination hints that the model belonged
to a cultic site of a fertility goddess. I think Qeiyafa was a
Canaanite site that had no connection to Jerusalem," he added.
* ^ Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E. (17 May 2011). "Biblical
Israel S Past: The Changing Study of the
History". Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing – via Google Books.
* ^ Oded Borowski, "Hezekiah\'s Reforms and the Revolt against
Assyria". Archived from the original on July 23, 1997. Retrieved
2013-04-21. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ), Emory
* ^ Lowell K. Handy (1994). "The Appearance of Pantheon in Judah".
In Diana Vikander Edelman. The Triumph of Elohim. Grand Rapids,
Michigan: W. B. Eerdmans. p. 27.
* ^ 2 Chronicles 13:17
* ^ 2 Chronicles 13:20
* ^ A B 2 Chronicles 16:1
* ^ 2 Chronicles 14:9-15
* ^ 2 Chronicles 16:2–6
* ^ 2 Chronicles 16:1–7
* ^ 1 Kings 22:1–33
* ^ 2 Kings 20:35–37; 1 Kings 22:48–49
* ^ 2 Kings 3:4–27
* ^ A B
Peter J. Leithart , 1 New York: Macmillan, 1951; 2d ed.;
William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. , 1965; 3rd ed.;
Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983). ISBN 0-8254-3825-X ,
* ^ A B Bright, John , A History of Israel, p. 311, (1980)
* ^ A B 2Kings 23:29
* Coogan, Michael
David (2001). The Oxford History of the Biblical
World. Oxford University Press. p. 261. ISBN 9780195139372 .
* ^ 2 Kings 23:29, 2 Chronicles 35:20–24
* ^ 2 Kings 23:31
* ^ 2 Chronicles 36:1–4
* ^ The Divided
Monarchy c. 931–586 BCE
* ^ No 24 WA21946, The Babylonian Chronicles, The British Museum
* ^ Geoffrey Wigoder, The Illustrated Dictionary & Concordance of
Bible Pub. by Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. (2006)
* ^ Dan Cohn-Sherbok, The
Hebrew Bible, Continuum International,
1996, page x. ISBN 0-304-33703-X
* ^ Vincent, Robert Benn, Daniel and the Captivity of
Bible Studies series
* ^ Philip J. King, Jeremiah: An Archaeological Companion
(Westminster John Knox Press, 1993), page 23.
* ^ 2 Chronicles 36:9
* ^ The Oxford History of the Biblical World, ed. by Michael D
Coogan. Pub. by Oxford University Press, 1999. pg 350
* ^ Malamat, Abraham (1968). "The Last
Kings of Judah and the Fall
of Jerusalem: An Historical—Chronological Study".
Journal. 18 (3): 137–156.
JSTOR 27925138 . The discrepancy between
the length of the siege according to the regnal years of Zedekiah
(years 9-11), on the one hand, and its length according to
Jehoiachin's exile (years 9-12), on the other, can be cancelled out
only by supposing the former to have been reckoned on a Tishri basis,
and the latter on a Nisan basis. The difference of one year between
the two is accounted for by the fact that the termination of the siege
fell in the summer, between Nisan and Tishri, already in the 12th year
according to the reckoning in Ezekiel, but still in Zedekiah's 11th
year which was to end only in Tishri.
* ^ Ezra 5:14
* ^ "The Book of Helaman, Chapter 8".
* ^ A B
* ^ A B Grabbe, Lester L. (2004). A History of the Jews and Judaism
in the Second Temple Period. T&T Clark International. p. 28. ISBN
* ^ Davies, Philip R. , "The Origin of Biblical
2008-05-28 at the
Wayback Machine .", Journal of
(art. 47, vol9, 2009)
* ^ Lipschitz, Oded, "The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem" (Eisenbrauns,
* ^ 2 Kings 25:22–24,
* ^ Marvin A. Sweeney (1 October 2010). The Prophetic Literature:
Interpreting Biblical Texts Series. Abingdon Press,.
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* Albertz, Rainer (1994) . A History of Israelite Religion, Volume
I: From the Beginnings to the End of the Monarchy. Westminster John
* Albertz, Rainer (1994) . A History of Israelite Religion, Volume
II: From the Exile to the Maccabees. Westminster John Knox Press.
* Albertz, Rainer (2003a).
Israel in Exile: The History and
Literature of the Sixth Century B.C.E. Society of Biblical Literature.
* Becking, Bob (2003b). "Law as Expression of Religion (Ezra
7–10)". Yahwism After the Exile: Perspectives on Israelite Religion
in the Persian Era. Koninklijke Van Gorcum. ISBN 978-9023238805 .
* Amit, Yaira, et al., eds. (2006). Essays on Ancient
Israel in its
Near Eastern Context: A Tribute to Nadav Na\'aman. Eisenbrauns. CS1
maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* Davies, Philip R. "The Origin of Biblical Israel". Retrieved 14
* Barstad, Hans M. (2008). History and the
Hebrew Bible. Mohr
* Bedford, Peter Ross (2001). Temple Restoration in Early Achaemenid
* Ben-Sasson, H.H. (1976). A History of the Jewish People. Harvard
University Press. ISBN 0-674-39731-2 .
* Blenkinsopp, Joseph (1988). Ezra-Nehemiah: A Commentary. Eerdmans.
* Blenkinsopp, Joseph; Lipschits, Oded, eds. (2003). Judah and the
Judeans in the Neo-Babylonian Period. Eisenbrauns. CS1 maint: Extra
text: authors list (link )
* Blenkinsopp, Joseph (2003). "Bethel in the Neo-Babylonian Period".
In Oded Lipschitz; Joseph Blenkinsopp. Judah and the Judeans in the
Neo-Babylonian Period. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1575060736 .
* Blenkinsopp, Joseph (2009). Judaism, the First Phase: The Place of
Ezra and Nehemiah in the Origins of Judaism. Eerdmans.
* Brett, Mark G. (2002). Ethnicity and the Bible. Brill.
* Bright, John (2000). A History of Israel. Westminster John Knox
* Coogan, Michael D., ed. (1998). The Oxford History of the Biblical
World. Oxford University Press. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
* Coote, Robert B.; Whitelam, Keith W. (1986). "The Emergence of
Israel: Social Transformation and State Formation Following the
Decline in Late
Bronze Age Trade".
Semeia (37): 107–47.
* Davies, Philip R. (1992). In Search of Ancient Israel. Sheffield.
* Davies, Philip R. (2009). "The Origin of Biblical Israel". Journal
Hebrew Scriptures. 9 (47). Archived from the original on
* Dever, William (2001). What Did the Biblical Writers Know, and
When Did They Know It?. Eerdmans.
* Dever, William (2003). Who Were the Early
Israelites and Where Did
They Come From?. Eerdmans.
* Dunn, James D.G; Rogerson, John William, eds. (2003). Eerdmans
commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
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Quest for the Historical Israel. Society of Biblical Literature.
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Canaan and Israel: An
Introduction. Oxford University Press.
* Golden, Jonathan Michael (2004b). Ancient
Canaan and Israel: New
* Killebrew, Ann E. (2005). Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity: An
Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, and Early Israel,
1300–1100 B.C.E. Society of Biblical Literature.
* King, Philip J.; Stager, Lawrence E. (2001). Life in Biblical
Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-22148-3 .
* Kuhrt, Amélie (1995). The Ancient Near East c. 3000–330 BC.
* Lemche, Niels Peter (1998). The
Israelites in History and
Tradition. Westminster John Knox Press.
* Levy, Thomas E. (1998). The Archaeology of Society in the Holy
Land. Continuum International Publishing.
* Lipschits, Oded (2005). The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem.
* Lipschits, Oded, et al., eds. (2006). Judah and the Judeans in the
Fourth Century B.C.E. Eisenbrauns. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
* McNutt, Paula (1999). Reconstructing the Society of Ancient
Israel. Westminster John Knox Press.
* Merrill, Eugene H. (1995). "The Late Bronze/Early Iron Age
Transition and the Emergence of Israel". Bibliotheca Sacra. 152 (606):
* Middlemas, Jill Anne (2005). The Troubles of Templeless Judah.
Oxford University Press.
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Israel and Judah. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN
* Miller, Robert D. (2005). Chieftains of the Highland Clans: A
Israel in the 12th and 11th Centuries B.C. Eerdmans.
* Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E. (2011). Biblical History and
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* Zevit, Ziony (2001). The Religions of Ancient Israel: A Synthesis
of Parallactic Approaches. Continuum.
The Biblical and Historical
* Children of
Israel / Twelve Tribes of
Ten Lost Tribes
* History of ancient
Israel and Judah
Land of Israel
Monarchy (Kingdom of Israel)
* Northern Kingdom
* Southern Kingdom (Kingdom of Judah)
* Historicity of the
Israel and Judah
* Kings of
Israel and Judah
Kings of Judah
* Hasmonean and Herodian rulers
TRIBES OF ISRAEL
Antigonus II Mattathias
Herod the Great
Philip the Tetrarch
Herod of Chalcis
* Agrippa II
BAR KOKHBA REVOLT
Simon bar Kokhba
* List of Jewish leaders in the
Land of Israel
Italics indicate a disputed reign or non-royal title
Ancient states and regions of the
* Hittite Empire
Israel and Judah
* Herodian Judaea
* Persian Empire