King Huiwen of Qin (Chinese: 秦惠文王), also known as Lord Huiwen
of Qin (Chinese: 秦惠文君) or King Hui of Qin (Chinese:
秦惠王), given name Si (駟), was the ruler of the Qin state from
338 to 311 BC during the
Warring States period
Warring States period of Chinese history and
likely an ancestor of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.
1.1 Early life
Prince Si was the son of Duke Xiao, and succeeded his father as ruler
after the latter's death. When the adolescent Si was still crown
prince, he committed a crime and was severely punished for it. The
Shang Yang was just then implementing his authoritarian
reforms to the laws of Qin and he insisted that the crown prince
should be punished for the crime regardless of his royal status. Duke
Xiao approved of the draconian punishment and Si's tutors, Prince Qian
(公子虔) and Gongsun Gu (公孫賈), had their noses cut off for
neglecting their duties in educating the crown prince while Ying Si
was banished from the royal palace.
It was believed that Si harboured a personal grudge against Shang Yang
and when he came to the throne as King Huiwen, Si had
Shang Yang put
to death on charges of treason. However, Huiwen retained the reformed
systems in Qin left behind by his father and Shang Yang.
During Huiwen's reign, Qin became very powerful in terms of its
military strength, and constantly invaded neighbouring states as part
of its expansionism policy. In 316 BC it conquered the states of Shu
and Ba to the south in the Sichuan basin. The strategy here was to
annex and colonize the semi-civilized lands to the south rather than
confront the more advanced states to the east with their large armies.
The strategist Su Qin, a student of Guiguzi, managed to persuade the
other six major states to form an alliance to deal with Qin. However,
Su Qin's fellow student, Zhang Yi, came into the service of Huiwen and
he helped Qin break up the alliance by sowing discord among the six
King Huiwen ruled Qin for 27 years and died in 311 BC at the age of
46. He was succeeded by his son, King Wu of Qin, born of Queen Huiwen.
^ Sima Qian. 秦本纪 [Annals of Qin]. Records of the Grand Historian
(in Chinese). guoxue.com. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
^ Han (2010), 340
Harvard University reference page for a 2006 class called Moral
Reasoning; includes a useful map.
King Huiwen of Qin
House of Ying
Died: 311 BC
as Duke of Qin
King of Qin
Rulers of Qin
Marquis of Qin
State of Qin
Duke Hui I
Duke Hui II
Qin Shi Huang
Qin Er Shi
Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16
Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5
Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan
→ Ming →