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Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S.), widely known in English by his Latinised name Gustavus Adolphus or as Gustav II Adolph,[1] was the King of Sweden
Sweden
from 1611 to 1632 who is credited for the founding of Sweden
Sweden
as a great power (Swedish: Stormaktstiden). He led Sweden
Sweden
to military supremacy during the Thirty Years' War, helping to determine the political as well as the religious balance of power in Europe. He was formally and posthumously given the name Gustavus Adolphus the Great (Swedish: Gustav Adolf den store, Latin: Gustavus Adolphus Magnus) by the Riksdag of the Estates
Riksdag of the Estates
in 1634.[2][3][4] He is often regarded as one of the greatest military commanders of all time, with innovative use of combined arms.[5] His most notable military victory was the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631). With a superb military machine, good weapons, excellent training, and effective field artillery, backed by an efficient government that could provide necessary funds, Gustavus Adolphus was poised to make himself a major European leader.[6] He was killed a year later, however, at the Battle of Lützen
Lützen
(1632). He was ably assisted in his efforts by Count Axel Oxenstierna, the Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, who also acted as regent after his death. In an era characterized by almost endless warfare, Gustavus Adolphus, inherited three simultaneous and ongoing wars of his father at the age of sixteen. Two of these were border wars with Russia and Denmark, and a more personal war (at least for his father) with Gustavus' first cousin, king Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
of Poland.[7] Of these three wars that were passed onto his rule, the Danish war was the most acute one.[8] During his reign, Sweden
Sweden
rose from the status of a Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
basin regional power to one of the great powers of Europe
Europe
and a model of early modern era government. Gustavus Adolphus is famously known as the "father of modern warfare",[9] or the first great modern general. Under his tutelage, Sweden
Sweden
and the Protestant
Protestant
cause developed a number of excellent commanders, such as Lennart Torstensson, who would go on to defeat Sweden's enemies and expand the boundaries and the power of the empire long after Gustavus Adolphus' death in battle. Spoils of Adolphus' enemies meant he became a successful bookraider in Europe, specifically with Jesuit Collections.[10] Called "The Golden King" and "The Lion of the North", he made Sweden one of the great powers of Europe, in part by reforming the administrative structure. For example, he began parish registration of the population, so that the central government could more efficiently tax and conscript the people.[11] Historian Christer Jorgensen argues that his achievement in the field of economic reform, trade, modernization, and the creation of the modern bureaucratic autocracy was as great as his exploits on the battlefields. His domestic reforms, which transformed a backward, almost medieval economy and society, were in fact not only the foundations for his victories in Germany, but also absolutely crucial for the creation and survival of the Swedish Empire.[12] He is widely commemorated by Protestants
Protestants
in Europe
Europe
as the main defender of their cause during the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
with multiple foundations and other projects named after him, including the Gustav-Adolf-Werk.

Contents

1 Life 2 Military innovator 3 Political reforms 4 Military commander 5 Death

5.1 Aftermath

6 Memorials 7 Evaluations 8 Timeline 9 Legacy 10 Issue 11 Ancestors 12 In popular culture 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Bibliography

16.1 Historiography

17 External links

Life[edit] Gustavus Adolphus was born in Stockholm
Stockholm
as the oldest son of Duke Charles of the Vasa dynasty and his second wife, Christina of Holstein-Gottorp. At the time, the King of Sweden
Sweden
was Gustavus Adolphus' cousin Sigismund. The staunch Protestant
Protestant
Duke Charles forced the Catholic Sigismund to let go of the throne of Sweden
Sweden
in 1599, a part of the preliminary religious strife before the Thirty Years' War, and reigned as regent before taking the throne as Charles IX of Sweden in 1604. Crown Prince Gustav Adolph had Gagnef-Floda in Dalecarlia as a duchy from 1610. Upon his father's death in October 1611, a sixteen-year-old Gustavus inherited the throne (declared of age and able to reign himself at seventeen as of 16 December[13]), as well as an ongoing succession of occasionally belligerent dynastic disputes with his Polish cousin. Sigismund III wanted to regain the throne of Sweden
Sweden
and tried to force Gustavus Adolphus to renounce the title. In a round of this dynastic dispute, Gustavus invaded Livonia
Livonia
when he was 31, beginning the Polish–Swedish War (1626–29). He intervened on behalf of the Lutherans in Germany, who opened the gates to their cities to him. His reign became famous from his actions a few years later when in June 1630 he landed in Germany, marking the Swedish Intervention in the Thirty Years' War. Gustavus intervened on the anti-Imperial side, which at the time was losing to the Holy Roman Empire and its Catholic allies; the Swedish forces would quickly reverse that situation. Gustavus was married to Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg,[a] the daughter of John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, and chose the Prussian city of Elbing as the base for his operations in Germany. He died in the Battle of Lützen
Lützen
in 1632. His early death was a great loss to the Lutheran
Lutheran
side. This resulted in large parts of Germany
Germany
and other countries, which had been conquered for Lutheranism, to be reconquered for Catholicism (via the Counter-Reformation). His involvement in the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
gave rise to the saying that he was the incarnation of "the Lion of the North", or as he is called in German "Der Löwe aus Mitternacht" (Literally: "The Lion of Midnight"). Military innovator[edit] See also: Military of the Swedish Empire Historian Ronald S. Love finds that in 1560–1660 there were "a few innovators, notably Maurice of Nassau and Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, whom many scholars credit with revolutionary developments in warfare and with having laid the foundations of military practice for the next two centuries."[14] Scholars all agree that Gustavus Adolphus was an extremely able military commander.[15] His innovative tactical integration of infantry, cavalry, logistics and particularly his use of artillery, earned him the title of the "Father of Modern Warfare". Future commanders who studied and admired Gustav II Adolf include Napoleon I of France
Napoleon I of France
and Carl von Clausewitz. His advancements in military science made Sweden
Sweden
the dominant Baltic power for the next one hundred years (see Swedish Empire). He is also the only Swedish monarch to be styled "the Great". This decision was made by the Swedish Estates of the Realm, when they convened in 1633. Thus, by their decision he is officially called Gustaf Adolf the Great (Gustavus Adolphus Magnus).

The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus depicted at the turning point of the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631)
Battle of Breitenfeld (1631)
against the forces of Count Tilly.

Gustavus Adolphus was the main figure responsible for the success of Swedish arms during the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
and led his nation to great prestige. As a general, Gustavus Adolphus is famous for employing mobile artillery on the battlefield, as well as very aggressive tactics, where attack was stressed over defense, and mobility and cavalry initiative were emphasized. Among other innovations, he installed an early form of combined arms in his formations, where the cavalry could attack from the safety of an infantry line reinforced by cannon, and retire again within to regroup after their foray. Inspired by the reform of Maurice of Nassau he adopted much shallower infantry formations than were common in the pike and shot armies of the era, with formations typically fighting in 5 or 6 ranks, occasionally supported at some distance by another such formation—the gaps being the provinces of the artillery and cavalry as noted above. His artillery were themselves different—in addition to the usual complements of heavy cannon he introduced light mobile guns for the first time into the Renaissance battlefield. These were grouped in batteries supporting his more linearly deployed formations, replacing the cumbersome and unmaneuverable traditional deep squares (such as the Spanish Tercios
Tercios
that were up to 50 ranks deep) used in other pike and shot armies of the day. In consequence, his forces could redeploy and reconfigure very rapidly, confounding his enemies.[16][17] He created the modern Swedish navy, which successfully transported troops and supplies to the Continental battlefront.[18] von Clausewitz and Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
considered him one of the greatest generals of all time, an evaluation agreed with by George S. Patton and others. He was also renowned for his constancy of purpose and the equality of his troops—no one part of his armies was considered better or received preferred treatment, as was common in other armies where the cavalry were the elite, followed by the artillery, and both disdained the lowly infantry. In Gustavus' army the units were extensively cross trained. Both cavalry and infantry could service the artillery, as his heavy cavalry did when turning captured artillery on the opposing Catholic Tercios
Tercios
at First Breitenfeld. Pikemen could shoot—if not as accurately as those designated musketeers—so a valuable firearm could be kept in the firing line. His infantrymen and gunners were taught to ride, if needed. Napoleon thought highly of the achievement, and copied the tactics. However, recent historians have challenged his reputation. B. H. Liddell Hart says it is an exaggeration to credit him with a uniquely disciplined conscript army, or call his the first military state to fight a protracted war on the continent. He argues that he improved existing techniques and used them brilliantly. Richard Brzezinski says his legendary status was based on inaccurate myths created by later historians. Many of his innovations were developed by his senior staff.[19]

Engraving of Gustavus Adolphus

While Gustavus has been widely credited for re-emphasizing the shock role of European cavalry, his innovations were hardly new, Huguenot cavalry under Henry IV and Gaspard II de Coligny
Gaspard II de Coligny
having fought in exactly the same fashion during the French Wars of Religion. As a matter of fact his opponent Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly
Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly
also favored the same ferocious charges the Swedish cavalry would become famous for. Neither was the Swedish practice of integrating shot and horse, the so-called "commanded shot", a new one, with the Huguenot horsemen at the battle of Coutras having the same supporting shooters. What made the Swedish army unique in this regard was the fact that the use of "commanded shot" became the standard tactical doctrine of its horse, and this in turn was adopted by other armies of the period, including its Imperial opponents and that of the English Civil War.[20] Adolphus better deserved the credit of introducing a standard caliber light muskets to his infantry forces, replacing the previous mix of arquebus and heavy musket common in Imperial tercios. The shallower infantry formation of the Swedish brigade, much more conducive to massed firepower, was inspired by the work of Maurice. However Adolphus perfected the system and introduced the use of salvo fire, where two or three ranks of musketeers fired simultaneously, usually at point blank range, rather than one rank at a time counter marching as was common in that era. Delivered at point-blank range, and immediately followed up by a charge with swords, and pikes, a salvo became the infantry's most feared tactic because it was much more effective at breaking the enemy's morale and repulsing cavalry charges than the earlier method.[21] Perhaps Adolphus’ greatest contribution, however, was his work in field artillery. Equipping each of his brigades with up to 12 light regimental guns, he greatly increased the organic firepower of his infantry and for the first time allowed the artillery arm to play a role in the offensive instead of being a static spectator in a battle of maneuvers.[22] Political reforms[edit]

Gustav Adolf Grammar School
Gustav Adolf Grammar School
in Tallinn, 2007

Gustav II Adolf's politics in the conquered territory of Estonia
Estonia
also show progressive tendencies. In 1631 he forced the nobility to grant the peasants greater autonomy. He also encouraged education, opening a school in Tallinn
Tallinn
in 1631, today known as Gustav Adolf Grammar School (Estonian: Gustav Adolfi Gümnaasium).[23] On 30 June 1632, Gustav II Adolf signed the Foundation Decree of Academia Dorpatensis in Estonia, today known as the University of Tartu.[24] With policies that supported the common people, the period of Swedish rule over Estonia initiated by Gustav II Adolf and continued by his successors is popularly known by Estonians as the "good old Swedish times" (Estonian: vana hea Rootsi aeg).[25] On 27 August 1617, he spoke before his coronation, and his words included these:

I had carefully learned to understand, about that experience which I could have upon things of rule, how fortune is failing or great, subject to such rule in common, so that otherwise I would have had scant reason to desire such a rule, had I not found myself obliged to it through God’s bidding and nature. Now it was of my acquaintance, that inasmuch as God had let me be born a prince, such as I then am born, then my good and my destruction were knotted into one with the common good; for every reason then, it was now my promise that I should take great pains about their well-being and good governance and management, and thereabout bear close concern.[26]

Military commander[edit]

Gustavus Adolphus' landing in Pomerania, near Wolgast, 1630

Gustavus Adolphus in der Schlacht von Lützen
Lützen
by Jan Asselijn

Gustavus Adolphus inherited three wars from his father when he ascended the throne: against Denmark, which had attacked Sweden earlier in 1611; against Russia, due to Sweden
Sweden
having tried to take advantage of the Russian Time of Troubles; and against Poland, due to King Charles's having deposed King Sigismund III, his nephew, as King of Sweden. The war against Denmark (Kalmar War) was concluded in 1613 with a peace that did not cost Sweden
Sweden
any territory, but it was forced to pay a heavy indemnity to Denmark (Treaty of Knäred). During this war, Gustavus Adolphus let his soldiers plunder towns and villages, and as he met little resistance from Danish forces in Scania, they pillaged and devastated twenty-four Scanian parishes. His memory in Scania
Scania
has been negative because of that fear.[27] In the winter of 1612, during a period of two weeks, did he burn down, or otherwise destroyed 24 Scanian parishes and most of their population without meeting any enemy troops. The largest destroyed settlement was the Town Væ, which two years later was replaced by Danish King Christian IV as the nearby Christiansted (after the Swedification process, spelled Kristianstad), the last Scanian town to be founded by a Danish king.[28][29] The war against Russia (Ingrian War) ended in 1617 with the Treaty of Stolbovo, which excluded Russia from the Baltic Sea. The final inherited war, the war against Poland, ended in 1629 with the Truce of Altmark, which transferred the large province Livonia
Livonia
to Sweden
Sweden
and freed the Swedish forces for the subsequent intervention in the Thirty Years' War in Germany, where Swedish forces had already established a bridgehead in 1628. The weak electorate of Brandenburg was especially torn apart by a quarrel between the Protestant
Protestant
and Catholic parties. The Brandenburg minister and diplomat baron Samuel von Winterfeld influenced Gustavus Adolphus to support and protect the Protestant
Protestant
side in Germany. When Gustavus Adolphus began his push into northern Germany
Germany
in June–July 1630, he had just 4,000 troops. He was soon able to consolidate the Protestant
Protestant
position in the north, however, using reinforcements from Sweden
Sweden
and money supplied by France at the Treaty of Bärwalde. After Swedish plundering in Brandenburg (1631) endangered the system of retrieving war contributions from occupied territories, "marauding and plundering" by Swedish soldiers was prohibited.[30] Meanwhile, a Catholic army under Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly
Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly
was laying waste to Saxony. Gustavus Adolphus met Tilly's army and crushed it at the First Battle of Breitenfeld in September 1631. He then marched clear across Germany, establishing his winter quarters near the Rhine, making plans for the invasion of the rest of the Holy Roman Empire. In March 1632, Gustavus Adolphus invaded Bavaria, a staunch ally of the Emperor. He forced the withdrawal of his Catholic opponents at the Battle of Rain, marking the high point of the campaign. In the summer of that year, he sought a political solution that would preserve the existing structure of states in Germany, while guaranteeing the security of its Protestants. But achieving these objectives depended on his continued success on the battlefield. Gustavus is reported to have entered battle without wearing any armor, proclaiming, "The Lord God is my armor!" It is more likely that he simply wore a leather cuirass rather than going into battle wearing no battle protection whatsoever. In 1627, near Dirschau in Prussia, a Polish soldier shot him in the muscles above his shoulders. He survived, but the doctors could not remove the bullet, so from that point on, he could not wear iron armor; two fingers of his right hand were paralyzed.[31][page needed] Death[edit]

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Gustavus Adolphus' body in Wolgast, on transfer to Sweden, 1633

Gustavus Adolphus's sarcophagus at Riddarholm Church

The Battle of Lützen
Lützen
(6 November 1632) was one of the most decisive battles of the Thirty Years' War. It was a Protestant
Protestant
victory, but the Protestant
Protestant
alliance lost one of its most important leaders, which caused the Protestant
Protestant
campaign to lose direction. Gustavus Adolphus was killed when, at a crucial point in the battle, he became separated from his troops while leading a cavalry charge on his wing.[32][page needed] Towards 1:00 pm, in the thick mix of gun smoke and fog covering the field, the king was separated from his fellow riders and suffered multiple shots. A bullet crushed his left arm below the elbow. Almost simultaneously his horse suffered a shot to the neck that made it hard to control. In the mix of fog and smoke from the burning town of Lützen
Lützen
the king rode astray behind enemy lines. There he sustained yet another shot in the back, was stabbed and fell from his horse. Lying on the ground, he received a final, fatal shot to the temple. His fate remained unknown for some time. However, when the gunnery paused and the smoke cleared, his horse was spotted between the two lines, Gustavus himself not on it and nowhere to be seen. His disappearance stopped the initiative of the hitherto successful Swedish right wing, while a search was conducted. His partly stripped body was found an hour or two later, and was secretly evacuated from the field in a Swedish artillery wagon. After his death, Gustavus's wife initially kept his body, and later his heart, in the castle of Nyköping
Nyköping
for over a year. His remains (including his heart) now rest in Riddarholm Church
Riddarholm Church
in Stockholm. Aftermath[edit] In February 1633, following the death of the king, the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates decided that his name would be styled Gustav Adolf the Great (or Gustaf Adolf den Store in Swedish, Latinized as Gustavus Adolphus Magnus). No such honor has been bestowed on any other Swedish monarch before or since. The crown of Sweden
Sweden
was inherited in the Vasa family, and from Charles IX’s time excluded those Vasa princes who had been traitors or descended from deposed monarchs. Gustavus Adolphus’ younger brother had died ten years before, and therefore there was only the King’s daughter left as a female heir. Maria Eleonora and the king’s ministers took over the government on behalf of Gustavus Adolphus’ underage daughter Christina upon her father’s death. He left one other known child, his illegitimate son Gustav, Count of Vasaborg. Memorials[edit] Gustavus Adolphus is commemorated today with city squares in major Swedish cities like Stockholm, Gothenburg and Helsingborg. The Gustav-Adolf-Werk
Gustav-Adolf-Werk
(GAW) of the Evangelical Church in Germany, founded on the bicentennial celebration of the Battle of Lützen, has as its object the aid of feeble sister churches and commemorates the king's legacy. Swedish royalty visited the GAW headquarters in Leipzig
Leipzig
on the festivities of Gustavus Adolphus' 400th birthday, in 1994.[33] Gustavus Adolphus College, a Lutheran
Lutheran
college in St. Peter, Minnesota, is also named for the Swedish King. Evaluations[edit]

Image of King Gustav Adolph on a wall of Stockholm
Stockholm
Palace

The Columbia Encyclopedia sums up his record:

In military organization and strategy, Gustavus was ahead of his time. While most powers relied on mercenary troops, he organized a national standing army that distinguished itself by its discipline and relatively high moral standards. Deeply religious, the king desired his soldiers to behave like a truly Christian army; his stern measures against the common practices of looting, raping, and torture were effective until his death. His successes were due to this discipline, his use of small, mobile units, the superiority of his firearms, and his personal charisma. Although he was deeply interested in the internal progress of his kingdom, much of the credit for the development of Swedish industry and the fiscal and administrative reforms of his reign belongs to Oxenstierna.[34]

The German Socialist Franz Mehring
Franz Mehring
wrote a biography of Gustavus Adolphus with a Marxist
Marxist
perspective on the actions of the Swedish king during the Thirty Years' War. In it, he makes a case that the war was fought over economics and trade rather than religion. The Swedes discovered huge deposits of copper, which were used to build brass cannon. The cottage-industrial growth stimulated an armaments industry.

Bust of King Gustav Adolph on campus at Gustavus Adolphus College
Gustavus Adolphus College
in Minnesota

In his book "Ofredsår" ("Years of Warfare"), the Swedish historian and author Peter Englund
Peter Englund
argues that there was probably no single all-important reason for the king's decision to go to war. Instead, it was likely a combination of religious, security, as well as economic considerations. This view is supported by German historian Johannes Burkhardt, who writes that Gustavus entered the 30 Years War exactly 100 years after the publication of the Confessio Augustana, the core confession of faith of the Lutheran
Lutheran
Church, and let himself be praised as its saviour. Yet Gustavus' own "manifesto of war" does not mention any religious motivations at all but speaks of political and economical reasons. Sweden
Sweden
would have to maintain its integrity in the face of several provocations and aggressions by the Habsburg Empire. The manifesto was written by scholar Johann Adler Salvius in a style common of the time that promotes a "just war". Burkhardt argues that traditional Swedish historiography constructed a defensive interest in security out of that by taking the manifesto's text for granted. But to defend Stockholm, the occupation of the German Baltic territories would have been an extreme advance and the imperial Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
fleet mentioned as a threat in the manifesto had never reached more than a quarter of the size of the Swedish fleet. Moreover, it was never maintained to challenge Sweden
Sweden
but to face the separatist Netherlands. So if ruling the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
was a goal of Swedish strategy, the conquests in Germany
Germany
were not a defensive war but an act of expansion. From Swedish Finland, Gustavus advanced along the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
coast and eventually to Augsburg and Munich and he even urged the Swiss Confederacy to join him. This was no longer about Baltic interests but the imperial capital of Vienna and the alpine passes that were now in close reach of the Swedish army. Burkhardt points out that the Gothic legacy of the Swedes, coalesced as a political program. The Swedish king was also "Rex Gotorum" (Latin: King of the Goths), and the list of kings was traced back to the Gothic rulers to construct continuity. Prior to his embarkment to northern Germany, Gustavus urged the Swedish nobility
Swedish nobility
to follow the example of conquests set by their Gothic ancestors. Had he lived longer, it would have been likely that Gustavus had reached out for the imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire.[35] Timeline[edit]

King Gustav Adolph and Queen Mary Eleanor

Gustav II Adolf in Polish 'delia' coat, painting by Matthäus Merian, 1632

December 1594. Gustavus is born in the castle of Tre Kronor, Sweden. October 1611. Gustavus gains the Swedish throne and three wars (Kalmar War, Ingrian War
Ingrian War
and the Polish War) after his father, Charles IX's, death. February 1612. The Battle of Vittsjö
Battle of Vittsjö
against Denmark where Gustavus almost drowns. January 1613. Gustavus negotiates peace after repulsing the Danish invasion in the Kalmar War
Kalmar War
with the status quo ante bellum. However, Älvsborg Ransom (1613)
Älvsborg Ransom (1613)
had to be paid for Älvsborg fortress. February 1617. After the pressures of Gustavus siege of Pskov, he excludes Russia from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
in the Ingrian War, who cedes Ingria
Ingria
to Sweden. November 1620. Gustav Adolph marries Maria Eleanora. January 1626. The battle of Wallhof where Gustavus successfully uses effective cooperation between infantry and cavalry. July 1626. Gustavus Adolphus and his army disembark at Pillau, Prussia, during the Polish–Swedish War (1626–29). September 1626. Gustavus defeats a Polish force of Sigismund III Vasa in the battle of Gniew. December 1626. Daughter and successor Christina is born. May 1627. Gustavus is shot and seriously wounded (close to dying) in the assault on Danzig. August 1627. The King is seriously wounded in the battle of Dirschau (Tczew), after being shot twice. June 1629. His troops meet up with forces of Polish crown field Hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski
Stanisław Koniecpolski
and imperial troops under Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg in the battle of Trzciana, and there Gustavus is almost killed or captured twice. September 1629. Truce of Altmark
Truce of Altmark
Livonia
Livonia
and Estonia
Estonia
is ceded to Sweden
Sweden
as a result of Gustavus Polish wars. May 1630 and 6 July Gustav Adolph lands in Germany
Germany
to enter the Thirty Years War. April 1631. Gustavus besieges and captures the town of Frankfurt an der Oder in the war. July 1631. Werben, First major field-battle between Swedish and Catholic forces where Gustavus is victorious. September 1631. At the Battle of Breitenfeld, Gustavus Adolphus decisively defeats the Catholic forces led by Tilly, even after the allied Protestant
Protestant
Saxon army had been routed and fled with the baggage train. April 1632. At the Battle of Lech, Gustavus Adolphus defeats Tilly once more, and in the battle Tilly sustains a fatal wound. May 1632. Munich yields to the Swedish army. September 1632. Gustavus Adolphus attacks the stronghold of Alte Veste, which is under the command of Wallenstein, but is repulsed, marking the first defeat in the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
of the previously invincible Swedes. November 1632. At the Battle of Lützen, Gustavus Adolphus is killed in action, but the Swedes win the fight thanks to Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, who assumes command and defeats Wallenstein. The Swedish war effort was kept up by generals Gustav Horn, Johan Banér, Lennart Torstenson, Carl Gustaf Wrangel
Carl Gustaf Wrangel
and chancellor Axel Oxenstierna
Axel Oxenstierna
until the Peace of Westphalia.

A history of Gustavus Adolphus' wars was written by Johann Philipp Abelin. Legacy[edit]

GAW Flag in the Protestant
Protestant
church of Sopron, Hungary

Gustavus Adolphus Day
Gustavus Adolphus Day
is celebrated in Sweden, Estonia
Estonia
and Finland each year on 6 November, the day the king died at Lützen. One of the traditions on this day is the Gustavus Adolphus pastry. In Finland, the day is also called "the Swedish day". The Gustav-Adolf-Werk
Gustav-Adolf-Werk
(GAW), a society under the roof of the Evangelical Church in Germany, has for its objects the aid of feeble sister churches. Its responsible for the taking care of the Diasporawork of the EKD and has separate branches internationally. The organization in Austria is still called the Gustav-Adolf-Verein. The project of forming such a society was first broached in connexion with the bicentennial celebration of the battle of Lützen
Lützen
on November 6, 1832; a proposal to collect funds for a monument to Gustavus Adolphus having been agreed to, it was suggested by Superintendent Grossmann that the best memorial to the great champion of Protestantism
Protestantism
would be the formation of a union for propagating his ideas. It quickly gained popularity in German. The lack of political correctness received some criticism however, the organization uses GAW as its brand in the meanwhile. The Swedish royalties have been visiting the GAW headquarters in Leipzig
Leipzig
on the 400th birthday of Gustav Adolf 1994.[36] Swedish Power Metal band Sabaton created the song 'The Lion from The North' for their album Carolus Rex in 2012. The song celebrates Gustavus Adolphus's military triumphs.[37][better source needed][38] Issue[edit]

Name Born Died Notes

(Illegitimate) By Margareta Slots

Gustav

24 May 1616 Stockholm

25 October 1653 Wildeshausen

Married Countess Anna Sofia Wied-Runkel and had issue.

By Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg
Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg
(11 November 1599 – 28 March 1655)

A daughter

24 July 1621 Stockholm

Stillborn, buried in Riddarholmskyrkan.

Christina

16 October 1623 Stockholm

21 September 1624 Stockholm

Heiress presumptive to the thrones of Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark; buried in Riddarholmskyrkan.

A son

May 1625 Gripsholm Castle

Stillborn, buried in Riddarholmskyrkan.

Christina

8 December 1626 Stockholm

19 April 1689 Rome

Queen of Sweden
Sweden
(1632 – 1654), never married; buried in Basilica of Saint Peter.

Ancestors[edit]

Ancestors of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden

16. Johan Kristiernsson (Vasa) (sv)

8. Erik Johansson (Vasa)

17. Birgitta Gustafsdotter (Sture)

4. Gustav I of Sweden
Sweden
(Vasa)

18. Måns Karlsson (Eka)

9. Cecilia Månsdotter (Eka)

19. Sigrid Eskilsdotter (Banér)

2. Charles IX of Sweden
Charles IX of Sweden
(Vasa)

20. Abraham Kristiernsson (Leijonhuvud)

10. Erik Abrahamsson (Leijonhufvud)

21. Birgitta Månsdotter (Natt och Dag)

5. Margaret Leijonhufvud

22. Erik Karlsson (Vasa)

11. Ebba Eriksdotter (Vasa)

23. Anna Karlsdotter (Vinstorpa)

1. Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden

24. Christian I of Denmark

12. Frederick I of Denmark

25. Dorothea of Brandenburg

6. Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp

26. Bogislaw X, Duke of Pomerania

13. Sophie of Pomerania

27. Anna Jagiellon

3. Christina of Holstein-Gottorp

28. William II, Landgrave of Hesse

14. Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse

29. Anna of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

7. Christine of Hesse

30. George, Duke of Saxony

15. Christine of Saxony

31. Barbara Jagiellon

In popular culture[edit]

August Strindberg's play Gustaf Adolf from 1900 Bertolt Brecht's play Mother Courage and Her Children
Mother Courage and Her Children
mentions Gustavus Adolphus several times in the earlier scenes during which the characters are traveling with the Protestant
Protestant
Army. The Cook lampoons the "Hero King" by pointing out that first he sought to liberate Poland from the Germans, then sought to liberate Germany
Germany
from the Germans, and made a profit on the deal. His irreverence for the king also includes the fact that, unlike Mother Courage and the Chaplain, the Cook is a Dutchman not a Swede. In the Ring of Fire hypernovel by Eric Flint
Eric Flint
and others, Gustavus Adolphus is a major character, having chosen not to attend the Battle of Lützen
Lützen
in which, historically, he was killed. He helps a community of West Virginians, cosmically transported back into time, bring about a revolution of democracy throughout the Germanies. They in turn help to grow the Swedish empire
Swedish empire
through their technological knowledge of modern-day warfare and the capabilities of mankind. They introduce many ideas to 17th century Europe
Europe
such as radio, submarines, and airplanes. Gustavus Adolphus is portrayed as a tough, yet compassionate king with tolerant tendencies toward religion and the rights of the people to establish their own civil liberties. Swedish power metal band Sabaton made a song about Gustavus Adolphus, entitled, "Lion from the North." Its parent album, Carolus Rex, is a concept album based on the rise and fall of the Swedish Empire. Gustavus Adolphus is the leader of Sweden
Sweden
in the turn-based strategy game, Civilization V, introduced in the Gods and Kings expansion.

See also[edit]

History of Sweden – Rise of Sweden
Sweden
as a Great Power Axel Oxenstierna Gustav Gustavsson af Vasaborg Gustavus Adolphus College Gustav Adolf Grammar School

Notes[edit]

^ See Wedding of Gustav II Adolf and Maria Eleonora.

References[edit]

^ Williamson, David. Debrett's Kings and Queens of Europe. pp. 124, 128, 194, 207. ISBN 0-86350-194-X.  ^ Nils Ahnlund/Michael Roberts Gustav Adolf the Great American-Scandinavian Foundation, New York, 1940 ^ Anders Fryxell
Anders Fryxell
Gustaf II Adolf Norstedts, Stockholm, 1894 p. 435 ^ Lis Granlund Riddarholmskyrkan, de svenska konungarnas gravkyrka Riksmarskalksämbetet, 1980 ill. p. 14 (GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS MAGNUS) ^ In Chapter V of Clausewitz' On War, he lists Gustavus Adolphus as an example of an outstanding military leader, along with: Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Alexander Farnese, Charles XII, Frederick the Great and Napoleon Bonaparte. ^ Stephen J. Lee, Aspects of European History 1494-1789 (2nd ed. 1984) pp 109-14. ^ Svensk Uppslagsbok, 1950,vol 5,column 353, article "Gustav; 2. Gustav II Adolf" Quote: (Swedish) "Av de tre krig, det danska, det ryska och det polska, G. ärvde..." In English "Of the three wars, the Danish, the Russian and the Polish, Gustav II Adolphus inherited... ^ Same source, and the Quote continues "...hotade det första rikets existens." English "..did the first one endanger the existence of the realm." ^ Dodge, Theodore Ayrault (1890). Gustavus Adolphus: A History of the Art of War from Its Revival After the Middle Ages to the End of the Spanish Succession War, with a Detailed Account ... of Turenne, Conde, Eugene and Marlborough. Boston and New York: Da Capo Press Inc. ISBN 978-0-306-80863-0.  ^ Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. War and a Golden Age: Skyhorse Publishing. p. 118.  ^ T. K. Derry, History of Scandinavia: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland (1979) pp 110-24. ^ Jorgensen (2001) p 228 ^ Ålund, Otto Wilhelm (1894). Gustaf II Adolf: Ett 300-årsminne berättadt för ung och gammal : Med öfver 100 illustr. och flera kartor (in Swedish). Stockholm: Alb. Bonnier. p. 12. LIBRIS 1627779.  ^ Ronald S. Love, "'All the King's Horsemen': The Equestrian Army of Henri IV, 1585–1598." The sixteenth century journal (1991): 511 ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. 1979. p. 502. ISBN 0852293399.  ^ Boyd L. Dastrup, The Field Artillery: History and Sourcebook (1994) p 11. ^ Michael Roberts, "The Military Revolution, 1560–1660" in Clifford J. Rogers, ed., The Military Revolution Debate (1995) pp 13-24, ^ Jorgensen (2001) p. 228 ^ Jorgensen (2001) p 229 ^ Davis, Paul K. (2013). Masters of the Battlefield: Great Commanders From the Classical Age to the Napoleonic Era. Oxford UP. p. 283.  ^ Showalter, Dennis E.; Astore, William J. (2007). The Early Modern World. Greenwood. p. 38.  ^ Kinard, Jeff (2007). Artillery: An Illustrated History of Its Impact. ABC-CLIO. pp. 97–98.  ^ "Gustav Adolfi Gümnaasium – Ajalugu". www.gag.ee (in Estonian). Gustav Adolf Grammar School. Retrieved 2010-12-02.  ^ "Facts about the History of the University of Tartu". University of Tartu. Retrieved 2010-12-02.  ^ "Kas vana hea rootsi aeg oli ikka nii hea, kui rahvasuu räägib?". Eesti Ekspress
Eesti Ekspress
(in Estonian). Retrieved 2011-01-05.  ^ Tal och skrifter av konung Gustav II Adolf, Norstedts, Stockholm, 1915, pp. 58–59, ^ Roberts 1992, p. 33. ^ Wilhelm Moberg, "Hur historien förfalskas" or "How history is falsified" - short story written by famous Swedish author Wilhelm Moberg who asked to see the King's letter written to his cousin Johan at Swedish National Archive, and then wrote about it. Moberg's text is available in Swedish at http://www.janmilld.se/historia/moberg.html ^ Swedish National Archive (the original document can be seen there in Stockholm, and a copy at the same institution at Lund), Kungsbrev 1600-tal, Kings' Letters, 17th Century ^ Prinz, Oliver C. (2005). Der Einfluss von Heeresverfassung und Soldatenbild auf die Entwicklung des Militärstrafrechts. Osnabrücker Schriften zur Rechtsgeschichte (in German). 7. Osnabrück: V&R unipress. pp. 40–41. ISBN 3-89971-129-7.  Referring to Kroener, Bernhard R. (1993). "Militärgeschichte des Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit bis 1648. Vom Lehnskrieger zum Söldner". In Neugebauer, Karl-Volker. Grundzüge der deutschen Militärgeschichte (in German). 1. Freiburg: Rombach. p. 32.  ^ Kuosa, Tauno (1963). Jokamiehen Suomen historia II. Sata sotaista vuotta [Everyman's Finnish History II: Hundred Warlike Years] (in Finnish). Helsinki: Werner Söderström Publishing Ltd.  ^ Brzezinski, Richard (2001). Lützen
Lützen
1632. Osprey Publishing.  ^ "Die chronik" [The chronicles]. www.gustav-adolf-werk.de (in German). Gustav-Adolf-Werk.  ^ "Gustavus II" The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. ^ Burkhardt, Johann. "Ein Gotenkönig als Friedenskaiser? (lit.: A King of Goths
Goths
as Emperor of Peace?)". Damals
Damals
(in German). Vol. 42 no. 8/2010.  Abstract in German. ^ "Die Chronik" [The chronicle]. www.gustav-adolf-werk.de (in German). Gustav-Adolf-Werk.  ^ Carolus Rex (album) ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QLt0lerdgKs

Bibliography[edit]

Ahnlund, Nils, Gustav Adolf the Great, trans. Michael Roberts., Princeton, 1940. Brzezinski, Richard, The Army of Gustavus Adolphus. (Osprey, 1993). ISBN 1-85532-350-8. excerpt Brzezinski, Richard. Lützen
Lützen
1632: Climax of the Thirty Years’ War (Praeger, 2005). Dupuy, Trevor Nevitt. The Military Life of Gustavus Adolphus: Father of Modern War (Franklin Watts, 1969). Earle, E.M. ed. Makers of Modern Strategy: Military Thought from Machiavelli to Hitler, 1948. Nordstrom, Byron J. "Gustavus II Adolphus (Sweden) (1594–1632; Ruled 1611–1632)" Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World: Europe, 1450 to 1789, 2004. Ringmar, Erik. Identity, Interest and Action: A Cultural Explanation of Sweden's Intervention in the Thirty Years' War. (Cambridge, 1996). Roberts, Michael. Gustavus Adolphus, A History of Sweden
Sweden
1611–1632 (two volumes) (London: Longmans, Green, 1953–1958). Roberts, Michael (1992). Gustavus Adolphus. Profiles in Power (2nd ed.). London: Longman. ISBN 0582090008.  Roberts, Michael. Gustavus Adolphus and the Rise of Sweden
Sweden
(London: English Universities Press, 1973). Roberts, Michael. The Military Revolution 1560–1660, (Belfast: M. Boyd, 1956). Roberts, Michael. Sweden
Sweden
as a great power 1611–1697 (London: St. Martin's Press, 1968) Schürger, André. The Battle of Lützen: an examination of 17th century military material culture (University of Glasgow 2015) [1].

Historiography[edit]

Jorgensen, Christer. "Gustavus Adolphus II" in Charles Messenger, ed. (2013). Reader's Guide to Military History. Routledge. pp. 218–19. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) . Murray, Jeremy. "The English-Language Military Historiography of Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years’ War, 1900–Present," Western Illinois Historical Review (Spring 2013) vol 5. online

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gustav II Adolf.

Works by or about Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
Sweden
at Internet Archive Works by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
Sweden
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) The Great and Famous Battle of Lutzen..., transcription Texts on Wikisource:

"Gustavus II". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.  "Gustavus II. Adolphus". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.  "Gustavus II. Adolphus". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  "Gustavus II., Adolphus". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. 

Gustav II Adolf House of Vasa Born: 9 December 1594 Died: 6 November 1632

Regnal titles

Preceded by Charles IX King of Sweden 1611–1632 Succeeded by Christina

v t e

Monarchs of Sweden

Munsö

c. 970–c. 1060

Eric the Victorious Olof Skötkonung Anund Jacob Emund the Old

Stenkil

c. 1060–c. 1130 1160–1161

Stenkil Eric and Eric Halsten Anund Gårdske Håkan the Red Halsten / Inge the Elder Blot-Sweyn Inge the Elder Philip Halstensson / Inge the Younger Ragnvald Knaphövde Magnus the Strong Houses of Sverker and Eric Magnus Henriksen

Sverker · Eric

c. 1130–1250

Sverker the Elder Eric the Saint Magnus Henriksen Charles Sverkersson Kol / Boleslaw Canute I Eriksson Sverker the Younger Eric Canutesson John Sverkersson Eric Ericsson Canute II the Tall 1 Eric Ericsson

Bjelbo

1250–1364

Valdemar Birgersson Magnus Ladulås Birger Magnusson Mats Kettilmundsson 2 Magnus Ericsson3 Eric Magnusson Magnus Ericsson / Haakon Magnusson3

Mecklenburg

1364–1389

Albert

Kalmar Union Italics indicate regents

1389–1523

Margaret4 / Eric of Pomerania4 Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson Eric of Pomerania4 Charles Canutesson Eric of Pomerania4 Charles Canutesson Christopher of Bavaria4 Bengt Jönsson (Oxenstierna)
Bengt Jönsson (Oxenstierna)
/ Nils Jönsson (Oxenstierna) Charles Canutesson3 Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna
Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna
/ Erik Axelsson Tott Christian I4 Kettil Karlsson (Vasa) Charles Canutesson Kettil Karlsson (Vasa) Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna Erik Axelsson Tott Charles Canutesson Sten Sture the Elder John II4 Sten Sture the Elder Svante Nilsson Eric Trolle Sten Sture the Younger Christian II4 Gustav Eriksson (Vasa)

Vasa

1523–1654

Gustav (Eriksson) Vasa Eric XIV John III Sigismund5 Charles IX Gustav II Adolf Christina

Palatinate- Zweibrücken Hesse-Kassel

1654–1751

Charles X Gustav Charles XI Charles XII Ulrika Eleonora Frederick I

Holstein-Gottorp

1751–1818

Adolf Frederick Gustav III Gustav IV Adolf Charles XIII3

Bernadotte

since 1818

Charles XIV John3 Oscar I3 Charles XV3 Oscar II3 Gustaf V Gustaf VI Adolf Carl XVI Gustaf

1 Lineage uncertain 2 Regent 3 Also Norwegian monarch 4 Also Norwegian and Danish monarch 5 Also king of Poland

v t e

Swedish princes

The generations indicate descent from Gustav I, of the House of Vasa, and continues through the Houses of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, Holstein-Gottorp; and the Bernadotte, the adoptive heirs of the House of Holstein-Gottorp, who were adoptive heirs of the Palatinate-Zweibrückens.

1st generation

King Eric XIV King John III Prince Magnus, Duke of Östergötland Prince Karl Prince Sten King Charles IX

2nd generation

King Sigismund I Gustav, Prince of Uglich Prince Henrik Prince Arnold Prince Ludwig Prince Gustav Prince John, Duke of Östergötland King Gustav II Adolf Prince Charles Philip, Duke of Södermanland

3rd generation

King Władysław IV of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania# Prince Christopher# Prince John Casimir# King John II Casimir of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania# Prince Alexander Charles# John Albert, Prince-Bishop of Warmia and Kraków# Prince Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Opole#

4th generation

Prince Sigismund Casimir# Prince John Sigismund# King Charles XI

5th generation

King Charles XII Prince Gustav Prince Ulrich Prince Friedrich Prince Charles Gustav King Frederick I~

6th generation

King Adolf Frederick*

7th generation

King Gustav III King Charles XIII Prince Frederick Adolf, Duke of Östergötland

8th generation

King Gustav IV Adolf Prince Carl Gustav, Duke of Småland Prince Carl Adolf, Duke of Värmland Crown Prince Charles August* King Charles XIV John*,**

9th generation

Crown Prince Gustav, Prince of Vasa Prince Carl Gustaf, Grand Duke of Finland and Duke of Småland King Oscar I**

10th generation

Prince Louis of Vasa King Charles XV** Prince Gustaf, Duke of Uppland** King Oscar II** Prince August, Duke of Dalarna**

11th generation

Prince Carl Oscar, Duke of Södermanland** King Gustaf V** Prince Oscar, Duke of Gotland**,^ Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland** Prince Eugen, Duke of Närke**

12th generation

King Gustaf VI Adolf** Prince Wilhelm, Duke of Södermanland** Prince Erik, Duke of Västmanland** Prince Carl, Duke of Östergötland^

13th generation

Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten Prince Sigvard, Duke of Uppland^ Prince Bertil, Duke of Halland Prince Carl Johan, Duke of Dalarna^ Prince Lennart, Duke of Småland^

14th generation

King Carl XVI Gustaf

15th generation

Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland Prince Daniel, Duke of Västergötland***

16th generation

Prince Oscar, Duke of Skåne Prince Alexander, Duke of Södermanland Prince Gabriel, Duke of Dalarna Prince Nicolas, Duke of Ångermanland

* prince through adoption or election ** also prince of Norway ^lost his title due to an unequal marriage #also prince of Poland and Lithuania ~Prince of Sweden
Sweden
by birth and marriage *** Prince of Sweden
Sweden
by marriage

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 10637323 LCCN: n80056899 ISNI: 0000 0001 1021 0464 GND: 118543733 SELIBR: 208633 SUDOC: 02769397X BNF: cb11968139b (data) BIBSYS: 90545687 NLA: 35927709 NDL: 00852585 NKC: jn20011211

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