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Khujand
Khujand
(Tajik: Хуҷанд, Xujand / Xuçand, Uzbek: Xo‘jand/Хўжанд, Persian: خجند‌‎, translit. Xojand), formerly known as Leninabad (Tajik: Ленинобод, Leninobod/Leninoвod,Persian: لنین‌آباد‌‎, translit. Leninâbâd) in 1936-1991, is the second-largest city of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and the capital of the northernmost province of Tajikistan, now called Sughd. Khujand
Khujand
is one of the oldest cities in Central Asia, dating back about 2,500 years. It is situated on the Syr Darya
Syr Darya
at the mouth of the Fergana Valley
Fergana Valley
and was a major city along the ancient Silk Road, mainly inhabited by ethnic Tajiks. It is proximate to both the Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Kyrgyzstan borders.

Contents

1 History 2 Transportation 3 Education 4 Demographics

4.1 Cultural sites

5 Climate 6 Sister cities 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links

History[edit]

Historical Museum of Sughd

Khujand
Khujand
is the site of Cyropolis
Cyropolis
(Κυρούπολις) which was established when king Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
founded the city during his last expedition against the Saka tribe of Massagetae
Massagetae
shortly before his death. Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
later built his furthest Greek settlement near Cyropolis
Cyropolis
in 329 BC and named it Alexandria Eschate
Alexandria Eschate
(Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια Ἐσχάτη) or "Alexandria The Furthest".[1] The city would form a bastion for the Greek settlers against the nomadic Scythian tribes who lived north of the Syr Darya River. According to the Roman writer Curtius, Alexandria Ultima (Alexandria the Furthest) retained its Hellenistic culture
Hellenistic culture
as late as 30 BCE.

Sughd
Sughd
Region Museum

The city became a major staging point on the northern Silk Road. It also became a cultural hub and several famous poets and scientists came from this city. Khujand
Khujand
was fathed by the Muslim armies in the early 8th century under Qutayba ibn Muslim, and incorporated into the Umayyad
Umayyad
and later Abbasid Caliphates. In the late 9th century, however, it reverted to local rule of Turkic governors, and eventually incorporated for a short period into the Samanid Empire. It came under the rule of the Kara-Khanid Khanate
Kara-Khanid Khanate
in 999 and after the division of Kara Khanids in 1042, it was initially part of Eastern Kara Khanids, and then later passed to the western one. Karakhitans conquered it in 1137, but it passed to Khwarazmshahs in 1211. In AD 1220, it strongly resisted the Mongol hordes and was thus laid to waste - around 20,000 Mongol soldiers surrounded the city and besieged it but a local man opened the doors of the city and let the Mongol army in. In the 14th century, the city was part of the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
until it was incorporated into the Timurid Dynasty' in the late 14th century, under which it flourished greatly. The Shaybanid dynasty of Bukhara
Bukhara
next annexed Khojand, until it was taken over by the Kokand Khanate
Kokand Khanate
in 1802, however Bukhara
Bukhara
regained it in 1842 until it was lost a few decades later to the Russia. In 1866, as most of Central Asia was occupied by Russian Empire, the city became part of the General Governorate of Turkestan, under Tsarist
Tsarist
Russia. The threat of forced conscription during World War I led to protests in the city in July 1916, which turned violent when demonstrators attacked Russian soldiers.[2] In 1918 when Turkestan
Turkestan
ASSR was dismantled, the city became a part of Uzbek Soviet
Soviet
Socialist Republic. In 1929 in order to gain a sufficient number of inhabitants for the newly created Soviet
Soviet
Republic of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(Tajik Soviet
Soviet
Socialist Republic) the city of Khujand, inhabited mainly by ethnic Uzbeks, was transferred by Soviet Communists
Communists
from Uzbek SSR to the Tajik SSR. The city was renamed Leninabad on 10 January 1936[3] and it remained part of the Soviet Union until 1991. With the independence of Tajikistan, Khujand
Khujand
became the second largest city in the nation.It reverted to its original name in 1992 after the breakup of the Soviet
Soviet
Union. In 1996 the city experienced the Ashurov protests during which citizens called for the President, Emomali Rakhmonov
Emomali Rakhmonov
to step down. The popular protests were followed by a protest from the city's prisoners, many of whom had been sentenced to long jail terms for minor crimes and who were living in poor conditions. The protest led to the Khujand prison riot in which between 24 and 150 prisoners were killed. In the early 2000s many residents of Khujand
Khujand
had little to no access to water, and what water they did have was unsafe to drink and had to be boiled. In 2004, The Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs and the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development
European Bank of Reconstruction and Development
joined to help improve the situation, providing 32,000 water meters for inhabitants and developing improved access to water. Residents pay for their water supply, which in turn helps Khujand's municipal water company to continue to renovate and improve their services. The project is in its third stage of development, and should be completed by 2017. In comparison to other Central Asian projects aiming to improve access to water, this project is considered a success and has been applied to Kyrgyz cities and towns such as Osh, Jalal-Abad, Karabalta, and Talas, with a possible extension into the Kyrgyz capital of Bishkek.[4] Transportation[edit]

Khujand
Khujand
airport terminal

Khujand Airport
Khujand Airport
has regularly scheduled flights to Dushanbe
Dushanbe
as well as several international destinations (mainly in Russia). There is also a rail connection between Khujand
Khujand
and Samarkand
Samarkand
in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
on the way to Dushanbe.[5][6] The city is connected by road to Panjakent
Panjakent
in the Zeravshan River
Zeravshan River
Valley as well as Dushanbe
Dushanbe
via the Anzob
Anzob
Tunnel. As of December 2014 the construction of highway between capital and Khujand has been carrying on. Necessary works like cementation and installation of ventilation equipment are still going on inside the Istiqlol Tunnel, after specialists from the ministry detected an error while analyzing the 40-million-U.S.-dollar project in July. The 5-km tunnel, located 80 km northwest of Dushanbe
Dushanbe
and built with assistance from Iran, is also a transit route between Dushanbe and the Uzbek capital of Tashkent. After its completion, the Dushanbe- Khujand
Khujand
highway will open for traffic the whole year round and the transit time is expected to be cut by four to five hours. Previously, particularly during cold seasons, the lack of a direct link between northern and southern Tajikistan
Tajikistan
often led to disruptions of commercial activities in the region [7] Education[edit] The city is home to Khujand
Khujand
State University, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
State University of Law, Business, & Politics, Polytechnical Institute of Technical University of Tajikistan, and Khujand
Khujand
Medical College as well as 2 year technical colleges. Secondary education
Secondary education
is funded by the state except for when administered at private institutions. Higher education in universities and colleges is subsidized by the Tajik Ministry of Education. Demographics[edit] Khujand
Khujand
is mainly inhabited by ethnic Tajiks. Results of population census carried out in 2010: Tajiks
Tajiks
- 84%, Uzbeks
Uzbeks
- 14%, Russians
Russians
- 0.4%, and others - 1.6%. Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
is a mainly practiced religion in the city.[3] The population of the city is 389,400 (Report of Statistical Agency 2016).[3] The population in Khujand
Khujand
agglomeration is 884,900 people (2015). Cultural sites[edit]

Panjshanbe bazar, 2011

The city is home to the Khujand
Khujand
Fortress and Historical Museum of Sughd
Sughd
which has around 1200 exhibitions with most being open to the public.[8] The Sheikh Muslihiddin mausoleum is located on the main square across the Panjshanbe Market (Бозори Панҷшанбе / Persian for "Thursday's Market"), one of the largest covered markets in Central Asia.[9] Climate[edit] Khujand
Khujand
experiences a temperate desert climate (Köppen: BWk) with long, hot summers and short, cool winters. Precipitation
Precipitation
is light, and it generally falls in winter and autumn.

Climate data for Khujand

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 15.7 (60.3) 19.5 (67.1) 28.8 (83.8) 36.5 (97.7) 39.9 (103.8) 43.5 (110.3) 45.9 (114.6) 43.8 (110.8) 38.2 (100.8) 33.8 (92.8) 24.4 (75.9) 18.6 (65.5) 45.9 (114.6)

Average high °C (°F) 3.5 (38.3) 6.2 (43.2) 13.8 (56.8) 21.9 (71.4) 28.6 (83.5) 34.2 (93.6) 35.5 (95.9) 32.4 (90.3) 28.8 (83.8) 20.6 (69.1) 12.3 (54.1) 5.6 (42.1) 20.28 (68.51)

Daily mean °C (°F) −0.4 (31.3) 2.2 (36) 8.2 (46.8) 15.7 (60.3) 21.7 (71.1) 26.8 (80.2) 28.7 (83.7) 26.4 (79.5) 20.9 (69.6) 13.6 (56.5) 6.6 (43.9) 1.5 (34.7) 14.33 (57.8)

Average low °C (°F) −3.2 (26.2) −1.8 (28.8) 4.2 (39.6) 10.7 (51.3) 15.5 (59.9) 19.6 (67.3) 21.2 (70.2) 18.8 (65.8) 13.6 (56.5) 8.1 (46.6) 3.4 (38.1) −0.5 (31.1) 9.13 (48.45)

Record low °C (°F) −22.8 (−9) −22.2 (−8) −13.6 (7.5) −3.9 (25) 0.8 (33.4) 8.7 (47.7) 10.5 (50.9) 7.0 (44.6) 1.4 (34.5) −6.8 (19.8) −18.8 (−1.8) −20.0 (−4) −22.8 (−9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 15.1 (0.594) 15.4 (0.606) 24.9 (0.98) 26.8 (1.055) 20.1 (0.791) 8.6 (0.339) 3.9 (0.154) 1.2 (0.047) 3.2 (0.126) 14.9 (0.587) 15.7 (0.618) 17.3 (0.681) 167.1 (6.578)

Average precipitation days 11.4 11.0 12.7 12.6 12.0 6.3 4.1 2.6 3.2 6.8 7.4 10.4 100.5

Average relative humidity (%) 77.8 75.4 64.0 56.3 48.7 34.8 33.8 38.4 43.3 55.4 75.2 76.4 56.63

Mean monthly sunshine hours 124.0 127.1 167.4 210.0 294.5 357.0 381.3 359.6 300.0 223.2 156.0 102.3 2,802.4

Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation
World Meteorological Organisation
(UN) [10]

Source #2: climatebase.ru (temperature mean & extremes, humidity)[11]

Sister cities[edit]

Shymkent, Kazakhstan Bukhara, Uzbekistan Samarkand, Uzbekistan Nishapur, Iran Tabriz, Iran Lincoln, NE, United States

See also[edit]

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
portal

State of Hua (Hephthalite) Khudzhand Airport Technical University of Tajikistan Khujand
Khujand
State University Historical Museum of Sughd Khujand
Khujand
prison riot

References[edit]

^ Prevas, John. (2004). Envy of the Gods: Alexander the Great's Ill-Fated Journey across Asia, p. 121. Da Capo Press, Cambridge, Mass. ISBN 0-306-81268-1. ^ A Country Study: Tajikistan, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
under Russian Rule, Library of Congress Call Number DK851 .K34 1997, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field%28DOCID+tj0013%29 ^ a b c About Khujand, http://fezsughd.tj/en/about_khujand/ ^ International Crisis Group. "Water Pressures in Central Asia", CrisisGroup.org. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014. ^ Rail Map of Tajikistan, http://www.caravanistan.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/central-asia-railroad-train-map-kazakhstan-uzbekistan-kyrgyzstan-tajikistan-turkmenistan-afghanistan.gif ^ Trains in Tajikistan, Caravanistan (blog), http://caravanistan.com/transport/train/tajikistan/ ^ http://www.shanghaidaily.com/article/article_xinhua.aspx?id=260205 ^ Khujand
Khujand
Fortress, http://www.advantour.com/tajikistan/khujand/khujand-fortress.htm ^ Sheikh Muslihiddin mausoleum, aziana travel, http://www.azianatravel.com/en/sheikh-muslihiddin-mausoleum ^ "World Weather Information Service – Khujand". United Nations. Retrieved 5 January 2011.  ^ "Leninabad, Tajikistan". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 

Sources[edit]

Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265. Draft annotated English translation. [1] (See under the heading for "Northern Wuyi").

External links[edit]

Official website (in Russian) http://www.angelfire.com/pe/rudaki/khujand.html (in Russian) Khujand
Khujand
travel guide http://www.greatestcities.com/Asia/Tajikistan/Khujand_formerly_Leninabad_city.html OpenStreetMap

Coordinates: 40°17′N 69°38′E / 40.283°N 69.633°E / 40.283; 69.633

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Tajikistan Source?

Rank Name Administrative division Pop.

Dushanbe

Khujand 1 Dushanbe Dushanbe 775,800

Qurghonteppa

Kulob

2 Khujand Sughd 169,700

3 Qurghonteppa Khatlon 101,600

4 Kulob Khatlon 99,700

5 Istaravshan Sughd 58,600

6 Vahdat Region of Republican Subordination 52,900

7 Tursunzoda Region of Republican Subordination 50,900

8 Konibodom Sughd 48,900

9 Isfara Sughd 45,900

10 Panjakent Sughd 40,000

v t e

Sughd
Sughd
Province

Capital: Khujand

Aini District

Aini Urmetan Dardar Fondaryo Rarz Shamtuch Anzob Zarafshan

Asht
Asht
District

Asht Jarbulak Kamish Kurgan Kirkuduk Oshoba Pongaz Punuk Shodoba Shaidan

Ghafurov
Ghafurov
District

Ghafurov Utkansoy Yova Pakhtakor Haidar Usmonov Goziyon Unji Ismoil Isfisior Katagan Ovchi
Ovchi
Kalacha Kistakuz Chkalovsk

Ghonchi
Ghonchi
District

Ghonchi Yakhtan Gazantarak Mujum Ovchi Dalyoni Bolo Kalininabad Rosrovut

Isfara
Isfara
District

Isfara Navgilem Khonabad Kulkand Shahrak Chilgazi Lakkon Surkh Chorku Vorukh

Istaravshan
Istaravshan
District

Istaravshan Nijoni Frunze Kommunizm Guli surkh Poshkent Pravda Javkandak Leninobod Qalaibaland Nofaroj

Konibodom
Konibodom
District

Konibodom Lohuti Sharipov Hamrabaev Ortikov Pulatan Patar

Kuhistoni Mastchoh District

Mehron Langar Ivan Tajik

Mastchoh
Mastchoh
District

Buston Avzikent Mastchoh Obburdon Paldorak Takeli Kuruksoi

Panjakent
Panjakent
District

Panjakent Sarazm Khurmi Amondara Khalifa Hassan Sujina Yori Farob Mughiyon Kosatarosh Kolkhozchiyon Rudaki Chinor Shing Voru Changal (village)

Jabbor Rasulov District

Proletarsk Dehmoy Gulkhona Gulakandoz Uzbekqishloq Yangihayot

Shahriston
Shahriston
District

Shahriston Yangiqurghon

Spitamen District

Nau Kurkat Kushtegirmon Oqteppa Tagoyak Farmonkurgon Shahraki Nov

Zafarobod
Zafarobod
District

Zafarobod Jomi Ravshan Khamid Aliev Mehnatobod

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 242159731 GN

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