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Kew
Kew
Gardens is a botanical garden in southwest London
London
that houses the "largest and most diverse botanical and mycological collections in the world".[1] Founded in 1840, from the exotic garden at Kew
Kew
Park in Middlesex, England, its living collections include more than 30,000 different kinds of plants, while the herbarium, which is one of the largest in the world, has over seven million preserved plant specimens. The library contains more than 750,000 volumes, and the illustrations collection contains more than 175,000 prints and drawings of plants. It is one of London's top tourist attractions and is a World Heritage
World Heritage
Site. Kew
Kew
Gardens, together with the botanic gardens at Wakehurst Place
Wakehurst Place
in Sussex, are managed by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
(brand name Kew), an internationally important botanical research and education institution that employs 750 staff and is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.[2] The Kew
Kew
site, which has been dated as formally starting in 1759,[3] though it can be traced back to the exotic garden at Kew
Kew
Park, formed by Lord Henry Capell of Tewkesbury, consists of 121 hectares (300 acres)[4] of gardens and botanical glasshouses, four Grade I listed buildings, and 36 Grade II listed structures, all set in an internationally significant landscape.[5] It is listed Grade I on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens.[6] Kew
Kew
Gardens has its own police force, Kew
Kew
Constabulary, which has been in operation since 1847.

Contents

1 History 2 Features

2.1 Plant houses

2.1.1 Alpine House 2.1.2 Nash Conservatory 2.1.3 Orangery 2.1.4 Palm House 2.1.5 Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales
Conservatory 2.1.6 Rhizotron 2.1.7 Temperate House 2.1.8 Waterlily House 2.1.9 Evolution House 2.1.10 Bonsai House 2.1.11 Former Plant Houses

2.2 Ornamental buildings

2.2.1 Pagoda 2.2.2 Japanese Gateway 2.2.3 Minka House 2.2.4 Queen Charlotte's Cottage 2.2.5 King William’s Temple 2.2.6 The Temple of Aeolus 2.2.7 The Temple of Arethusa 2.2.8 The Temple of Bellona 2.2.9 The Ruined Arch 2.2.10 Ice House

2.3 Kew
Kew
Palace 2.4 Galleries and museums

2.4.1 Shirley Sherwood
Shirley Sherwood
Gallery 2.4.2 Museum No. 1 2.4.3 The Marianne North
Marianne North
Gallery 2.4.4 Former museum buildings

3 Plant collections 4 Herbaria collections 5 Library and archives 6 Forensic horticulture 7 Economic Botany 8 Jodrell Laboratory 9 Kew
Kew
Constabulary 10 War Memorial 11 Media 12 Access and transport 13 See also 14 References 15 External links

History[edit]

The flagpole at Kew
Kew
Gardens, which stood from 1959 until 2007

Kew, the area in which Kew
Kew
Gardens are situated, consists mainly of the gardens themselves and a small surrounding community.[7] Royal residences in the area which would later influence the layout and construction of the gardens began in 1299 when Edward I moved his court to a manor house in neighbouring Richmond (then called Sheen).[7] That manor house was later abandoned; however, Henry VII built Sheen Palace in 1501, which, under the name Richmond Palace, became a permanent royal residence for Henry VII.[8][9][10] Around the start of the 16th century courtiers attending Richmond Palace
Richmond Palace
settled in Kew
Kew
and built large houses.[7] Early royal residences at Kew included Mary Tudor's house, which was in existence by 1522 when a driveway was built to connect it to the palace at Richmond.[7] Around 1600, the land that would become the gardens was known as Kew
Kew
Field, a large field strip farmed by one of the new private estates.[11][12] The exotic garden at Kew
Kew
Park, formed by Lord Capel John of Tewkesbury, was enlarged and extended by Augusta, Dowager Princess of Wales, the widow of Frederick, Prince of Wales. The origins of Kew Gardens can be traced to the merging of the royal estates of Richmond and Kew
Kew
in 1772.[13] William Chambers built several garden structures, including the lofty Chinese pagoda
Chinese pagoda
built in 1761 which still remains. George III enriched the gardens, aided by William Aiton
William Aiton
and Sir Joseph Banks.[14] The old Kew
Kew
Park (by then renamed the White House), was demolished in 1802. The "Dutch House" adjoining was purchased by George III in 1781 as a nursery for the royal children. It is a plain brick structure now known as Kew
Kew
Palace. Some early plants came from the walled garden established by William Coys at Stubbers in North Ockendon.[15] The collections grew somewhat haphazardly until the appointment of the first collector, Francis Masson, in 1771.[16] Capability Brown, who became England's most renowned landscape architect, applied for the position of master gardener at Kew, and was rejected.[17] In 1840 the gardens were adopted as a national botanical garden, in large part due to the efforts of the Royal Horticultural Society
Royal Horticultural Society
and its president William Cavendish.[18] Under Kew's director, William Hooker, the gardens were increased to 30 hectares (75 acres) and the pleasure grounds, or arboretum, extended to 109 hectares (270 acres), and later to its present size of 121 hectares (300 acres). The first curator was John Smith.

The Tea House at Kew
Kew
Gardens after the arson attack in 1913 by suffragettes Olive Wharry
Olive Wharry
and Lilian Lenton

The Palm House
Palm House
was built by architect Decimus Burton
Decimus Burton
and iron-maker Richard Turner between 1844 and 1848, and was the first large-scale structural use of wrought iron. It is considered "the world's most important surviving Victorian glass and iron structure."[19][20] The structure's panes of glass are all hand-blown. The Temperate House, which is twice as large as the Palm House, followed later in the 19th century. It is now the largest Victorian glasshouse in existence. Kew was the location of the successful effort in the 19th century to propagate rubber trees for cultivation outside South America. In February 1913, the Tea House was burned down by suffragettes Olive Wharry and Lilian Lenton
Lilian Lenton
during a series of arson attacks in London.[21] Kew
Kew
Gardens lost hundreds of trees in the Great Storm of 1987.[22] From 1959 to 2007 Kew
Kew
Gardens had the tallest flagpole in Britain. Made from a single Douglas-fir
Douglas-fir
from Canada, it was given to mark both the centenary of the Canadian Province of British Columbia
British Columbia
and the bicentenary of Kew
Kew
Gardens. The flagpole was removed after damage by weather and woodpeckers made it a danger.[23] In July 2003, the gardens were put on the UNESCO
UNESCO
list of World Heritage Sites[3] by UNESCO. Features[edit]

Treetop walkway

A treetop walkway, opened in 2008,[24] takes visitors on a 200 metres (660 ft) walk 18 metres (59 ft) above the ground, in the tree canopy of a woodland glade. Visitors can ascend and descend by stairs and by a lift. The walkway floor is perforated metal and flexes under foot; the entire structure sways in the wind. It was designed by David Marks.[25] The accompanying photograph shows a section of the walkway, including the steel supports, which were designed to rust to a tree-like appearance to help the walkway fit in visually with its surroundings. A short video detailing the construction of the walkway is available online.[26]

A panoramic view of the treetop walkway. It stands 18 metres (59 ft) above ground.

Sackler Crossing

The Sackler Crossing

The Sackler Crossing bridge, made of granite and bronze, opened in May 2006. Designed by Buro Happold
Buro Happold
and John Pawson, it crosses the lake and is named in honour of philanthropists Dr Mortimer and Theresa Sackler. The minimalist-styled bridge is designed as a sweeping double curve of black granite. The sides of the bridge are formed of bronze posts that give the impression, from certain angles, of forming a solid wall while, from others, and to those on the bridge, they are clearly individual entities that allow a view of the water beyond. The bridge forms part of a path designed to encourage visitors to visit more of the gardens than had hitherto been popular and connects the two art galleries, via the Temperate and Evolution Houses and the woodland glade, to the Minka House and the Bamboo
Bamboo
Garden. The crossing won a special award from the Royal Institute of British Architects in 2008.

The Hive The Hive is a multi-sensory experience designed to highlight the extraordinary life of bees. It stands 17 metres tall and is set in a wildflower meadow.

Vehicular tour

Kew
Kew
Explorer is a service that takes a circular route around the gardens, provided by two 72-seater road trains that are fuelled by Calor Gas to minimise pollution. A commentary is provided by the driver and there are several stops. A map of the gardens is available on the Kew
Kew
Gardens website.[27]

Compost heap

Kew
Kew
has one of the largest compost heaps in Europe, made from green and woody waste from the gardens and the manure from the stables of the Household Cavalry.[28] The compost is mainly used in the gardens, but on occasion has been auctioned as part of a fundraising event for the gardens.[29] The compost heap is in an area of the gardens not accessible to the public,[28] but a viewing platform, made of wood which had been illegally traded but seized by Customs officers in HMRC, has been erected to allow visitors to observe the heap as it goes through its cycle.[29]

Guided walks

Free tours of the gardens are conducted daily by trained volunteers. Plant houses[edit] Alpine House[edit]

The Davies Alpine House in 2014

In March 2006, the Davies Alpine House opened, the third version of an alpine house since 1887. Although only 16 metres (52 ft) long the apex of the roof arch extends to a height of 10 metres (33 ft) in order to allow the natural airflow of a building of this shape to aid in the all-important ventilation required for the type of plants to be housed. The new house features a set of automatically operated blinds that prevent it overheating when the sun is too hot for the plants together with a system that blows a continuous stream of cool air over the plants. The main design aim of the house is to allow maximum light transmission. To this end the glass is of a special low iron type that allows 90 per cent of the ultraviolet light in sunlight to pass. It is attached by high tension steel cables so that no light is obstructed by traditional glazing bars. To conserve energy the cooling air is not refrigerated but is cooled by being passed through a labyrinth of pipes buried under the house at a depth where the temperature remains suitable all year round. The house is designed so that the maximum temperature should not exceed 20 °C (68 °F). Kew's collection of Alpine plants (defined as those that grow above the tree line in their locale – ground level at the poles rising to over 2,000 metres (6,562 feet)), extends to over 7000. As the Alpine House can only house around 200 at a time the ones on show are regularly rotated. Nash Conservatory[edit]

The Nash Conservatory

Originally designed for Buckingham Palace, this was moved to Kew
Kew
in 1836 by King William IV. The building was formerly known as the Aroid House No. 1 and was used to display species of Araceae, the building was listed Grade II* in 1950.[30] With an abundance of natural light, the building is now used for various exhibitions, weddings, and private events. It is also now used to exhibit the winners of the photography competition. Orangery[edit]

Kew
Kew
Orangery

The Orangery[31] was designed by Sir William Chambers, and was completed in 1761. It measures 28 by 10 metres (92 by 33 ft). It was found to be too dark for its intended purpose of growing citrus plants and they were moved out in 1841. After many changes of use, it is currently used as a restaurant.

Palm House[edit]

The Palm House
Palm House
and Parterre

The Palm House
Palm House
(1844–1848) was the result of cooperation between architect Decimus Burton
Decimus Burton
and iron founder Richard Turner,[32] and continues upon the glass house design principles developed by John Claudius Loudon[33][34] and Joseph Paxton.[34] A space frame of wrought iron arches, held together by horizontal tubular structures containing long prestressed cables,[34][35] supports glass panes which were originally[32] tinted green with copper oxide to reduce the significant heating effect. The 19m high central nave is surrounded by a walkway at 9m height, allowing visitors a closer look upon the palm tree crowns. In front of the Palm House
Palm House
on the east side are the Queen's Beasts, ten statues of animals bearing shields. They are Portland stone
Portland stone
replicas of originals done by James Woodford
James Woodford
and were placed here in 1958.[36] Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales
Conservatory[edit]

Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales
Conservatory

Kew's third major conservatory, the Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales
Conservatory, designed by architect Gordon Wilson, was opened in 1987 by Diana, Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales
in commemoration of her predecessor Augusta's associations with Kew.[37] In 1989 the conservatory received the Europa Nostra award for conservation.[38] The conservatory houses ten computer-controlled micro-climatic zones, with the bulk of the greenhouse volume composed of Dry Tropics and Wet Tropics plants. Significant numbers of orchids, water lilies, cacti, lithops, carnivorous plants and bromeliads are housed in the various zones. The cactus collection also extends outside the conservatory where some hardier species can be found. The conservatory has an area of 4499 square metres. As it is designed to minimise the amount of energy taken to run it, the cooler zones are grouped around the outside and the more tropical zones are in the central area where heat is conserved. The glass roof extends down to the ground, giving the conservatory a distinctive appearance and helping to maximise the use of the sun's energy. During the construction of the conservatory a time capsule was buried. It contains the seeds of basic crops and endangered plant species and key publications on conservation.[38] Rhizotron[edit]

The Rhizotron

A rhizotron opened at the same time as the "treetop walkway", giving visitors the opportunity to investigate what happens beneath the ground where trees grow. The rhizotron is essentially a single gallery containing a set of large bronze abstract castings which contain LCD screens that carry repeating loops of information about the life of trees. Temperate House[edit]

Inside the Temperate House

The Temperate House, currently closed for restoration, is a greenhouse that has twice the floor area of the Palm House
Palm House
and is the world's largest surviving Victorian glass structure. When in use it contained plants and trees from all the temperate regions of the world. It was commissioned in 1859 and designed by architect Decimus Burton
Decimus Burton
and ironfounder Richard Turner. Covering 4880 square metres, it rises to a height of 19 metres. Intended to accommodate Kew's expanding collection of hardy and temperate plants, it took 40 years to construct, during which time costs soared. The building was closed for restoration 1980–82. The building was restored during 2014–15 by Donald Insall Associates, based on their conservation management plan.[39] There is a viewing gallery in the central section from which visitors were able to look down on that part of the collection. Waterlily House[edit]

The Waterlily House

The Waterlily House is the hottest and most humid of the houses at Kew and contains a large pond with varieties of water lily, surrounded by a display of economically important heat-loving plants. It closes during the winter months. It was built to house the Victoria amazonica, the largest of the Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaeaceae
family of water lilies. This plant was originally transported to Kew
Kew
in phials of clean water and arrived in February 1849, after several prior attempts to transport seeds and roots had failed. Although various other members of the Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaeaceae
family grew well, the house did not suit the Victoria, purportedly because of a poor ventilation system, and this specimen was moved to another, smaller, house ( Victoria amazonica
Victoria amazonica
House No. 10). The ironwork for this project was provided by Richard Turner and the initial construction was completed in 1852. The heat for the house was initially obtained by running a flue from the nearby Palm House
Palm House
but it was later equipped with its own boiler.[40] Evolution House[edit] Formerly known as the Australian House. The house was a gift from the Australian Government. It was designed by S L Rothwell (Ministry of Works) with consultant engineer J E Temple and was constructed by the Crittall Manufacturing Company Ltd. It opened in 1952. From 1995 it was known as the Evolution House. The building is listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 for its special architectural or historic interest.[41] Bonsai House[edit] The Bonsai House was formerly known as the Alpine House No. 24 prior to the construction of the Davies Alpine House. Former Plant Houses[edit] The following plant houses were in use in 1974. All have since been demolished.[42]

Former Plant Houses

Official number Name Notes

No. 2 Tropical Fern
Fern
House Located in the gardens to the north of the Princess of Wales Conservatory

No. 3 Temperate Fern
Fern
House

No. 4 Conservatory

No. 5 Succulent House

No. 7 Gesneriads and Rhipsalis Located on the site of the Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales
Conservatory. Plant Houses Nos. 7 to 14b inclusive were collectively known as the “T” Range because of their T-shaped plan.

No. 7a Sherman Hoyt House

No. 7b South African Succulent House

No. 8 Orchid
Orchid
House

No. 9 Orchid
Orchid
House

No. 9a Nepenthes

No. 10 Victoria amazonica
Victoria amazonica
House

No. 10a Impatiens

No. 11 Bromeliad
Bromeliad
House

No. 12 South African House

No. 12a Insectiverous Plants House

No. 14a Begonia House

No. 14b Begonia House

– Filmy Fern
Fern
House Located on the north face of Orangery

The extant Aroid House (now the Nash Conservatory) was designated Plant House No. 1 and the Water Lily House was Plant House No. 15. Ornamental buildings[edit] Pagoda[edit]

The Pagoda

In the south-east corner of Kew
Kew
Gardens stands the Great Pagoda
Pagoda
(by Sir William Chambers), erected in 1762, from a design in imitation of the Chinese Ta. The lowest of the ten octagonal storeys is 15 m (49 ft) in diameter. From the base to the highest point is 50 m (164 ft). Each storey finishes with a projecting roof, after the Chinese manner, originally covered with ceramic tiles and adorned with large dragons; a story is still propagated that they were made of gold and were reputedly sold by George IV to settle his debts.[43] In fact the dragons were made of wood painted gold, and simply rotted away with the ravages of time. The walls of the building are composed of brick. The staircase, 253 steps, is in the centre of the building. During the Second World War holes were cut in each floor to allow for drop-testing of model bombs. The Pagoda
Pagoda
was closed to the public for many years, but was reopened for the summer months of 2006. It is now closed again but is intended to reopen under the aegis of Historic Royal Palaces
Historic Royal Palaces
in 2017.[44] Japanese Gateway[edit]

The Japanese Gateway (Chokushi-Mon)

Built for the Japan-British Exhibition (1910)
Japan-British Exhibition (1910)
and moved to Kew
Kew
in 1911, the Chokushi-Mon ("Imperial Envoy's Gateway") is a four-fifths scale replica of the karamon (gateway) of the Nishi Hongan-ji temple in Kyoto. It lies about 140 m west of the Pagoda
Pagoda
and is surrounded by a reconstruction of a traditional Japanese garden. Minka House[edit]

The Minka House

Following the Japan 2001 festival,[45] Kew
Kew
acquired a Japanese wooden house called a minka. It was originally erected in around 1900 in a suburb of Okazaki and is now located within the bamboo collection in the west central part of Kew
Kew
Gardens. Japanese craftsmen reassembled the framework and British builders who had worked on the Globe Theatre added the mud wall panels. Work on the house started on 7 May 2001 and, when the framework was completed on 21 May, a Japanese ceremony was held to mark what was considered an auspicious occasion. Work on the building of the house was completed in November 2001 but the internal artefacts were not all in place until 2006. Queen Charlotte's Cottage[edit]

Queen Charlotte's Cottage

Within the conservation area is a cottage that was built sometime before 1771 for Queen Charlotte by her husband George III. It has been restored by Historic Royal Palaces
Historic Royal Palaces
and is separately administered by them.[46] It is open to the public on weekends and bank holidays during the summer. King William’s Temple[edit] A double porticoed Doric temple in stone with a series of cast-iron panels set in the inside walls commemorating British military victories from Minden (1759) to Waterloo (1815). It was built in 1837 by Sir Jeffery Wyatville, and originally called The Pantheon. Named after King William IV
King William IV
(1830–37). It is Grade II listed.[47] The Temple of Aeolus[edit] A domed rotunda with eight Tuscan columns. The original temple was built in 1763 by Sir William Chambers. The present temple is an 1845 replacement by Decimus Burton. It is Grade II listed.[48] The Temple of Arethusa[edit] A small Greek temple portico with two Ionic columns and two outer Ionic pillars; it is pedimented with a cornice and key pattern frieze. It was built in 1758 by Sir William Chambers. It is Grade II listed.[49] The Temple of Bellona[edit] A whitewashed stucco temple. The facade has a portico of two pairs of Doric columns with a metope frieze pediment and an oval dome behind. Inside is a room with an oval domed centre. On the walls garlands and medallions with the names and numbers of British and Hanovarian units connected with the Seven Years' War. It was built in 1760 by Sir William Chambers. It is Grade II listed.[50] The Ruined Arch[edit] A brick arch with rustication in stucco. Triple arched opening with oculi above lower side arches, it has stone band course and a fragmented blocked cornice and brick coffering and a corniced doorway. It was built in 1759–60 by Sir William Chambers. It is Grade II* listed.[51] Ice House[edit] The Ice House is believed to be early 18-century, it has a brick dome with access arch and barrel vaulted passage-way, covered by a mound of earth. It is Grade II listed.[52] Kew
Kew
Palace[edit] Main article: Kew
Kew
Palace

The Palace at Kew, with the sundial in the foreground

Kew
Kew
Palace is the smallest of the British royal palaces. It was built by Samuel Fortrey, a Dutch merchant in around 1631. It was later purchased by George III. The construction method is known as Flemish bond
Flemish bond
and involves laying the bricks with long and short sides alternating. This and the gabled front give the construction a Dutch appearance. To the rear of the building is the "Queen's Garden" which includes a collection of plants believed to have medicinal qualities. Only plants that were extant in England by the 17th century are grown in the garden. The building underwent significant restoration, with leading conservation architects Donald Insall Associates, before being reopened to the public in 2006.[53] It is administered separately from Kew
Kew
Gardens, by Historic Royal Palaces. In front of the palace is a sundial, which was given to Kew
Kew
Gardens in 1959 to commemorate a royal visit. It was sculpted by Martin Holden and is a replica of one by Thomas Tompion, a celebrated 17th-century clockmaker, which had been sited near the surviving palace building since 1832 to mark the site of James Bradley's observations leading to his discovery of the aberration of light.[54][55] Galleries and museums[edit] Admission to the galleries and museum is free after paying admission to the gardens. The International Garden
Garden
Photographer of the Year Exhibition is an annual event with an indoor display of entries during the summer months. Shirley Sherwood
Shirley Sherwood
Gallery[edit]

The Shirley Sherwood
Shirley Sherwood
Gallery of Botanic Art

The Shirley Sherwood
Shirley Sherwood
Gallery of Botanic Art opened in April 2008, and holds paintings from Kew's and Dr Shirley Sherwood's collections, many of which had never been displayed to the public before. It features paintings by artists such as Georg D. Ehret, the Bauer brothers, Pierre-Joseph Redouté
Pierre-Joseph Redouté
and Walter Hood Fitch. The paintings and drawings are cycled on a six-monthly basis. The gallery is linked to the Marianne North
Marianne North
Gallery (see below). Museum No. 1[edit] Near the Palm House
Palm House
is a building known as the General Museum or "Museum No. 1" (even though it is now the only museum on the site), which was designed by Decimus Burton
Decimus Burton
and opened in 1857. Housing Kew's economic botany collections including tools, ornaments, clothing, food and medicines, its aim was to illustrate human dependence on plants. The building was refurbished in 1998. The upper two floors are now an education centre and the ground floor houses the "Plants+People" exhibition which highlights the variety of plants and the ways that people use them. Due to its historical holdings, Kew
Kew
is a member of The London
London
Museums of Health & Medicine group.[56] The Marianne North
Marianne North
Gallery[edit]

The Marianne North
Marianne North
Gallery of Botanic Art

The Marianne North
Marianne North
Gallery was built in the 1880s to house the paintings of Marianne North, an MP's daughter who travelled alone to North and South America, South Africa and many parts of Asia, at a time when women rarely did so, to paint plants. The gallery has 832 of her paintings. The paintings were left to Kew
Kew
by the artist and a condition of the bequest is that the layout of the paintings in the gallery may not be altered. The gallery had suffered considerable structural degradation since its creation and during a period from 2008 to 2009 major restoration and refurbishment took place, with works led by with leading conservation architects Donald Insall Associates.[57] During the time the gallery was closed the opportunity was also taken to restore the paintings to their original condition. The gallery reopened in October 2009. The gallery originally opened in 1882 and is still the only permanent exhibition in Great Britain dedicated to the work of one woman. Former museum buildings[edit] The School of Horticulture building was formerly known as the Reference Museum or Museum No. 2.[42] Museum No. 3 was originally known as the Timber Museum, it opened in 1863 and closed in 1958.[58] Cambridge Cottage is a former residence of the Duke of Cambridge (1819–1904). It became part of the Gardens in 1904, and was opened in 1910 as the Museum of British Forestry or Museum No. 4.[58] After 1958 it was known as the Wood Museum and displayed samples of wood from around the world.[42] It is Grade II listed.[59] Today it is a meeting and function venue. Plant collections[edit]

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Part of the "Tropical Extravaganza" for Kew's 250th anniversary in 2009

The plant collections include the Aquatic Garden, which is near the Jodrell laboratory. The Aquatic Garden, which celebrated its centenary in 2009, provides conditions for aquatic and marginal plants. The large central pool holds a selection of summer-flowering water lilies and the corner pools contain plants such as reed mace, bulrushes, phragmites and smaller floating aquatic species. The Arboretum, which covers over half of the total area of the site, contains over 14,000 trees of many thousands of varieties. The Bonsai Collection is housed in a dedicated greenhouse near the Jodrell laboratory. The Cacti
Cacti
Collection is housed in and around the Princess of Wales Conservatory. The Carnivorous Plant collection is housed in the Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales
Conservatory. The Grass Garden
Garden
was created on its current site in the early 1980s to display ornamental and economic grasses; it was redesigned and replanted between 1994 and 1997. It is currently undergoing a further redesign and planting. Over 580 species of grasses are displayed. The Herbaceous Grounds (Order Beds) were devised in the late 1860s by Sir Joseph Hooker, then director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, so that botany students could learn to recognise plants and experience at first hand the diversity of the plant kingdom. The collection is organised into family groups. Its name arose because plant families were known as natural orders in the 19th century. Over the main path is a rose pergola built in 1959 to mark the bicentennial of the Gardens. It supports climber and rambling roses selected for the length and profusion of flowering. The Orchid
Orchid
Collection is housed in two climate zones within the Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales
Conservatory. To maintain an interesting display the plants are changed regularly so that those on view are generally flowering. The Rock Garden, originally built of limestone in 1882, is now constructed of Sussex
Sussex
sandstone from West Hoathly, Sussex. The rock garden is divided into six geographic regions: Europe, Mediterranean and Africa, Australia and New Zealand, Asia, North America, and South America. There are currently 2,480 different "accessions" growing in the garden. The Rose Garden, based upon original designs by William Nesfield, is behind the Palm House, and was replanted between 2009 and 2010 using the original design from 1848. It is intended as an ornamental display rather than a collection of a particularly large number of varieties. Other collections and specialist areas include the rhododendron dell, the azalea garden, the bamboo garden, the juniper collection, the berberis dell, the lilac garden, the magnolia collection, and the fern collection. The world's smallest water-lily, Nymphaea thermarum, was saved from extinction when it was grown from seed at Kew, in 2009.[60][61]

The Palm House
Palm House
and lake to Victoria Gate

Herbaria collections[edit]

The entrance tower to Kew
Kew
Gardens

The Kew
Kew
Herbarium
Herbarium
is one of the largest in the world with approximately 7 million specimens used primarily for taxonomic study. The herbarium is rich in types for all regions of the world, especially the tropics, and is currently growing with 30,000 new specimen additions annually through international collaborations. The Kew
Kew
Herbarium
Herbarium
is of global importance, attracting researchers from and supporting and engaging in the science of botany all over the world, especially the field of biodiversity. A large part of the herbarium has been digitised, referred to as the Kew
Kew
Herbarium
Herbarium
Catalogue, and is available to the general public on-line.[62][63] Kew
Kew
Gardens also holds other hebaria and collections of scientific importance such as a Fungarium (a herbarium for fungi), a plant DNA bank and a seed bank.[62] Library and archives[edit] The library and archives at Kew
Kew
are one of the world's largest botanical collections, with over half a million items, including books, botanical illustrations, photographs, letters and manuscripts, periodicals, and maps. The Jodrell Library has been merged with the Economic Botany
Botany
and Mycology Libraries and all are now housed in the Jodrell Laboratory. Forensic horticulture[edit] Kew
Kew
provides advice and guidance to police forces around the world where plant material may provide important clues or evidence in cases. In one famous case the forensic science department at Kew
Kew
were able to ascertain that the contents of the stomach of a headless corpse found in the river Thames
Thames
contained a highly toxic African bean.[64] Economic Botany[edit]

View of the Jodrell Laboratory across part of the grass collection

The Sustainable Uses of Plants group (formerly the Centre for Economic Botany), focus on the uses of plants in the United Kingdom and the world's arid and semi-arid zones. The Centre is also responsible for curation of the Economic Botany
Botany
Collection, which contains more than 90,000 botanical raw materials and ethnographic artefacts, some of which are on display in the Plants + People exhibit in Museum No. 1. The Centre is now located in the Jodrell Laboratory.[65] Jodrell Laboratory[edit] The original Jodrell laboratory, named after Mr T. J. Phillips Jodrell who funded it, was established in 1877 and consisted of four research rooms and an office. Originally research was conducted into plant physiology but this was gradually superseded by botanical research. In 1934 an artists' studio and photographic darkroom were added, highlighting the importance of botanical illustration. In 1965, following increasing overcrowding, a new building was constructed and research expanded into seed collection for plant conservation. The biochemistry section also expanded to facilitate research into secondary compounds that could be derived from plants for medicinal purposes. In 1994 the centre was expanded again, tripling in size, and a decade later it was further expanded by the addition of the Wolfson Wing.[64] Kew
Kew
Constabulary[edit] Main article: Kew
Kew
Constabulary The gardens have their own police force, Kew
Kew
Constabulary, which has been in operation since 1847.[66] Formerly known as the Royal Botanic Gardens Constabulary, it is a small, specialised constabulary of two sergeants and 12 officers,[67] who patrol the grounds in a marked silver car. The Kew
Kew
Constables are attested under section 3 of the Parks Regulation Act 1872, which gives them the same powers as the Metropolitan Police
Metropolitan Police
within the land belonging to the gardens.[68][69] War Memorial[edit] The memorial to the several Kew
Kew
gardeners killed in the First World War lies in the nearby St Lukes Church in Kew. It was designed by Sir Robert Lorimer
Robert Lorimer
in 1921.[70] Media[edit] A number of films, documentaries and other media have been made about Kew
Kew
Gardens.[71] They include:

a short colour film World Garden
Garden
by cinematographer Geoffrey Unsworth in 1942[72] three series of A Year at Kew
Kew
(2007), filmed for BBC
BBC
television and released on DVD[73] Cruickshank on Kew: The Garden
Garden
That Changed the World, a 2009 BBC documentary, presented by Dan Cruickshank, exploring the history of the relationship between Kew
Kew
Gardens and the British Empire[74] David Attenborough's 2012 Kingdom of Plants 3D[75] a 2003 episode of the Channel 4
Channel 4
TV series Time Team, presented by Tony Robinson, that searched for the remains of George III's palace[76] a 2004 episode of the BBC Four
BBC Four
series Art of the Garden
Garden
which looked at the building of the Great Palm House
Palm House
in the 1840s.[77] " Kew
Kew
on a Plate", a TV programme showing the kinds of produce grown at Kew
Kew
Gardens and how they can be prepared in a kitchen. the 2014 video game Sherlock Holmes: Crimes & Punishments contains a chapter where Holmes investigates the theft of exotic plants and a murder at Kew
Kew
Gardens.

In 1921 Virginia Woolf
Virginia Woolf
published her short story " Kew
Kew
Gardens", which gives brief descriptions of four groups of people as they pass by a flowerbed.[78][79] The video game MediEvil 2
MediEvil 2
involves Kew
Kew
Gardens as a level, it is invested with mutated pumpkins. Access and transport[edit]

Elizabeth Gate

Kew
Kew
Gardens is accessible by a number of gates. Currently, there are four gates into Kew
Kew
Gardens that are open to the public: the Elizabeth Gate, which is situated at the west end of Kew
Kew
Green, and was originally called the Main Gate before being renamed in 2012 to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II;[80] the Brentford Gate, which faces the River Thames; the Victoria Gate (named after Queen Victoria), situated in Kew
Kew
Road, which is also the location of the Visitors' Centre; and the Lion Gate, also situated in Kew Road.[81] Other gates that are not open to the public include Unicorn Gate, Cumberland Gate and Jodrell Gate (all in Kew
Kew
Road), Isleworth Gate (facing the Thames) and Oxenhouse Gate (south boundary with Old Deer Park).[42]

Victoria Gate

Kew
Kew
Gardens station, a London Underground
London Underground
and National Rail
National Rail
station opened in 1869 and served by both the District line
District line
and the London Overground services on the North London
London
Line, is the nearest train station to the gardens – only 400 metres (1,300 ft) along Lichfield Road from the Victoria Gate entrance.[82] Built by the London
London
& South Western Railway, the Historic England
Historic England
Grade II listed building is one of the few remaining original 19th-century stations on the North London
London
Line, and the only station on the London Underground with a pub on the platform (though the platform entrance is now closed off).[83][84] Kew
Kew
Bridge station, on the other side of the Thames, 800 metres from the Elizabeth Gate entrance via Kew Bridge, is served by South Western Railway from Clapham Junction and Waterloo.[82] London
London
Buses route 65, between Ealing Broadway and Kingston, stops near the Lion Gate and Victoria Gate entrances;[85] route 391, between Fulham and Richmond, stops near Kew
Kew
Gardens station;[86] while routes 237 and 267 stop at Kew
Kew
Bridge station.[82] London
London
River Services operate from Westminster during the summer, stopping at Kew
Kew
Pier, 500 metres (1,600 ft) from Elizabeth Gate.[82] Cycle racks are located just inside the Victoria Gate, Elizabeth Gate and Brentford Gate entrances. There is a 300-space car park outside Brentford Gate, reached via Ferry Lane, as well as some free, though restricted, on-street parking on Kew
Kew
Road.[82] See also[edit]

Biology portal Gardening portal

List of World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
in the United Kingdom Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, which manages Kew
Kew
Gardens and Wakehurst Place Wakehurst Place Botanists active at Kew
Kew
Gardens Joseph Dalton Hooker, who succeeded his father as director in 1865 The Great Plant Hunt – a primary school science initiative created by Kew
Kew
Gardens, commissioned and funded by the Wellcome Trust Index Kewensis, a massive index of plant names started and maintained by Kew
Kew
Gardens Kew
Kew
Bulletin, a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal on plant and fungal taxonomy published by Springer Science+Business Media
Springer Science+Business Media
on behalf of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

References[edit]

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Kew
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UNESCO
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Kew
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Garden
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Palm House
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Kew
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BBC
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Kew
Gardens: Visitor Information And Events To Inspire Your Visit". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2012.  ^ a b "Compost heap". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2015.  ^ a b "Compost heap". Visit Kew
Kew
Gardens. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.  ^ "Aroid House No 1 listing".  ^ "Visit Kew
Kew
Gardens – The Orangery". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 24 April 2012.  ^ a b Kohlmaier, Georg and von Sortory, Barna. Houses of Glass, A Nineteenth-Century Building Type. The MIT Press, 1990 (p300) ^ Kohlmaier, Georg and von Sortory, Barna. Houses of Glass, A Nineteenth-Century Building Type. The MIT Press, 1990 (p140) ^ a b c Kohlmaier, Georg and von Sortory, Barna. Houses of Glass, A Nineteenth-Century Building Type. The MIT Press, 1990 (p296) ^ Kohlmaier, Georg and von Sortory, Barna. Houses of Glass, A Nineteenth-Century Building Type. The MIT Press, 1990 (p299) ^ "Local Sculptures – 10 Queen's Beasts". Brentford Dock Residents. Retrieved 28 June 2014.  ^ Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Augusta, Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales
Archived 20 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 6 October 2005. ^ a b The History of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew ^ "Temperate House, Royal Botanic Gardens". Donald Insall Associates. Retrieved 2 October 2015.  ^ "Waterlily House". Visit Kew
Kew
Gardens. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 11 June 2014.  ^ " Historic England
Historic England
– Australian House Kew".  ^ a b c d The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Key Plan, 1974 ^ Morley, James (1 August 2002). "''Kew, History & Heritage''". Kew. Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2012.  ^ "Dragons to return to The Great Pagoda
Pagoda
at Kew
Kew
after 200 year hunt". Historic Royal Palaces. Retrieved 29 July 2016.  ^ "'Japan 2001′ fest set to take center stage in U.K." The Japan Times. 15 February 2001. Retrieved 26 January 2014.  ^ "Queen Charlotte's Cottage". Historic Royal Palaces. Retrieved 11 November 2015.  ^ "King William's temple listing".  ^ "Temple of Aeolus listing".  ^ "Temple of Arethusa listing".  ^ "Temple of Bellona listing".  ^ "Ruined Arch listing".  ^ "Ice House listing".  ^ " Kew
Kew
Palace". Donald Insall Associates. Retrieved 2 October 2015.  ^ " Kew
Kew
Gardens Sundial". Public Monuments and Sculpture Association. Retrieved 13 July 2014.  ^ " Thomas Tompion
Thomas Tompion
(bapt.1639 d. 1713) – Sundial". www.royalcollection.org.uk. Retrieved 15 October 2017.  ^ "Medical Museums". medicalmuseums.org. Retrieved 26 August 2016.  ^ " Marianne North
Marianne North
Gallery, Royal Botanic Gardens". Donald Insall Associates. Retrieved 2 October 2015.  ^ a b "Wood collection at Kew".  ^ "Cambridge Cottage listing".  ^ Ghosh, Pallab (18 May 2010). "Waterlily saved from extinction". BBC News. Retrieved 19 May 2010.  ^ Magdalena, Carlos (November 2009). "The world's tiniest waterlily doesn't grow in water!". Water Gardeners International. 4 (4). Retrieved 19 May 2010.  ^ a b " Kew
Kew
website, Herbarium
Herbarium
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Kew
Herbarium
Herbarium
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Botany
Collection". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 17 June 2014.  ^ Jarvis, Alice-Azania (15 January 2014). "Kewdunnit! As a priceless lily is stolen from the botanical gardens, will thieves target your prize plants?". Daily Mail.  ^ McCarthy, Michael (30 January 2001). "How many policemen does it take to guard an orchid?". The Independent.  ^ "Parks Regulation Act 1872: 3 Definition of "park-keeper" Section 3". www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 August 2014.  ^ "Parks Regulation Act 1872: 7 Powers, duties, and privileges of park-keeper". www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 August 2014.  ^ Dictionary of Scottish Architects: Robert Lorimer ^ "Videos". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 24 May 2015.  ^ "World Garden". British Council Film Collection. The British Council. Retrieved 24 January 2014.  ^ "A Year at Kew". Episode guide. BBC. 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2014.  ^ " BBC
BBC
Two: Cruickshank on Kew: The Garden
Garden
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Kew
Gardens, London". IMDb.com.  ^ "IMDb: Art of the Garden: Season 1, Episode 2 The Great Palm House at Kew". IMDb.com.  ^ Reid, Panthea (2 December 2013). "Virginia Woolf: early fiction". Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 2. Retrieved 26 June 2014.  ^ Woolf, Virginia (1921). Kew
Kew
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Gardens' Elizabeth Gate". Richmond and Twickenham Times. 21 October 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ "Which gate to use". Visit Kew
Kew
Gardens. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 30 December 2014.  ^ a b c d e "Getting here". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 24 May 2015.  ^ "Tap on the Line: History". Fuller's Brewery. Retrieved 24 May 2015.  ^ Historic England. " Kew
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew.

Official Kew
Kew
Gardens website BBC.co: A Year at Kew
Kew
— documentary of "behind the scenes" at Kew Gardens.

v t e

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Locations

Kew
Kew
Gardens Wakehurst Place Bedgebury National Pinetum

Buildings

Kew
Kew
Palace

History

Directors of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Other

The Great Plant Hunt Index Kewensis International Plant Names Index Kew
Kew
Bulletin Kew
Kew
Constabulary Kew
Kew
Gardens (short story) Kew
Kew
Rule Kingdom of Plants 3D Millennium Seed Bank Partnership The Plant List The Queen's Beasts

Links to related articles

v t e

Parks and open spaces in London

Royal parks

Bushy Green Greenwich Hyde Kensington Regent's Richmond St James's

Large urban parks

Alexandra Arnos Barking Barra Hall Battersea Blackheath Brockwell Burgess Clissold Crystal Palace Dulwich Enfield Town Finsbury Forster Memorial Hampstead Heath Hanworth Holland Mayesbrook Mountsfield Old Deer Parsloes Primrose Hill Pymmes Queen's Park Ravenscourt Ruskin Southwark Valentines Victoria Wandsworth Wanstead West Ham Wimbledon

Country parks

Bayhurst Wood Bedfont Lakes Belhus Woods Eastbrookend Fairlop Waters Foots Cray Fryent Hainault Forest Havering High Elms Hornchurch Lee Valley South Norwood Stanmore Stockley Trent

Commons

Barnes Blackheath Bostall Heath Clapham Ealing East Sheen Hackney Marsh Hainault Forest Ham Hampstead Heath Hayes Keston Mitcham Monken Hadley Peckham Rye Plumstead Stanmore Streatham Sutton Tooting Tylers Wandsworth Wimbledon and Putney Winn's Woolwich Wormwood Scrubs

Village greens

Camberwell Islington Kew Newington Parsons Richmond Shepherd's Bush Turnham

Marshes and wetlands

Aveley Crayford Erith Hackney Hornchurch Ickenham Ingrebourne Leyton Rainham Tottenham Walthamstow Wennington Woodberry Wetlands WWT London
London
Wetland Centre

Woodland

Bostall Braeburn Coldfall Copse Dulwich Epping Forest Grangewood Park Highgate Lesnes Abbey Mad Bess Old Park Oxleas Park Petts Queen's Russia Dock Sydenham Hill

House gardens

Belair Park Boston Manor Park Broomfield House Cannizaro Park Chiswick House Danson Park Grovelands Park Grove Park Gunnersbury Park Hall Place Hampton Court Park Hillingdon Court Kenwood House Lamorbey Park Langtons Manor House Gardens Marble Hill Park Morden Hall Park Morden Park Osterley Park Syon House Valence House Museum Walpole Park

Entry-fee charging

Kew
Kew
Gardens London
London
Wetland Centre

Community gardens

Phoenix Garden Calthorpe Project

v t e

Parks and open spaces by London
London
borough

Barking and Dagenham Barnet Bexley Brent Bromley Camden Croydon Ealing Enfield Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith and Fulham Haringey Harrow Havering Hillingdon Hounslow Islington Kensington and Chelsea Kingston Lambeth Lewisham Merton Newham Redbridge Richmond Southwark Sutton Tower Hamlets Waltham Forest Wandsworth City of Westminster

v t e

London
London
Borough of Richmond upon Thames

Districts

Barnes East Sheen Fulwell Ham Hampton Hampton Hill Hampton Wick Kew Mortlake Petersham Richmond St Margarets Strawberry Hill Teddington Twickenham Whitton

Railway stations

Barnes Barnes Bridge Fulwell Hampton Hampton Wick Kew
Kew
Gardens Mortlake North Sheen Richmond St Margarets Strawberry Hill Teddington Twickenham Whitton

River Thames
Thames
bridges, islands and river services

Bridges Benn's Island Corporation Island Eel Pie Island Glover's Island Platts Eyot Swan Island Tagg's Island Trowlock Island Hammerton's Ferry Hampton Ferry Kew
Kew
Pier Richmond Lock Teddington
Teddington
Lifeboat Station Teddington
Teddington
Lock former Twickenham
Twickenham
Ferry

Other rivers and streams

Beverley Brook River Crane Duke of Northumberland's River Longford River Sudbrook and Latchmere stream River Thames

Sports venues

Athletic Ground, Richmond Barn Elms Playing Fields The Championship Course Cricket clubs and grounds Golf clubs and courses Hampton Pool The Lensbury Pools on the Park Royal Tennis Court, Hampton Court Teddington
Teddington
Pools and Fitness Centre Thames
Thames
Young Mariners Twickenham
Twickenham
Stadium Twickenham
Twickenham
Stoop former Ranelagh Club former Richmond Ice Rink

Events

Annual sports events Hampton Court Palace
Hampton Court Palace
Festival Hampton Court Palace
Hampton Court Palace
Flower Show IRB Rugby Aid Match

Breweries and pubs

Britannia, Richmond The Bull's Head The Crown, Twickenham Dysart Arms The Fox, Twickenham The George, Twickenham Hare and Hounds, Sheen Jolly Coopers, Hampton Old Ship, Richmond Park Hotel, Teddington Richmond Brewery Stores Sun Inn, Barnes Twickenham
Twickenham
Fine Ales Watney Combe & Reid White Cross, Richmond The White Swan, Twickenham‎

Theatres, cinemas and music venues

The Bull's Head Crawdaddy Club The Exchange Olympic Studios Orange Tree Theatre Puppet Theatre Barge Richmond Theatre TwickFolk Wathen Hall former Eel Pie Island
Eel Pie Island
Hotel

Film and recording studios

Astoria The Boathouse, Twickenham Eel Pie Studios Olympic Studios Teddington
Teddington
Studios Twickenham
Twickenham
Film Studios

Media and publishing

Richmond and Twickenham
Twickenham
Times former Gaydar Radio former Hogarth Press

Historical royal palaces

Hampton Court Palace Kew
Kew
Palace Richmond Palace

Other places of interest

123 Mortlake
Mortlake
High Street 14 The Terrace, Barnes 18 Station Road, Barnes 70 Barnes High Street Asgill House Brinsworth House Bushy House Chapel House Chapel in the Wood Clarence House Diana Fountain, Bushy Park Doughty House Douglas House Downe House East Sheen
East Sheen
Filling Station Fulwell bus garage Garrick's Temple to Shakespeare Garrick's Villa Grove House, Hampton Ham House Hampton Youth Project Harrods
Harrods
Furniture Depository Hogarth House The Homestead, Barnes King's Observatory Kneller Hall Langham House Langham House Close Latchmere House Lichfield Court Marble Hill House Montrose House The Naked Ladies National Physical Laboratory Normansfield Theatre The Old Court House Ormeley Lodge Parkleys The Pavilion, Hampton Court Pembroke Lodge Pope's Urn Pope's Grotto Poppy Factory The Queen's Beasts Royal Military School of Music Royal Star and Garter Home St Leonard's Court Strawberry Hill House Stud House Sudbrook House and Park The Terrace, Barnes Thatched House Lodge University Boat Race Stones Victoria Working Men's Club West Hall, Kew White Lodge The Wick Wick House Yelverton Lodge York House

History

Adana Printing Machines Admiralty Research Laboratory Alcott House Ashe baronets Barnes rail crash Camp Griffiss Cross Deep House GHQ Liaison Regiment Hampton Court Conference Kew
Kew
Letters Mortlake
Mortlake
Tapestry Works Mount Ararat, Richmond Murder of Amélie Delagrange Murder of Julia Martha Thomas Petersham Hole Pocock baronets Pope's villa Radnor House Richmond Flyers Richmond, Petersham and Ham Open Spaces Act 1902 Ringway 2 Sheen Priory Star and Garter Hotel, Richmond Towpath murders Treaty of Hampton Court (1562) Twickenham
Twickenham
Park Vandeput baronets Warren-Lambert Wigan baronets

Parliamentary constituencies

Richmond Park Twickenham former Richmond and Barnes former Richmond (Surrey)

Other topics

Almshouses Archives, museums and art galleries Cemeteries, crematoria and memorials Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings Hospitals Local government People Places of worship Public art Schools, colleges and universities Sports clubs

Parks, open spaces and nature reserves in the London
London
Borough of Richmond upon Thames

v t e

World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
in the United Kingdom

England

Bath Blenheim Palace Canterbury Cathedral, St. Augustine's Abbey and St. Martin's Church Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape Derwent Valley Mills Durham Castle
Durham Castle
and Cathedral Frontiers of the Roman Empire

Hadrian's Wall

Ironbridge Gorge Jurassic Coast Kew
Kew
Royal Botanic Gardens Lake District Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City Maritime Greenwich Saltaire Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites Studley Royal Park
Studley Royal Park
and Fountains Abbey Tower of London Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
and St. Margaret's Church

Scotland

Edinburgh Old Town and New Town Forth Bridge Frontiers of the Roman Empire

Antonine Wall

Heart of Neolithic Orkney New Lanark St. Kilda

Wales

Blaenavon Industrial Landscape Castles and Town Walls of King Edward I in Gwynedd Pontcysyllte Aqueduct

Northern Ireland

Giant's Causeway

British Overseas Territories

Gorham's Cave
Gorham's Cave
Complex Gough Island Inaccessible Island Henderson Island Town of St. George and Related Fortifications

v t e

London
London
landmarks

Buildings and structures

Bridges

Albert Bridge Blackfriars Bridge Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges Lambeth Bridge London
London
Bridge Millennium Footbridge Southwark Bridge Tower Bridge Vauxhall Bridge Waterloo Bridge Westminster Bridge

Entertainment venues

Cinemas

Empire, Leicester Square BFI IMAX Odeon, Leicester Square

Football stadia

Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
(national stadium) Craven Cottage
Craven Cottage
(Fulham) The Den
The Den
(Millwall) Emirates Stadium
Emirates Stadium
(Arsenal) Loftus Road
Loftus Road
(Queens Park Rangers) London
London
Stadium (West Ham United) Selhurst Park
Selhurst Park
(Crystal Palace) Stamford Bridge (Chelsea) The Valley (Charlton Athletic) White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
(Tottenham Hotspur)

Other major sports venues

All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club The Championship Course
The Championship Course
(rowing) Crystal Palace National Sports Centre Lord's
Lord's
(cricket) Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park The Oval
The Oval
(cricket) Twickenham
Twickenham
Stadium (rugby)

Theatres

Adelphi Apollo Victoria Coliseum Criterion Dominion Lyceum Old Vic Palladium Royal National Theatre Royal Opera House Shakespeare's Globe Theatre Royal, Drury Lane Theatre Royal Haymarket Vaudeville

Other

Alexandra Palace Brixton Academy ExCeL Hammersmith Apollo O2 Arena Royal Albert Hall Royal Festival Hall Wembley Arena

Government

10 Downing Street Admiralty Arch Bank of England City Hall County Hall Guildhall Horse Guards Mansion House National Archives Old Bailey Palace of Westminster Royal Courts of Justice Scotland Yard SIS Building

Museums and galleries

British Museum Cutty Sark Golden Hinde HMS Belfast Imperial War Museum Madame Tussauds Museum of London National Gallery National Maritime Museum Natural History Museum Royal Academy of Arts Royal Observatory Science Museum Tate Britain Tate Modern Tower of London Victoria and Albert Museum

Places of worship

All Hallows-by-the-Tower BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Bevis Marks Synagogue Methodist Central Hall Regent's Park
Regent's Park
Mosque St Martin-in-the-Fields St Mary-le-Bow St Paul's Cathedral Southwark Cathedral Westminster Abbey Westminster Cathedral

Retailing

Shops

Fortnum & Mason Hamleys Harrods Liberty Peter Jones Selfridges

Shopping centres and markets

Borough Market Brent Cross Burlington Arcade Kensington Arcade Leadenhall Market The Mall Wood Green One New Change Petticoat Lane Market Royal Exchange Westfield London Westfield Stratford City

Royal buildings

Partly occupied by the Royal Family

Buckingham Palace Clarence House Kensington Palace St James's Palace

Unoccupied

Banqueting House Hampton Court Palace Kew
Kew
Palace The Queen's Gallery Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace

Skyscrapers

Broadgate Tower 1 Canada Square 8 Canada Square 25 Canada Square 1 Churchill Place 20 Fenchurch Street Heron Tower Leadenhall Building The Shard St George Wharf Tower 30 St Mary Axe Tower 42

Structures

Albert Memorial ArcelorMittal Orbit Big Ben Cleopatra's Needle Crystal Palace transmitting station London
London
Eye London
London
Wall Marble Arch The Monument Nelson's Column Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
("Eros") Thames
Thames
Barrier Wellington Arch

Transport

City Airport Heathrow Airport Charing Cross station Clapham Junction station Euston station King's Cross station Liverpool Street station London
London
Bridge station Paddington station St Pancras station Stratford station Victoria station Waterloo station Victoria Coach Station Emirates Air Line cable car

Other

Barbican Estate Battersea Power Station British Library BT Tower Kew
Kew
Gardens Lambeth Palace Lloyd's building London
London
Zoo Oxo Tower St Bartholomew's Hospital Smithfield Market Somerset House

Parks

Royal Parks

Bushy Park Green Park Greenwich
Greenwich
Park Hampton Court Park Hyde Park Kensington Gardens Regent's Park Richmond Park St. James's Park

Other

Battersea Park Burgess Park Clapham Common College Green Epping Forest Finsbury Park Gunnersbury Park Hampstead Heath Holland Park Mitcham Common Osterley Park Trent Park Victoria Park Wandsworth Common Wimbledon Common

Squares and public spaces

Covent Garden Horse Guards Parade Leicester Square Oxford Circus Parliament Square Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus Sloane Square Trafalgar Square

Streets

Aldwych Baker Street Bishopsgate Bond Street Carnaby Street Chancery Lane Charing Cross Road Cheapside Cornhill Denmark Street Fenchurch Street Fleet Street Haymarket Jermyn Street Kensington High Street King's Road Lombard Street The Mall Oxford Street Park Lane Piccadilly Portobello Road Regent Street Shaftesbury Avenue Sloane Street Strand Tottenham Court Road Victoria Embankme

.