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Keith Allen Haring (May 4, 1958 – February 16, 1990) was an American artist whose pop art and graffiti-like work grew out of the New York City
New York City
street culture of the 1980s. Haring's work grew to iconic popularity from his exuberant spontaneous drawings in New York City
New York City
subways – chalk outlines on blank black advertising-space backgrounds – depicting radiant babies, flying saucers, and deified dogs.[1] After public recognition he created larger scale works such as colorful murals, many of them commissioned.[1] His imagery has become a widely recognized visual language.[2] His later work often addressed political and societal themes – especially homosexuality and AIDS
AIDS
– through his own unique iconography.[3]

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Career

2.1 Early work 2.2 International breakthrough 2.3 Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Foundation 2.4 Fashion

3 Influences 4 Death 5 Exhibitions 6 Collections 7 Art market

7.1 Authentication issues

8 In popular culture 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life and education[edit]

A mural by Haring in Barcelona

Keith Haring
Keith Haring
was born in Reading, Pennsylvania, on May 4, 1958. He was raised in Kutztown, Pennsylvania, by his mother Joan Haring, and father Allen Haring, an engineer and amateur cartoonist. His family attended the United Church of God.[4] He had three younger sisters, Kay, Karen and Kristen.[5] He became interested in art at a very early age spending time with his father producing creative drawings.[6] His early influences included Walt Disney cartoons, Dr. Seuss, Charles Schulz, and the Looney Tunes characters in The Bugs Bunny Show.[6] In his early teenage years, Haring was involved with the Jesus Movement.[4] He eventually left his religious background behind and hitchhiked across the country, selling vintage T-shirts and experimenting with drugs.[7] He studied commercial art from 1976 to 1978 at Pittsburgh's Ivy School of Professional Art but lost interest in it.[8] He made the decision to leave after having read Robert Henri's The Art Spirit (1923), which inspired him to concentrate on his own art.[6] Haring had a maintenance job at the Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Center for the Arts and was able to explore the art of Jean Dubuffet, Jackson Pollock, and Mark Tobey. His most critical influences at this time were a 1977 retrospective of the work of Pierre Alechinsky
Pierre Alechinsky
and a lecture by the sculptor Christo
Christo
in 1978. Alechinsky's work, connected to the international Expressionist group CoBrA, gave him confidence to create larger paintings of calligraphic images. Christo
Christo
introduced him to the possibilities of involving the public with his art. His first important one-man exhibition was in Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
at the Center for the Arts in 1978.[6] He moved to New York in 1978 to study painting at the School of Visual Arts. He also worked as a busboy during this time at a nightclub called Danceteria.[9] He studied semiotics with Bill Beckley
Bill Beckley
as well as exploring the possibilities of video and performance art. Profoundly influenced at this time by the writings of William Burroughs, he was inspired to experiment with the cross-referencing and interconnection of images.[6] In his junior/senior year, he was behind on credits, because his professors could not give him credit for the very loose artwork he was doing with themes of social activism.[citation needed] Career[edit] Early work[edit] He first received public attention with his public art in subways where he created white chalk drawings on a black, unused advertisement backboard in the stations.[10] Keith considered the subways to be his "laboratory", a place where he could experiment and create his artwork.[11] Starting in 1980, he organized exhibitions at Club 57,[12] which were filmed by the photographer Tseng Kwong Chi. Around this time, "The Radiant Baby" became his symbol. His bold lines, vivid colors, and active figures carry strong messages of life and unity.[12] He participated in the Times Square
Times Square
Exhibition and drew animals and human faces for the first time. That same year, he photocopied and pasted provocative collages made from cut-up and recombined New York Post
New York Post
headlines around the city.[13] In 1981, he sketched his first chalk drawings on black paper and painted plastic, metal, and found objects. By 1982, Haring had established friendships with fellow emerging artists Futura 2000, Kenny Scharf, Madonna and Jean-Michel Basquiat.[12] He created more than 50 public works between 1982 and 1989 in dozens of cities around the world.[8] He often used lines of energy to emphasize kinetic movement, vitality, and euphoric spirit.[14] One of his early works in 1982 depicts two figures with a radiant heart-love motif, which critics have interpreted as a boldness in homosexual love and a significant cultural statement.[14] His "Crack is Wack" mural, created in 1986, is visible from New York's FDR Drive.[8] In 1989, he criticized the avoidance of social issues such as AIDS
AIDS
through a piece called "Rebel with Many Causes" that revolves around a theme of "hear no evil, see no evil, speak no evil".[citation needed] He got to know Andy Warhol, who was the theme of several of Haring's pieces, including "Andy Mouse". His friendship with Warhol would prove to be a decisive element in his eventual success.[12] In December 2007, an area of the American Textile Building in the TriBeCa neighborhood of New York City
New York City
was discovered to contain a painting of Haring's from 1979.[15] International breakthrough[edit]

Haring painting a mural at the Stedelijk Museum
Stedelijk Museum
in Amsterdam, 1986

Sculpture by Haring in Dortmund, Germany

In 1984, Haring visited Australia and painted wall murals in Melbourne (such as the 1984 'Detail-Mural at Collingwood College, Victoria') and Sydney
Sydney
and received a commission from the National Gallery of Victoria and the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art
Australian Centre for Contemporary Art
to create a mural which temporarily replaced the water curtain at the National Gallery.[16] He also visited and painted in Rio de Janeiro, the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and Manhattan.[12] He became politically active, designing a Free South Africa poster in 1985. On October 23, 1986 Keith was asked by the Checkpoint Charlie Museum to create a mural on the Berlin Wall. The mural was 300 meters long and depicted red and black interlocking human figures against a yellow background. The colors were a representation of the German flag and symbolized the hope of unity between East and West Germany.[17] He was interested in working with children and this inspired the project Citykids Speak on Liberty, which involved 1,000 children collaborating on a project for the centennial of the Statue of Liberty.[6] In April 1986 Pop Shop was opened in Soho and made Keith's work readily accessible to purchase at reasonable prices.[18] When asked about the commercialism of his work, Haring said: "I could earn more money if I just painted a few things and jacked up the price. My shop is an extension of what I was doing in the subway stations, breaking down the barriers between high and low art."[19] By the arrival of Pop Shop, his work began reflecting more socio-political themes, such as anti-Apartheid, AIDS
AIDS
awareness, and the crack cocaine epidemic. He even created several pop art pieces influenced by other products: Absolut Vodka, Lucky Strike
Lucky Strike
cigarettes, and Coca-Cola.[12] In 1987 he had his own exhibitions in Helsinki, Antwerp, and elsewhere. He also designed the cover for the benefit album A Very Special
Special
Christmas, on which Madonna was included. In 1988 he joined a select group of artists whose work has appeared on the label of Chateau Mouton Rothschild wine. Haring also created public murals in the lobby and ambulatory care department of Woodhull Medical and Mental Health Center
Woodhull Medical and Mental Health Center
on Flushing Avenue, Brooklyn. A rare video of Haring at work[20] shows his energetic style. He wrote: "I am becoming much more aware of movement. The importance of movement is intensified when a painting becomes a performance. The performance (the act of painting) becomes as important as the resulting painting." When his friend Jean-Michel Basquiat
Jean-Michel Basquiat
died of an overdose in New York in 1988, he paid homage to him with his work A Pile of Crowns, for Jean-Michel Basquiat.[21] Haring was openly gay and was a strong advocate of safe sex;[22] however, in 1988, he was diagnosed with AIDS. From 1982 to 1989, he was featured in more than a 100 solo and group exhibitions as well as produced more than 50 public artworks in dozens of charities, hospitals, day care centers, and orphanages.[23] He used his imagery during the last years of his life to speak about his illness and to generate activism and awareness about AIDS.[8] In 1989, he was invited by the Lesbian and Gay
Gay
Community Services Center to join a show of site-specific artwork for the building at 208 West 13th Street. He chose the second-floor men's room for his mural Once Upon a Time.[24] In June, on the rear wall of the convent of the Church of Sant'Antonio (in Italian: Chiesa di Sant'Antonio abate) in Pisa
Pisa
(Italy), he painted the last public work of his life, the mural "Tuttomondo" (translation: "All world").[12] Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Foundation[edit] In 1989, he established the Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Foundation to provide funding and imagery to AIDS
AIDS
organizations and children's programs, and to expand the audience for his work through exhibitions, publications and the licensing of his images. The foundation's goal is to keep Keith Haring's wishes and expand his heritage, crafts, art and goals by providing grants and funding to nonprofit organizations that target educating disadvantaged youths and informing individuals about HIV and AIDS.[25] It also supports arts and educational institutions by funding exhibitions, educational programs, and publications. Haring also entrusted the foundation with carrying on his legacy through research and sharing his works and materials pertaining to his life.[26] Fashion[edit] He collaborated with Grace Jones, whom he had met through Andy Warhol. In 1985, Haring and Jones worked together on the two live performances Jones at the Paradise Garage, which Robert Farris Thompson
Robert Farris Thompson
has called a "epicenter for black dance". Each time, Haring covered Jones' body with graffiti. He also collaborated with fashion designers Vivienne Westwood and Malcolm McLaren on their A/W 1983/84 Witches collection, with his artwork covering the clothing which was most famously worn by a pink-wigged Madonna for a performance of her song "Like a Virgin" on the British pop-music programme Top of the Pops and the American TV dance program Solid Gold.[12] Haring also collaborated with David Spada, a jewelry designer, to design the sculptural adornments for Jones.[27] Influences[edit] Haring's work very clearly demonstrates many important political and personal influences. Ideas about his sexual orientation are apparent throughout his work and his journals clearly confirm its impact on his work. Heavy symbolism speaking about the AIDS
AIDS
epidemic is vivid in his later pieces, such as Untitled (cat. no. 27), Silence=Death and his sketch Weeping Woman. In some of his works—including cat. no. 27—the symbolism is subtle, but he also produced some blatantly activist works. Silence=Death, which mirrors the ACT UP
ACT UP
poster and uses its motto, is almost universally agreed upon as a work of HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
activism.[28] Death[edit] Haring died on February 16, 1990 of AIDS-related complications.[29] He (among others) is commemorated in the AIDS
AIDS
Memorial Quilt.[30] As a celebration of his life, Madonna declared the first New York date of her Blond Ambition World Tour
Blond Ambition World Tour
a benefit concert for Haring's memory and donated all proceeds from her ticket sales to AIDS
AIDS
charities including AIDS
AIDS
Project Los Angeles and amfAR; the act was documented in her film Truth or Dare. Additionally, his work was featured in several of Red Hot Organization's efforts to raise money for AIDS
AIDS
and AIDS
AIDS
awareness, specifically its first two albums, Red Hot + Blue
Red Hot + Blue
and Red Hot + Dance, the latter of which used Haring's work on its cover. Exhibitions[edit] Haring contributed to the New York New Wave display in 1981 and in 1982, had his first exclusive exhibition in the Tony Shafrazi Gallery. That same year, he took part in Documenta
Documenta
7 in Kassel, Germany, as well as Public Art Fund's "Messages to the Public" in which he created work for a Spectacolor Board in Times Square.[citation needed] He contributed work to the Whitney Biennial
Whitney Biennial
in 1983, as well as in the São Paulo
São Paulo
Biennial. In 1985, the CAPC in Bordeaux
Bordeaux
opened an exhibition of his works, and he took part in the Paris Biennial. Since his death Haring has been the subject of several international retrospectives. His art was the subject of a 1997 retrospective at the Whitney Museum in New York, curated by Elisabeth Sussman. In 1996, a retrospective at the Museum of Contemporary Art Australia was the first major exhibition of his work in Australia. In 2008 there was a retrospective exhibition at the MAC in Lyon, France. In February 2010, on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Haring's death, Tony Shafrazi Gallery showed an exhibition containing dozens of works from every stage of Haring's career.[31] In March 2012, a retrospective exhibit of his work, Keith Haring: 1978-1982, opened at the Brooklyn Museum in New York.[32] In April 2013, Keith Haring: The Political Line opened at the Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris and Le Cent Quatre
Cent Quatre
In November 2014, then at the De Young Museum
De Young Museum
in San Francisco.[33] Collections[edit] Haring's work is in major private and public collections, including the Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
and the Whitney Museum of American Art
Whitney Museum of American Art
in New York City; Los Angeles County Museum of Art; the Art Institute of Chicago; the Bass Museum
Bass Museum
in Miami; Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris; the Ludwig Museum
Ludwig Museum
in Cologne; and the Stedelijk Museum
Stedelijk Museum
in Amsterdam.[34] He also created a wide variety of public works, including the infirmary at Children's Village in Dobbs Ferry, New York,[35] and the second floor men's room in the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Community Center in Manhattan, which was later transformed into an office and is known as the Keith Haring Room.[36][37] Art market[edit] Haring was represented until his death by art dealer Tony Shafrazi.[38] Since his death in 1990, his estate has been administered by the Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Foundation. The foundation has a twofold mission of supporting educational opportunities for underprivileged children and financing AIDS
AIDS
research and patient care.[39] The foundation is represented by Gladstone Gallery. Authentication issues[edit] There is no catalogue raisonné for Haring; however, there is copious information about him available on the estate's website and elsewhere, enabling prospective buyers or sellers to research exhibition history.[40] In 2012, the Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Foundation disbanded its authentication board; that same year, it donated $1 million to support exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art[38] and $1 million to Planned Parenthood
Planned Parenthood
of New York City's Project Street Beat. A 2014 lawsuit, filed by a group of nine art collectors at the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, argued that the foundation's actions have "limited the number of Haring works in the public domain, thereby increasing the value of the Haring works that the foundation and its members own or sell."[41] In popular culture[edit]

The Boxers (1987), located near Potsdamer Platz, Berlin

Haring is the subject of a composition, Haring at the Exhibition, written and performed by Italian composer Lorenzo Ferrero
Lorenzo Ferrero
in collaboration with DJ Nicola Guiducci. The work combines excerpts from popular chart music of the 1980s with samples of classical music compositions by Lorenzo Ferrero
Lorenzo Ferrero
and synthesized sounds. It was featured at "The Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Show",[42] an exhibition which took place in 2005 at the Triennale
Triennale
di Milano. In 2006, he was named by Equality Forum as one of their 31 Icons of LGBT History Month.[43] In 2008, filmmaker Christina Clausen released the documentary The Universe of Keith Haring. In the film, his legacy is "resurrected through colorful archival footage and remembered by friends and admirers such as artists Kenny Scharf
Kenny Scharf
and Yoko Ono, gallery owners Jeffrey Deitch
Jeffrey Deitch
and Tony Shafrazi, and the choreographer Bill T. Jones".[44] Madonna, who was friends with Haring during the 1980s, used his art as animated backdrops for her 2008/2009 Sticky and Sweet Tour. The animation is standard Haring, featuring his trademark blocky figures dancing in beat to an updated remix of "Into the Groove".[45] Keith Haring: Double Retrospect is a monster sized jigsaw puzzle by Ravensburger
Ravensburger
measuring in at 17 by 6 feet (5.2 by 1.8 m) with 32,256 pieces, breaking Guinness Book of World Records for the largest puzzle ever made. The puzzle uses 32 pieces of his work and weighs 42 pounds (19 kg).[46] On May 4, 2012, on what would have been Haring's 54th birthday, Google honored him in a Google
Google
Doodle.[47] He designed the album cover for the A Very Special
Special
Christmas music compilation album which consists of a typical Haring figure holding a baby. Its "Jesus iconography" is considered unusual in modern rock holiday albums.[48] Haring had a balloon in tribute to him at the 2008 Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade.[49] Tim Finn
Tim Finn
wrote the song "Hit The Ground Running", on his album Before & After, in memory of Keith Haring.[50] References[edit]

^ a b Holmes, Julia (October 1, 2002). 100 New Yorkers: A Guide To Illustrious Lives & Locations. Little Bookroom. pp. 98–99. ISBN 9781892145314. Retrieved September 7, 2014.  ^ Haggerty, George (November 5, 2013). Encyclopedia of Gay
Gay
Histories and Cultures. Taylor & Francis. pp. 425–. ISBN 9781135585136. Retrieved September 7, 2014.  ^ John Gruen (1992), Keith Haring: The Authorized Biography, Simon and Schuster, p. 1952, ISBN 9780671781507  ^ a b Phillips, Natalie E (Fall 2007). "The Radiant (Christ) Child Keith Haring
Keith Haring
and the Jesus Movement". American Art. 21: 54–73. Retrieved November 8, 2017.  ^ "About Haring - Keith Haring". www.haring.com.  ^ a b c d e f "Keith Haring". encyclopedia.com. High Beam Research. Retrieved July 19, 2015.  ^ "WikiWash". wikiwash.metronews.ca. Retrieved December 14, 2016.  ^ a b c d "Bio (archived)". The Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Foundation. Archived from the original on September 9, 2013. Retrieved June 12, 2014.  ^ Vision, Madonna Art. "Intersecting Icons: Keith Haring, Madonna, Jean-Michel Basquiat
Jean-Michel Basquiat
and Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
- Madonna Art Vision". Madonna Art Vision (in French). Retrieved 2017-10-30.  ^ " Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Biography, Art, and Analysis of Works". The Art Story. Retrieved 2017-10-28.  ^ "Bio Keith Haring". www.haring.com. Retrieved 2017-10-30.  ^ a b c d e f g h " Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Street Artist Biography". stencilrevolution.com. Stencil Revolution. Retrieved July 17, 2015.  ^ Karen Rosenberg (March 22, 2012), A Pop Shop for a New Generation The New York Times. ^ a b " Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Biography, Art, and Analysis of Works".  ^ Hope, Bradley (December 20, 2007). "A Forgotten Haring Is Found by Contractors". The New York Sun. Retrieved December 20, 2007.  ^ Ellis, Rennie, The New Australian Graffiti, (Sun Books Melbourne, 1985) ^ "Berlin Mural Keith Haring". www.haring.com. Retrieved 2017-10-30.  ^ "Bio Keith Haring". www.haring.com. Retrieved 2017-10-27.  ^ Yarrow, Andrew (February 17, 1990). "Keith Haring, artist, Dies at 31; Career Began in Subway Graffiti". The New York Times. Retrieved May 25, 2010.  ^ "From the archives: Keith Haring
Keith Haring
was here". CBS Sunday Morning. Retrieved April 18, 2016.  ^ Thompson, Robert Farris (May 1990). "Requiem for the Degas of the B-boys". Haring.com. Art Forum. Retrieved August 17, 2016.  ^ Sheff, David (August 10, 1989). "Keith Haring: Just Say Know". Rolling Stone. Retrieved November 14, 2007.  ^ "Biography". de Young. 2014-09-15. Retrieved 2017-10-28.  ^ David W. Dunlap (March 7, 2012), A Joyous Mural, Born In an Era Filled With Fear The New York Times. ^ "Keith Haring". www.haring.com. Retrieved 2018-02-06.  ^ "Keith Haring". www.haring.com.  ^ Kershaw, Miriam (Winter 1997). "Post-colonialism and Androgyny: The Performance Art of Grace Jones". Performance Art: (Some) Theory and (Selected) Practice at the End of this Century, pp19-25.  ^ Haring, Keith, Götz Adriani, and Ralph Melcher. Keith Haring: Heaven and Hell. Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany: Hatje Cantz, 2001. Print. ^ "JOY broadcasts Haring mural anniversary - Gay
Gay
News Network". Retrieved March 7, 2014.  ^ " Keith Haring
Keith Haring
in The AIDS
AIDS
Memorial Quilt - Smithsonian Folklife Festival".  ^ Vartanian, Hrag (April 2010). "Keith Haring: 20th Anniversary". The Brooklyn Rail.  ^ "Exhibitions: Keith Haring: 1978–1982", Brooklyn Museum, New York, March 16 – July 8, 2012. Reviewed: Ted Loos (June 17, 2012). "In Code: Spaceships, Babies, Evil TVs". The New York Times.  ^ "Keith Haring: The Political Line". January 24, 2014.  ^ Barbara Gladstone. "Keith Haring, May 4 - July 1, 2011". Gladstone Gallery.  ^ Haring, Keith. "Existing Public Works Children's Village 1984". Haring.com. Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Foundation. Retrieved May 23, 2015.  ^ Haring, Keith. "Existing Public Works Once Upon a Time, 1989". Haring.com. Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Foundation. Retrieved May 23, 2015.  ^ "Existing Public Works Once Upon a Time, 1989". Gay
Gay
Center. The Center. Retrieved May 23, 2015.  ^ a b Rachel Corbett (November 7, 2012), Is Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Undervalued? Insiders Bet Big on a "Correction" in His Market ^ Kate Deimling (November 8, 2010), Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Estate Joins Barbara Gladstone Gallery ^ Charlotte Burns (October 12, 2012), Haring market in turmoil - Prolific artist's foundation is latest to close its authentication board, The Art Newspaper. ^ Benjamin Weiser (February 21, 2014), Collectors of Keith Haring Works File
File
Lawsuit The New York Times. ^ "Keith Haring". www.haring.com.  ^ " Keith Haring
Keith Haring
- LGBTHistoryMonth.com". www.lgbthistorymonth.com.  ^ Lee, Nathan (October 24, 2008). "An Artist With Enthusiasm". The New York Times.  ^ "Watch Madonna's "Into the Groove" Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Tour Backdrop Animation - (The) Absolute". theabsolutemag.com.  ^ Morgan, Matt (February 11, 2011). " Ravensburger
Ravensburger
Shatters Record With 32,000+ piece puzzle". Wired.  ^ Gruen, Julia (May 4, 2012). "Keith Haring's 54th Birthday". Google. Retrieved May 6, 2012.  ^ Santino, Jack (1996). New Old-fashioned Ways: Holidays and Popular Culture. Univ. of Tennessee Press. pp. 51–. ISBN 9780870499524. Retrieved September 20, 2014.  ^ "Top 10 Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade
Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade
Balloon Accidents". Philips Law Group. November 26, 2013.  ^ Times, Materville Studios - Host of Windy City. " Tim Finn
Tim Finn
- Gay Lesbian Bi Trans News - Windy City Times". www.windycitymediagroup.com. 

Further reading[edit]

Phillips, Natalie E., "The Radiant (Christ) Child: Keith Haring
Keith Haring
and the Jesus Movement", American Art, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Fall 2007), pp. 54–73. The University of Chicago Press Reading Public Museum, Keith Haring: Journey of the Radiant Baby, Piermont, N.H. : Bunker Hill Publishing Co., 2006. ISBN 978-1593730529 Van Pee, Yasmine. Boredom is always counterrevolutionary: art in downtown New York nightclubs, 1978-1985 (M.A. thesis, Center for Curatorial Studies at Bard College, 2004).

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Keith Haring

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Keith Haring.

Profile at Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Foundation Nakamura Keith haring collection (Museum of Keith Haring
Keith Haring
in Japan)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 27139591 LCCN: n82252982 ISNI: 0000 0001 1023 1177 GND: 118913786 SELIBR: 375587 SUDOC: 032374925 BNF: cb123416805 (data) ULAN: 500024253 MusicBrainz: e865b9fb-1cf3-480c-afbf-4767e556f7f4 NDL: 00442473 BNE: XX1384229 RKD: 36

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